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  • Evolution of Obesity.
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    145.00 lei

    In this sweeping exploration of the relatively recent obesity epidemic, Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin probe evolutionary biology, history, physiology, and medical science to uncover the causes of our growing girth. The unexpected answer? Our own evolutionary success. For most of the past few million years, our evolutionary ancestors' survival depended on being able to consume as much as possible when food was available and to store the excess energy for periods when it was scarce. In the developed world today, high-calorie foods are readily obtainable, yet the propensity to store fat is part of our species' heritage, leaving an increasing number of the world's people vulnerable to obesity. In an environment of abundant food, we are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and behaviorally programmed in a way that makes it difficult for us to avoid gaining weight. Power and Schulkin's engagingly argued book draws on popular examples and sound science to explain our expanding waistlines and to discuss the consequences of being overweight for different demographic groups. They review the various studies of human and animal fat use and storage, including those that examine fat deposition and metabolism in men and women; chronicle cultural differences in food procurement, preparation, and consumption; and consider the influence of sedentary occupations and lifestyles. A compelling and comprehensive examination of the causes and consequences of the obesity epidemic, "The Evolution of Obesity" offers fascinating insights into the question, Why are we getting fatter?

  • 18000lei 160.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Effectively manage parathyroid and bone metabolism disorders with The Parathyroid Gland and Bone Metabolism! Brought to you by the same leading endocrinologists responsible for the highly acclaimed two-volume textbook, Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric, this derivative book presents a compilation of chapters covering all endocrinology material related to parathyroid and bone metabolism. Never before available as a stand-alone offering, this content will enable you to give your patients the benefit of today’s best know-how on parathyroid and bone metabolism from the leading resource in endocrinology.

    Features:

    Stay abreast of the newest knowledge and advances on parathyroid and bone metabolism, including…

    pediatric parathyroid disorders and bone metabolism disorders

    major diseases common to the aging population such as osteoporosis

    advances in the genetics of disorders involving calciotropic hormones

    newer diagnostic approaches and therapies for bone diseases, from osteoporosis to Paget's disease

    and much more.

    Count on all the authority that has made Endocrinology, 6th Edition, edited by Drs. Jameson and De Groot, the go-to clinical medical reference for endocrinologists worldwide.

    Make the best clinical decisions with an enhanced emphasis on evidence-based practice in conjunction with expert opinion.

    Table Of Contents:

    Parathyroid Hormone and Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide in the Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Development

    Calcitonin

    Vitamin D: From Photosynthesis, Metabolism, and Action to Clinical Applications

    Bone Development and Remodeling

    Calcium Regulation, Calcium Homeostasis, and Genetic Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

    Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Malignancy-Associated Hypercalcemia and Medical Management

    Surgical Management of Hyperparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy, and Progressive Osseus Heteroplasia: Disorders Caused by Inactivating GNAS Mutations

    Genetic Defects in Vitamin D Metabolism and Action

    Hereditary Disorders of the Skeleton

    Bone Density and Imaging of Osteoporosis

    Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder

    Disorders of Calcification: Osteomalacia and Rickets

    Paget’s Disease of Bone

       

    Bottom of Form

     

  • FAQs In Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    165.00 lei

    The book is in question and answer format, very easy and comfortable to read. It incorporates objective structures practical examination (OSPE) and other format on Endocrinology questions. Contents of the book have been updated as per the latest guidelines by various endocrine organizations all over the world, especially American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) guidelines, American Diabetes Association (ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, and other organizations of the world.

  • 175.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Recognising a need to promote and enhance teaching of clinical endocrinology and diabetes in UK medical schools, the Society for Endocrinology, in collaboration with Diabetes UK and the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists, created a national curriculum that sets out the minimum recommended standards for undergraduate medical education.

    Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes at a Glance corresponds to the curriculum and covers all important areas of diabetes and endocrinology in a clinically relevant and concise manner, with complementary figures to ensure principles are explained clearly. It highlights key practical skills for undergraduates in line with the GMC recommendations that medical graduates should be well prepared for their Foundation posts. There is also emphasis on the importance of multidisciplinary teams in the management of endocrine diseases and diabetes. These include sections on structured education programmes, psychosocial aspects, and patient self-management and monitoring.

    Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes at a Glance will serve as a valuable resource for medical students and junior doctors treating patients with these conditions.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Part 1: Introduction

    1: Introduction to endocrinology

    Synthesis, release and transport

    Mechanisms of hormone action

    Control and feedback

    Patterns of hormone secretion

    Measurement of hormones

    Dynamic endocrine tests

    Part 2: Disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis

    2: The hypothalamic–pituitary axis and its assessment

    Physiology

    Assessment of the pituitary gland

    Imaging

    3: Acromegaly

    Clinical features

    Investigation

    Management

    4: Cushing’s syndrome

    Clinical features

    Investigation

    Differential diagnosis

    Management

    Follow-up and monitoring

    5: Hypopituitarism and non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    Hypopituitarism

    6: Prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia

    Hyperprolactinaemia

    Prolactinoma

    Pituitary incidentaloma

    Part 3: Disorders of thirst and fluid balance

    7: Hypernatraemia and diabetes insipidus

    Posterior pituitary function and sodium homeostasis

    Hypernatraemia

    Diabetes insipidus

    Acute severe hypernatraemia

    8: Hyponatraemia and SIADH

    Hyponatraemia

    Syndrome of inappropriate ADH

    Acute severe hyponatraemia

    Part 4: Thyroid disorders

    9: Thyroid function

    Anatomy

    Physiology

    Actions of thyroid hormones

    Interpreting thyroid function tests

    Primary and secondary hypothyroidism

    Hyperthyroidism

    Factors affecting thyroid results

    10: Hyperthyroidism: clinical presentation and investigation

    Causes

    Clinical presentation

    Investigation

    11: Hyperthyroidism: management and ophthalmopathy

    Medical treatment

    Definitive treatments

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy

    12: Hyperthyroidism: special circumstances

    Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Elevated fT4 with unsuppressed TSH

    Assay interference

    TSHoma and thyroid hormone resistance

    13: Hypothyroidism

    Causes

    Clinical features

    Investigations

    Treatment

    Subclinical hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism and pregnancy

    Polyglandular autoimmune disease

    14: Goitre, thyroid nodules and cancer

    Goitre

    Multinodular goitre

    Solitary thyroid nodule

    Thyroid cancer

    Management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Part 5: Disorders of calcium homeostasis

    15: Physiology of calcium, PTH and vitamin D metabolism

    Parathyroid hormone

    Vitamin D

    Vitamin D deficiency

    16: Hypercalcaemia

    Hypercalcaemia with suppressed PTH

    Hypercalcaemia with non-suppressed PTH

    Acute severe hypercalcaemia

    17: Hypocalcaemia

    Causes

    Clinical features

    Investigation

    Treatment

    Pseudo-hypoparathyroidism

    18: Osteoporosis

    Causes

    Clinical features

    Investigation

    Assessing fracture risk

    Treatment

    Part 6: Disorders of the adrenal gland

    19: Steroid physiology and biochemical assessment

    Steroid synthesis

    Glucocorticoids

    Adrenal androgens

    Mineralocorticoids

    Biochemical assessment of the adrenal axis

    20: Adrenal insufficiency

    Primary adrenal insufficiency

    Secondary adrenal insufficiency

    Steroid-induced hypoadrenalism

    21: Adrenocortical tumours

    Adrenal Cushing’s syndrome

    Primary hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenal incidentalomas

    22: Disorders of the adrenal medulla

    Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    Part 7: Disorders of the reproductive system

    23: Physiology of the reproductive system

    Physiology of female reproduction

    Physiology of male reproduction

    24: Growth, puberty and sexual differentiation

    Normal growth

    Normal puberty

    Short stature

    Precocious puberty

    Delayed puberty

    Sexual differentiation

    Transition of young people into the adult service

    25: Menstrual disturbance

    Definition

    Causes

    Assessment

    Treatment

    Premature ovarian failure

    Turner’s syndrome

    26: Hyperandrogenism

    Hirsutism

    Polycystic ovary syndrome

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    27: Menopause and HRT

    Definition

    Clinical presentation

    Assessment

    Treatment

    Long-term risks and benefits

    Pre-menopausal oestrogen replacement

    28: Male hypogonadism

    Definition

    Primary hypogonadism

    Secondary hypogonadism

    Late onset hypogonadism

    Assessment

    Treatment

    29: Gynaecomastia

    Definition

    Causes

    Assessment

    Treatment

    30: Infertility

    Definition and aetiology

    Evaluation of the infertile couple

    Investigations

    Management

    Part 8: Neuroendocrine tumours

    31: Neuroendocrine tumours

    Definition

    Aetiology

    Symptoms and signs

    Diagnosis

    32: Neuroendocrine tumours: management

    Treatment

    Carcinoid heart disease

    Prognosis

    33: Inherited endocrine tumour syndromes

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2

    Carney complex

    McCune–Albright syndrome

    34: Spontaneous hypoglycaemia

    Fasting hypoglycaemia

    Postprandial hypoglycaemia

    Assessment

    Management

    Part 9: Endocrine emergencies

    35: Adrenal crisis

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    36: Pituitary apoplexy

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    37: Myxoedema coma

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    38: Thyroid storm

    Clinical presentation

    Investigations

    Management

    39: Acute hyponatraemia

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    40: Severe hypercalcaemia

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    41: Acute hypocalcaemia

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    Part 10: Diabetes mellitus

    42: Overview

    History

    Landmark studies

    Advances in care

    Diabetes support organisations

    Awareness

    43: Diagnosis and monitoring

    Diagnosis of diabetes

    Oral glucose tolerance test

    Impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance

    Screening

    Monitoring diabetes

    44: Classification

    Type 1 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    Other genetic defects in β-cell function

    Genetic defects in insulin action

    Pancreatic diseases

    Endocrine disorders

    Drugs

    Gestational diabetes

    Other associations with diabetes

    45: Type 1 diabetes: aetiology and clinical presentation

    Aetiology

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical presentation

    46: Type 1 diabetes: insulin and other therapies

    Lifestyle

    Insulin

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    Pancreatic transplantation

    The artificial pancreas

    Immunotherapy

    47: Type 2 diabetes: aetiology and clinical presentation

    Aetiology

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical presentation

    48: Type 2 diabetes: treatment

    Diet and exercise

    Metformin

    Sulphonylureas

    Meglitinides

    Acarbose

    Glitazones

    DPP-4 inhibitors

    GLP-1 receptor agonists

    SGLT-2 inhibitors

    Insulin

    49: Macrovascular complications

    Epidemiology

    Aetiology

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    50: Microvascular complications

    Background

    Aetiology

    Neuropathy

    Nephropathy

    Retinopathy

    51: Diabetic foot disease

    Epidemiology

    Aetiology

    Clinical presentation

    Management

    Prognosis

    52: Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Definition and epidemiology

    Aetiology

    Symptoms and signs

    Investigations

    Management

    Prognosis

    53: Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state

    Definition and epidemiology

    Aetiology

    Symptoms and signs

    Investigations

    Management

    Prognosis

    54: Hypoglycaemia

    Definition and epidemiology

    Aetiology

    Symptoms and signs

    Investigations

    Management

    Prognosis

    55: Peri-operative management

    Pathophysiological factors

    Pre-operative management

    Intra-operative management

    Postoperative management

    56: Management of acute illness

    Aims of management

    Monitoring

    Drug management

    Calorie and fluid intake

    Special groups for consideration

    57: Insulin infusions

    Variable-rate intravenous insulin infusion

    Fixed-rate intravenous insulin infusion

    58: Pregnancy and diabetes

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Complications

    Pre-conception care

    Screening for GDM

    Antenatal care

    Peri- and postnatal care

    Postnatal diabetes screening

    59: Genetics of diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young

    Mitochondrial diabetes

    Neonatal diabetes

    Monogenic disorders of insulin resistance

    60: The multidisciplinary team

    Diagnosis and surveillance

    Life stages

    Disease stages

    Setting

    61: Lipid disorders

    Primary hyperlipidaemias

    Secondary hyperlipidaemias

    62: Appetite and weight

    Central regulation

    Gut regulation

    Long-term regulation

    Clinical assessment

    63: Obesity and anorexia

    Obesity

    Anorexia

    Index

    EULA

     

  • 210.00 lei

    Osteoporosis is a common, underdiagnosed, and undertreated condition, complicated by fractures which lead to significant mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women exceeds the combined prevalence of breast cancer, stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Often called "the silent disease," it does not reveal itself with obvious symptoms until a fracture occurs. In the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, mortality is increased by almost 24% in women and is even higher in men. About half of those who sustain an osteoporotic hip fracture become so disabled that they are no longer able to resume their daily activities, and as many as 20% require long-term institutional care. Effective treatments for osteoporosis are now available if it is diagnosed and addressed in a timely manner. Unfortunately, this disease remains shockingly underdiagnosed and undertreated, even in patients who sustain low-trauma hip fractures.
    The past two decades have witnessed radical changes in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. The densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis is noninvasive, quick, and relatively simple. Tools are now available to predict the patient's probability of sustaining fractures, to identify patients who are particularly vulnerable, and to determine which patients will benefit from further investigation and treatment. Various associations have developed guidelines to help clinicians reach a diagnosis and initiate treatment. Due to better understanding of the basic pathophysiology of bone turnover, potent and relatively safe medications that significantly reduce the risk of fractures are now widely available. It is of paramount importance that this disease be diagnosed and treated as early as possible in order to take advantage of these developments and reduce the enormous socioeconomic and psychological impact of osteoporosis.
    Given the burden of osteoporotic fractures, all clinicians should have a working knowledge of e diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Clinicians should feel comfortable diagnosing and initiating treatment for the majority of patients with osteoporosis. Only complicated cases or patients who are unresponsive to treatment should be referred to specialists. The aim of this book is to distill the available information on osteoporosis into an easily comprehensible format that will serve as a practical guide for busy clinicians. Numerous boxes, tables, diagrams, and figures present the information in an accessible manner. This book will be of particular use to general practitioners, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, gynecologists, internists, geriatricians, and orthopedic surgeons.

  • Endocrine Secrets
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    215.00 lei

     

     

    Description:

    For more than 30 years, the highly regarded Secrets Series® has provided students and practitioners in all areas of health care with concise, focused, and engaging resources for quick reference and exam review. Endocrine Secrets, 7th Edition, features the Secrets’ popular question-and-answer format that also includes lists, tables, pearls, memory aids, and an easy-to-read style - making inquiry, reference, and review quick, easy, and enjoyable.

    Table Of Contents:

    CHAPTER 1 DIABETES MELLITUS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, AND DIAGNOSIS
    CHAPTER 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: ACUTE AND CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS
    CHAPTER 3 TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS
    CHAPTER 4 TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
    CHAPTER 5 DIABETES TECHNOLOGY: PUMPS, SENSORS, AND BEYOND
    CHAPTER 6 CARBOHYDRATE COUNTING-GUIDED INSULIN DOSING: PRACTICE EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 7 INPATIENT MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES AND HYPERGLYCEMIA
    CHAPTER 8 DIABETES IN PREGNANCY
    CHAPTER 9 HYPOGLYCEMIC DISORDERS
    CHAPTER 10 LIPID DISORDERS
    CHAPTER 11 OBESITY
    CHAPTER 12 OSTEOPOROSIS AND OTHER METABOLIC BONE DISEASES: EVALUATION
    CHAPTER 13 MEASUREMENT OF BONE MASS
    CHAPTER 14 OSTEOPOROSIS MANAGEMENT
    CHAPTER 15 OSTEOMALACIA, RICKETS, AND VITAMIN D INSUFFICIENCY
    CHAPTER 16 PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE
    CHAPTER 17 HYPERCALCEMIA
    CHAPTER 18 HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
    CHAPTER 19 HYPERCALCEMIA OF MALIGNANCY
    CHAPTER 20 HYPOCALCEMIA 164 Shari C. Fox
    CHAPTER 21 NEPHROLITHIASIS 170
    CHAPTER 22 PITUITARY INSUFFICIENCY
    CHAPTER 23 NONFUNCTIONING PITUITARY TUMORS AND PITUITARY INCIDENTALOMAS
    CHAPTER 24 PITUITARY STALK LESIONS
    CHAPTER 25 PROLACTIN-SECRETING PITUITARY TUMORS
    CHAPTER 26 GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY TUMORS
    CHAPTER 27 CUSHING’S SYNDROME
    CHAPTER 28 GLYCOPROTEIN-SECRETING PITUITARY TUMORS
    CHAPTER 29 WATER METABOLISM
    CHAPTER 30 DISORDERS OF GROWTH
    CHAPTER 31 GROWTH HORMONE USE AND ABUSE 
    CHAPTER 32 PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM
    CHAPTER 33 PHEOCHROMOCYTOMAS AND PARAGANGLIOMAS
    CHAPTER 34 ADRENAL INCIDENTALOMAS
    CHAPTER 35 ADRENAL MALIGNANCIES
    CHAPTER 36 ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY
    CHAPTER 37 CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA
    CHAPTER 38 THYROID TESTING
    CHAPTER 39 HYPERTHYROIDISM
    CHAPTER 40 HYPOTHYROIDISM
    CHAPTER 41 THYROIDITIS
    CHAPTER 42 THYROID NODULES AND GOITER
    CHAPTER 43 THYROID CANCER
    CHAPTER 44 THYROID EMERGENCIES
    CHAPTER 45 EUTHYROID SICK SYNDROME
    CHAPTER 46 THYROID DISEASE IN PREGNANCY
    CHAPTER 47 PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND THYROID DISEASE
    CHAPTER 48 DIFFERENCES (DISORDERS) OF SEXUAL
    CHAPTER 49 DISORDERS OF PUBERTY
    CHAPTER 50 MALE HYPOGONADISM
    CHAPTER 51 ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
    CHAPTER 52 GYNECOMASTIA
    CHAPTER 53 AMENORRHEA
    CHAPTER 54 POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME
    CHAPTER 55 HIRSUTISM AND VIRILIZATION
    CHAPTER 56 MENOPAUSE
    CHAPTER 57 G ENDER-AFFIRMING TREATMENT FOR ADULTS WITH GENDER INCONGRUENCE AND GENDER DYSPHORIA
    CHAPTER 58 U SE AND ABUSE OF ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ANDROGEN PRECURSORS
    CHAPTER 59 AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROMES
    CHAPTER 60 MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA SYNDROMES
    CHAPTER 61 PANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS
    CHAPTER 62 CARCINOID SYNDROME
    CHAPTER 63 AGING AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
    CHAPTER 64 ENDOCRINOPATHIES CAUSED BY IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS
    CHAPTER 65 SLEEP AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
    CHAPTER 66 THYROID AND PARATHYROID SURGERY
    CHAPTER 67 ADRENAL SURGERY
    CHAPTER 68 PANCREAS AND OTHER ENDOCRINE TUMOR SURGERY
    CHAPTER 69 BARIATRIC SURGERY
    CHAPTER 70 ENDOCRINOLOGY IN AFRICA
    CHAPTER 71 FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
    CHAPTER 72 INTERESTING ENDOCRINE FACTS AND FIGURES
    CHAPTER 73 ENDOCRINE CASE STUDIES

       

     

  • Evidence-Based Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    260.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Providing summaries of the latest and best publications, clinical trials, and evidence in endocrinology, this portable handbook is a time-saving addition to your professional library. In a concise, easy-to-read format, it offers evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders and provides a comprehensive summary of pertinent clinical studies supporting the practice recommendations

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1 Hypothalamic Pituitary Disease

    Introduction of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis

    Pituitary Adenomas and Sellar Masses

    Hypopituitarism

    Imaging of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary System

    Disorders of the Prolactin System

    Acromegaly

    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas

    Cushing Disease

    Diabetes Insipidus

    SIADH

    References

    Chapter 2 Thyroid Disorders

    Evaluation of Thyroid Function

    Thyroid Imaging

    Hyperthyroidism

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroid Nodules

    Thyroid Cancer

    Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

    References

    Chapter 3 Adrenal Disorders

    Evaluation of Adrenal Function

    Adrenal Imaging

    Primary Hyperaldosteronism

    Cushing Syndrome

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Insufficiency

    Pheochromocytoma

    References

    Chapter 4 Metabolic Bone Disorders

    Evaluation of Metabolic Bone Disorders

    Bone Imaging

    Osteoporosis

    Paget Disease of the Bone

    Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Parathyroid Carcinoma

    Hypercalcemia

    Hypocalcemia

    Osteomalacia

    Vitamin D Deficiency

    References

    Chapter 5 Reproductive Disorders

    Amenorrhea

    Precocious Puberty

    Hyperandrogenism

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Menopause

    Infertility

    Male Hypogonadism

    References

    Chapter 6 Diabetes Mellitus

    Epidemiology and Prevalence

    Types of Diabetes Mellitus

    Clinical Presentation

    Screening for Diabetes

    Assessing Glycemic Control

    Treatment of Diabetes

    Inpatient Diabetes Management

    Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes

    The Impact of Multifactorial Intervention

    The Cardiovascular Impact of Treatment of Hyperglycemia

    The Cardiovascular Impact of Treatment of Hypertension

    The Cardiovascular Impact of Treatment of Hyperlipidemia

    The Cardiovascular Impact of Antiplatelet Therapy

    Microvascular Complications of Diabetes

    Hypoglycemia

    Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

    References

    Chapter 7 Lipid Disorders

    Introduction

    Treatment Options for Lowering LDL Cholesterol

    Clinical Outcomes Data with PCSK9 Inhibition

    Future Studies with PCSK9 Inhibitors

    High-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Treatment Options for Triglycerides

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 8 Obesity

    Definition

    Epidemiology

    Etiology

    Pathophysiology

    Evaluation

    Treatment

    Pharmacotherapy

    Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery

    References

    Chapter 9 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

    MEN Type 1

    MEN Type 2

    References

    Chapter 10 Carcinoid Tumors

    Definition

    Pathology

    Biology

    Epidemiology

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 11 Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes

    Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

    Hypocalcemia

    Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia

    Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome

    Non–Islet Cell Tumor–Induced Hypoglycemia

    Acromegaly

    Hyperthyroidism

    References

    Chapter 12 Genetics

    Definition

    Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis

    References

    Chapter 13 Transgender Care

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Mental Health

    Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy in Adults

    Special Considerations in Management of Gender Nonconforming Children and Transgender Youth

    Gender-Affirming Surgery

    Conclusion

    References

    Index

     

  • 260.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Diabetes: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Clinical Management aims to be the one-stop diabetes book for researchers, scientists and clinicians. It details the epidemiology, causes, molecular mechanisms, molecular markers, available drugs, experimental drugs, treatment modalities, and dietary and lifestyle approaches related to diabetes. It focuses on various molecular aspects of diabetes, and its related co-morbidities. Apart from the drug-based treatment approach based on international guidelines, this book also describes various surgical treatments available for cases of uncontrolled symptomatic diabetes. It also lays emphasis on the future possibilities of different approaches for diabetes management. Key Features Includes treatment guidelines and approaches to diabetes provided by major global diabetes associations Provides a thorough and comprehensive assimilation of detailed information and updates in the field of diabetes, helpful for researchers, scientists and clinicians Contains a chapter on anti-diabetic drugs, that covers both the commercially approved drugs as well as those that are in various phases of experimental, pre-clinical, and clinical trials

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1 Diabetes Epidemiology – 1980 and Beyond

    Face-to-Face with the Global Diabetes Epidemiology

    References

    Chapter 2 Diabetes and Inflammation

    Introduction

    General Mechanism of Inflammation-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Macrophage Activation and Insulin Resistance in Obesity

    Role of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Diabetes

    Tumour Necrosis Factor – α

    Interleukins

    C – Reactive Protein (CRP)

    Toll-Like Receptors

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3 Insulin Resistance and Glucose Regulation

    Introduction to Insulin Resistance

    Obesity as a Cause of Insulin Resistance

    Free Fatty Acids

    Adiponectin

    TNF-α

    Resistin and Interleukin-6

    Leptin

    Fibroblast Growth Factor 21

    Dietary Effect on Insulin Resistance

    Fatty Acid Mediated Insulin Resistance

    Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4 Diabetes : A Leading Contributor to Other Disease Complications

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology of T2DM

    Diabetes-Related Complications

    Diabetic Retinopathy

    Cardiovascular Disorders

    Diabetic Nephropathy

    Diabetic Neuropathy

    Pulmonary Dysfunctions

    Hepatic Dysfunction

    Other Complications

    Periodontitis

    Genito-Urinary Infections

    Tuberculosis

    Gastroparesis

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5 Biomarkers of Diabetes

    Biomarkers

    Biomarkers for T1DM

    Biomarkers for T2DM

    Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c)

    1, 5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)

    Uric Acid

    Chromogranin A

    Skin and Lens Autofluorescence

    References

    Chapter 6 Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Introduction

    Parenteral Anti-Diabetic Drugs (Insulin)

    Oral Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Drugs for Diabetes Insipidus

    Drugs from the Labs: The Story of Possibilities

    GK Activators

    FGF21 Mimetics

    PTP-1B Inhibitors

    RAGE Inhibitors

    References

    Chapter 7 Diagnosis and Treatment

    Diagnosis of Diabetes

    Pharmacological Treatment of Diabetes

    Surgical Treatment of Diabetes

    References

    Chapter 8 Dietary and Lifestyle Management of Diabetes

    Importance of Dietary and Lifestyle Management in Diabetes

    Metabolic Effects of Exercise

    Gut Microbiome and Diabetes: Old Companion with a New Angle

    References

    Chapter 9 Future Prospects and Recommendations

    Index

     

  • 33700lei 295.00 lei

     

    Description:

    This practical guide presents a concise approach to exploring endocrine pathophysiology through the physical exam, emphasizing common clinical signs in endocrinology that can be elicited through inspection, palpation, percussion or auscultation. The established and proposed mechanisms underlying these physical signs are highlighted, allowing students, residents and trainees to better appreciate endocrine pathophysiology at the bedside.   The text is organized sensibly to facilitate quick and efficient review by medical trainees. Major diseases in endocrinology are grouped by organ systems - pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and so on. Specific physical examination findings in each primary endocrine disease are reviewed and grouped under the categories of clinical features and pathophysiology, followed by related clinical and pathophysiology pearls. A brief description of the clinical finding is followed by a summary of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the stated clinical finding. Relevant normal physiology and pathophysiology are reviewed where applicable, to facilitate learning.   There are numerous texts on the pathophysiologic basis of diagnostic and laboratory findings in endocrinology. There is, however, no dedicated text to address questions that might be asked by trainees. Endocrine Pathophysiology satisfies this need in the literature. 

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1. Pituitary Gland Signs

    2. Thyroid Gland Signs

    3. Adrenal Gland Signs

    4. Pancreatic Gland Signs

    5. Parathyroid Gland and Musculoskeletal Signs

    6. Reproductive Organ Signs

    7. Signs in Disorders of Lipid Metabolism and Obesity

    8. Eponymous Terms and Selected Historical Figures in Endocrinology

     

     

     

  • 320.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Ideal for all health care professionals who evaluate, diagnose, treat, or refer patients with endocrine disease or disorders, Manual of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fifth Edition, brings together nearly 150 global authorities who share their knowledge and expertise on endocrine disorders in children, adolescents, and adults. Using a concise outline format, this thoroughly updated manual presents clinical information and protocols needed in everyday practice, with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. Succinct chapters and an abundance of tables and diagrams make complex information easy to find and understand.

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Section 1 Basic Science of Clinical Endocrinology

    1 Clinical Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory Testing

    2 Hormone-Resistant States

    3 Genetics of Endocrinology

    4 The Growth Plate

    Section 2 Hypothalamic-Pituitary Dysfunction

    5 Anterior Pituitary Diseases

    6 Hypopituitarism after Traumatic Brain Injury

    7 Prolactin

    8 Nipple Discharge/Galactorrhea

    9 Acromegaly/Gigantism

    10 Clinical Disorders of Vasopressin

    11 Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative Management Following Pituitary Surgery

    12 Growth Hormone in Adults

    13 Pituitary Disorders and Tall Stature in Children

    14 Short Stature and Growth Hormone Therapy

    15 Laron Syndrome

    16 Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Section 3 Adrenal Disorders

    17 The Adrenal Cortex and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    18 Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    19 Hormonal Hypertension

    20 Use of Salivary Cortisol Assay to Screen for Cushing Syndrome/Disease

    21 Adrenal Hormones during Acute and Chronic Illness: Evaluation and Treatment

    22 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    23 Adrenal Steroid Excess in Childhood

    24 Adrenal Insufficiency in Childhood

    Section 4 Disorders of the Reproductive System

    25 Female Reproductive Endocrinology in Adults

    26 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    27 Male Reproductive Disorders in Adults

    28 Disorders of Sexual Development in the Pediatric and Adolescent Male

    29 Early, Precocious, and Delayed Female Pubertal Development

    30 Ambiguous Genitalia

    Section 5 Mineral Disorders

    31 Disorders of Calciotropic Hormones in Adults

    32 Hypercalcemic Crisis

    33 Metabolic Bone Disease

    34 Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein

    35 Common Bone and Mineral Disorders of Childhood

    Section 6 Thyroid Disorders

    36 Evaluation of Thyroid Function

    37 Thyroiditis

    38 Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

    39 Thyroid Tumors in Adults

    40 Newborn Thyroid Disorders and Screening

    41 Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    42 Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Section 7 Metabolic Disorders

    43 Obesity

    44 Disorders of Lipid Metabolism

    45 Hypoglycemia in Adults

    46 Hypoglycemia in Infants and Children

    47 Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    Section 8 Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    48 Introduction to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    49 Glycogen Storage Diseases

    50 Hypokalemic Paralysis

    Section 9 Diabetes Mellitus

    51 Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    52 Diagnosis and Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    53 Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure (HAAF) in Diabetes Mellitus

    54 Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    55 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    56 Glucose Control in Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia

    57 Bariatric Surgery in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    58 Diabetes Mellitus and the Geriatric Patient

    59 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome in Children

    60 Type 1.5 Diabetes: Overlay between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    61 C-Peptide

    62 Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes

    63 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    64 Management of Diabetes Mellitus in the Perioperative Period

    65 Diabetes Mellitus: Recent Developments and Clinical Implications

    66 Artificial Pancreas

    67 Glycated Proteins in the Diagnosis and Management of Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    68 Inhaled Insulin

    69 The Application of Stem Cells in Diabetes Mellitus

    Section 10 Sex Hormone Treatments

    70 The Care of Gender-nonconforming and Transgender Youth

    71 Hormone Therapy in Transgender Adults

    72 How to Manage Men with Low Testosterone

    73 The Use of Hormones in Female Sexual Dysfunction

    74 Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Section 11 Special Topics in Clinical Endocrinology

    75 Endocrine Diseases in Pregnancy

    76 Fetal Endocrinology and Neonatal Emergencies

    77 Hormones and Aging

    78 Neuroendocrine (APUD) Syndromes

    79 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    80 Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Endocrinology

    81 Surgery for Endocrine Disorders

    82 Surgical Management of Pediatric Endocrine Diseases

    83 Biomarkers Used in the Screening, Diagnosis, Management, and Surveillance of Endocrine Cancers

    84 Autoimmune Endocrine Syndromes

    85 Management of Some Hormone-Dependent Cancers with Analogs of Hypothalamic Hormones

    86 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    87 Flushing and Sweating

    88 Intranasal Hormones

    89 The Female Athlete

    Appendix A Protocols for Stimulation and Suppression Tests Commonly Used in Clinical Endocrinology

    Index

     

  • 325.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Meet the growing challenges of diabetes and obesity management with Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity, a compilation of chapters from the highly acclaimed two-volume textbook, Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. Never before available as a stand-alone offering, this derivative book will enable you to put today's best endocrinology practices in diabetes and obesity management to work for your patients.

    Features:

    Stay abreast of the newest knowledge and advances in diabetes and obesity management, including…

    today's increased focus on controlling autoimmunity and preserving or replenishing beta-cell mass in the management of type 1 diabetes

    complications of diabetes and their pathogenesis, morbidity, and treatment

    new findings and treatments for obesity

    and much more.

    Make the best clinical endocrinology decisions with an enhanced emphasis on evidence-based practice in conjunction with expert opinion.

    Count on all the authority that has made Endocrinology, 6th Edition, edited by Drs. Jameson and De Groot, the go-to clinical medical reference for endocrinologists worldwide.

    Table Of Contents:

    Appetite Regulation and Thermogenesis

    Obesity: The Problem and Its Management

    Genetic Syndromes Associated with Obesity

    Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Other Eating Disorders

    Development of the Endocrine Pancreas

    Biosynthesis, Processing, and Secretion of the Islet Hormones: Insulin, Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (Amylin), Glucagon, Somatostatin, and Pancreatic Polypeptide

    Insulin Secretion

    The Mechanisms of Insulin Action

    Glucagon and Glucagon-like Peptides

    Regulation of Intermediatory Metabolism During Fasting and Feeding

    Role of the Adipocyte in Metabolism and Endocrine Function

    Lipodystrophy Syndromes

    Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

    Type 1 (Insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology, Pathogenesis, Prediction, and Prevention

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Natural History

    Lipoprotein Metabolism and the Treatment of Lipid Disorders

    Hyperglycemia Secondary to Nondiabetic Conditions and Therapies

    The Metabolic Syndrome

    Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults

    Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Coma

    Hypoglycemia and Hypoglycemic Syndromes

    Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Children

    Pancreatic and Islet Transplantation

    Diabetes Control, Long-Term Complications, and Large Vessel Disease

    Diabetic Eye Disease

    Diabetes Mellitus: Neuropathy

    Diabetic Nephropathy

    Diabetic Foot and Vascular Complications

    Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy

       

    Bottom of Form

     

  • 36500lei 330.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Developed from time-tested material utilized in endocrinology courses for medical students, this comprehensive and practical guide draws together a number of related disciplines to create a straightforward and accessible approach to the study of endocrine and metabolic diseases. Designed with the student in mind, each of the main endocrine organs and disorders are covered in thematic sections on diabetes, thyroid disorders, calcium disorders, adrenal disorders, and hypothalamus and pituitary disorders. Opening with clear learning objectives, chapters within each section discuss core concepts, anatomy, embryology, histology, testing, diagnosis and pharmacology, and include clinical case scenarios and multiple choice review questions. Full-color figures and diagrams enhance and extend the content.  Perfect for in-class reference or board licensing review, Essentials of Endocrinology and Metabolism is an indispensable resource for medical and nursing students alike.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1. Introduction to Endocrinology Concepts

    Part I. Diabetes

    2. Getting Prepared Series for Diabetes

    3. Diabetes Types and Diagnosis

    4. Diabetes Complications

    5. Diabetes Pharmacology

    6. Diabetes Cases

    Part II. Thyroid

    7. Getting Prepared Series for Thyroid

    8. Abnormal Thyroid Function

    9. Thyroid Testing

    10. Thyroid Pharmacology

    11. Thyroid Nodules and Cancer

    12. Thyroid Cases

    Part III. Calcium

    13. Getting Prepared Series for Calcium

    14. Hypercalcemia

    15. Hypocalcemia

    16. Calcium Pharmacology

    17. Calcium Cases

    Part IV. Adrenal

    18. Getting Prepared Series for Adrenal

    19. Adrenal Cortex

    20. Adrenal Testing

    21. Adrenal Pharmacology

    22. Secondary Hypertension

    23. Adrenal Cases

    Part V. Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    24. Getting Prepared Series for Pituitary

    25. Prolactin

    26. Growth Hormone

    27. Reproductive Function

    28. Posterior Pituitary

    29. Pituitary Cases

    30. Puberty Cases

    Back Matter

     

  • Pubertal Suppression in Transgender Youth, 1e
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    47800lei 420.00 lei

    Description:

    Offering current guidelines on the relatively new practice of puberty suppression for gender-dysphoric adolescents, Pubertal Suppression in Transgender Youth provides a succinct, easy-to-digest overview of this timely topic. This concise, clinically-focused resource by Dr. Courtney Finlayson covers all relevant topics, from a brief history of medical care of transgender youth to emerging developments in the field.

     

     Table of Contents

     

    ·  Copyright

    ·  List of Contributors

    ·  Chapter 1. History of Care of Transgender Youth

    ·  Dedication

    ·  Chapter 2. Models of Care and Current Guidelines for Care of Transgender Individuals

    ·  Gender-Affirming Care

    ·  Multidisciplinary Care

    ·  Practice Guidelines

    ·  Mental Healthcare

    ·  Medical Care

    ·  Adjunctive Services

    ·  Barriers to Care

    ·  Summary

    ·  Chapter 3. Puberty

    ·  Physical Changes Associated With Puberty

    ·  Physiology of Puberty

    ·  Delayed Puberty or Absent Puberty (Sexual Infantilism)

    ·  Precocious Puberty (Sexual Precocity)

    ·  Chapter 4. GnRH Analogs (Mechanism, Past Studies, Drug Options, Use in Precocious Puberty, Use in Gender-Nonconforming Youth)

    ·  Historical Perspective

    ·  Physiology and Mechanism of Action

    ·  Use in Central Precocious Puberty

    ·  Outcomes in Central Precocious Puberty

    ·  Use in Gender-Nonconforming Youth

    ·  Options for Treatment

    ·  Outcomes in Gender-Nonconforming Youth

    ·  Challenges in Care

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 5. Rationale for the Initiation, Use, and Monitoring of GnRHa in Gender Non-conforming Youth

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Rationale

    ·  Initiation

    ·  Monitoring

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 6. Psychosocial Considerations in Pubertal Suppression Treatment

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Possible Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogues on Gender Identity and/or Sexuality Development

    ·  Unknown Neurocognitive Sequelae of Pubertal Suppression Treatment

    ·  Psychosocial Implications of Known Medical Side Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment

    ·  Family Factors

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 7. Medical Side Effects of GnRH Agonists

    ·  Bone Health

    ·  Brain

    ·  Fertility

    ·  Body Mass Index and Body Composition

    ·  Summary

    ·  Chapter 8. Surgical Side Effects of GnRHa

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Goals of Surgery

    ·  Timing of Surgery

    ·  Surgical Considerations for Individuals on GnRHa

    ·  Areas of Uncertainty

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 9. Fertility Preservation: Considerations for Gender-Diverse Youth

    ·  Risk of Infertility due to Hormonal Therapies

    ·  Fertility Preservation Options in Birth-Assigned Males

    ·  Fertility Preservation Options in Birth-Assigned Females

    ·  Attitudes Toward FP and Other Psychological Considerations

    ·  Ethical Considerations

    ·  Financial Considerations

    ·  Future Directions

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  Chapter 10. Duration of Pubertal Suppression and Initiation of Gender-Affirming Hormone Treatment in Youth

    ·  Pubertal Suppression and Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapies

    ·  Relevant Time Points in Clinical Guidelines and Protocols

    ·  Unresolved Questions

    ·  Case Examples

    ·  Initiation of Gender-Affirming Hormones

    ·  Testosterone

    ·  Estrogen

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  Chapter 11. Ethical Considerations of GnRHa Treatment and Consent Process

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Pubertal Suppression

    ·  Benefits of Pubertal Suppression

    ·  Ethical Issues

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 12. Emerging Developments in Pubertal Suppression for Gender Incongruent/Gender Dysphoric Youth

    ·  Triptorelin, a New Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist

    ·  Prolonged Use of Histrelin acetate implant in Transgender Youth

    ·  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Use in Nonbinary Youth

    ·  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Gonadotropin Antagonists

    ·  Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Antagonists

    ·  Oxandrolone as an Alternative Gender-Affirming Masculinizing Hormone

    ·  Low-Dose Estrogen and Testosterone

    ·  Antiandrogens and Androgen Receptor Inhibitors

    ·  Antiandrogens

    ·  Conclusion

  • 46000lei 430.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Up-to-date and evidence-based, Updates on Treatment and Management of Endocrinopathies [correct title?] provides an overview of recent developments regarding the most prevalent endocrine disorders. A concise, easy-to-read reference for endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons, this timely reference includes an overview of each disorder as well as diagnosis, management, treatment, prognosis, and a summary by a renowned expert who has contributed to the most current literature.

    Features:

    • Addresses endocrine diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands as well as familial endocrine syndromes - multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 2 (MEN).
    • Includes both surgical and non-surgical treatments
    • Consolidates today's available information on this timely topic into one convenient resource.

    Table Of Contents:

    1 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
    2 Advances in the Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinomas
    3 Management of Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Thyroid Cancer
    4 Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer
    5 Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents
    6 Brief Overview of Calcium, Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Calcium-Sensing Receptor Function
    7 Advances in the Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    8 Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Secondary and Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism
    9 Advances in the Diagnosis and SurgicalManagement of Parathyroid Carcinoma
    10 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism due to MEN Type 1 Syndrome
    11 Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism due to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Type 2 Syndrome
    12 Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism During Pregnancy
    13 Update on the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Aldosteronism
    14 Update on Diagnosis and Management of Pheochromocytoma
    15 Advances in the Diagnosis and Medical Management of Cushing’s Syndrome
    16 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Adrenocortical Carcinoma
    17 Adrenal Vein Sampling
    18 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Insulinoma
    19 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Gastrinoma
    20 Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Nonfunctional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
    21 Pituitary Adenomas: Evaluation and Management From a Surgical Perspective
    22 Advances in the Orbital Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy
    23 Advances in the Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches to Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Adrenal Disorders
    24 Advances in Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach(TOETVA)
    25 Advances in Perioperative Management: Nursing Care, Anesthesia Considerations, and Nurse Navigation for Endocrine Surgical Patients

       

     

  • Imaging in Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    47500lei 450.00 lei

    Imaging in Endocrinology will provide endocrinologists and radiologists of all levels with an outstanding diagnostic imaging atlas to aid them in the diagnosis and management of all the major endocrine diseases they are likely to encounter. In full colour throughout, the 300 high–quality images consist of CT scans, MRI, NMR and histopathology slides, and are arranged by each specific endocrine condition, resulting in a visually outstanding and easily accessible tool that guides the user through exactly what to look out for and provides a practical and extremely useful aid in helping them formulate a diagnosis.

    Every major endocrine condition is covered in a specific section, including diseases of the thyroid, pituitary, reproductive and adrenal glands, the pancreas, bone metabolism problems, and the various forms of endocrine cancers. Each disease covered will offer a comparison of the normal findings so as to further assist in diagnosis.
    An accompanying website contains an online slide–atlas of all the figures in the book, to allow users to download all figures for use in presentations. Led by Paolo Pozzilli, an internationally–recognised expert in this field, the authors have assembled a wonderful collection of images that will be greatly valued by endocrinologists and radiologists alike, ensuring this is the perfect tool to consult when assessing patients with endocrine disease.

  • 49100lei 460.00 lei

    The revised and updated fourth edition of Practical Endocrinology and Diabetes in Children offers a practical, highly clinical and up-to-date handbook of paediatric endocrinology and diabetes. The book is written in clear terms and offers a user-friendly format that is designed to be concise, yet comprehensive.. The international panel of expert contributors explore the range of endocrine disorders in children including growth, thyroid, adrenal and problems related to puberty.


  • 500.00 lei

     

    About this Textbook

     Diabetes has become a worldwide health problem, the global estimated prevalence approaches ten percent and the burden of this disease in terms of morbidity and mortality is unprecedented. The advances acquired through the knowledge of the mechanisms of the disease and the variety of therapeutic approaches contrast with the inability of private and public health systems in underdeveloped and even developed countries to achieve the goals of treatment. This paradox has been described in many sources: the surge of scientific advances contrast with an unprecedented amount of human suffering. Thus, a patient centered and an evidence-based approach with the capacity to produce measurable clinical and economic outcomes is required.

    The purpose of this textbook is multiple: to offer a comprehensive resource covering all aspects of outpatient management; to address diabetes as a health problem from an epidemiological, economic and clinical perspective; to discuss the role of social determinants of health on the worldwide increase in diabetes; to highlight the challenges and obstacles in providing adequate care; and to outline a multidisciplinary approach to management in which medical visits retain their importance as part of a team comprising the patient, his or her family and a multidisciplinary group of health professionals who are able to move beyond the traditional approach of diabetes as a disease and greatly improve outcomes.

     

    Table of contents (64 chapters)

     

    Preface: A New Disease?

    Pages 1-8

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    The Dynamics of Diabetes Prevalence, Morbidity, and Mortality

    Pages 11-21

    Gregg, Edward W. (et al.)

    Economic Costs, from Individuals to Health Systems: Evidence from a Middle-Income Country

    Pages 23-32

    Arredondo, Armando (et al.)

    The Ecological Approach to Self-Management in Diabetes

    Pages 33-59

    Fisher, Edwin B. (et al.)

    Social Determinants of Health and Diabetes Outcomes

    Pages 61-69

    Hashimoto, Hideki

    Definition, Diagnostic Criteria, Screening, Diagnosis, and Classification of Diabetes and Categories of Glucose Intolerance

    Pages 71-85

    Nandhini, Lakshmana Perumal (et al.)

    Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes

    Pages 89-99

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita A.

    Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 101-116

    Kesavadev, Jothydev (et al.)

    Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 117-125

    Cruz, Miguel (et al.)

    Gene Expression Modifications in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 127-144

    Suarez-Sanchez, Fernando (et al.)

    The Immune System and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 145-167

    Macedo, Rebeca García

    Dysfunction and Death of Pancreatic Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 169-184

    Ortega-Camarillo, Clara

    Obesity in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes

    Pages 185-213

    Paniagua González, Juan Antonio (et al.)

    Pathogenesis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 215-225

    Kintiraki, Evangelia (et al.)

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

    Pages 227-235

    Villela Nogueira, Cristiane A. (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in Asia

    Pages 239-253

    Shivashankar, Roopa (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in the United States

    Pages 255-271

    Ali, Mohammed K. (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in Africa

    Pages 273-288

    Choukem, Simeon Pierre (et al.)

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home, Primary Care, and Diabetes

    Pages 291-304

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Outpatient Diabetes Management and the Chronic Care Model

    Pages 305-332

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Clinical Practice Guidelines, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Diabetes

    Pages 333-355

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Measuring Diabetes Quality of Care: Clinical Outcomes, Cost-Effectiveness, and Patient Experience of Care

    Pages 357-365

    O’Connor, Patrick J. (et al.)

    Clinical Inertia: The Role of Physicians in Diabetes Outcomes

    Pages 367-380

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Patient Adherence: Challenges, Myths, and Realities

    Pages 381-400

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Challenges and Opportunities in Diabetes Education

    Pages 403-416

    Dickinson, Jane K. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Mental Health: From Distress to Depression

    Pages 417-428

    Heinze, Gerhard (et al.)

    Tools of Self-Care: Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Tele-Health Resources

    Pages 429-450

    Ginsberg, Barry H.

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Clinical Practice: Ambulatory Glucose Profile and the Application of Advanced Glucose Sensing Technologies to Clinical Decision-Making

    Pages 451-462

    Mazze, Roger S.

    Type 2 Diabetes and Lifestyle Medicine

    Pages 463-476

    Galaviz, Karla I. (et al.)

    Evidence and Implementation of Medical Nutrition Therapy in Persons with Diabetes

    Pages 477-483

    Maryniuk, Melinda Downie (et al.)

    Evidence and Implementation of Physical Activity and Exercise

    Pages 485-498

    Jáuregui-Ulloa, Edtna (et al.)

    The “Old” Oral Antidiabetics

    Pages 501-513

    Buhse, Susanne (et al.)

    Incretin Therapies: Current Use and Emerging Possibilities

    Pages 515-529

    Schlögl, Haiko (et al.)

    Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors

    Pages 531-539

    Dailey, George, III (et al.)

    Use of Insulin in Outpatient Diabetes Management

    Pages 541-554

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Insulin Pump Therapy

    Pages 555-570

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Hypertension

    Pages 573-585

    Khangura, D. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia

    Pages 587-596

    Mooradian, Arshag D.

    Obesity and Diabetes

    Pages 597-610

    Wharton, Sean (et al.)

    Diabetes and Smoking: The Burden of Evidence

    Pages 611-616

    Aggarwal, Sameer (et al.)

    Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Pages 619-627

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    Hypoglycemia: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention

    Pages 629-653

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Inpatient Management of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia

    Pages 655-668

    Horton, William B.

    Diabetes and Infection

    Pages 669-691

    Atreja, Atulya (et al.)

    Biochemical Mechanisms of Vascular Complications in Diabetes

    Pages 695-707

    Margarita Díaz-Flores, (et al.)

    Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Pages 709-730

    Coutiño-Castelán, Daniel (et al.)

    Diabetes and Stroke: The Role of Glucose Regulation

    Pages 731-746

    Lowe, Forrest (et al.)

    Peripheral Arterial Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 747-763

    Cheun, Tracy J. (et al.)

    Ophthalmic Disease in Diabetes

    Pages 765-775

    Henriques, José (et al.)

    Diabetes and Oral Health

    Pages 777-790

    Díaz-Romero, Rosa Maria (et al.)

    Renal Disease in Diabetes

    Pages 791-807

    Garza-García, Carlos A. (et al.)

    Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathies

    Pages 809-823

    Feher, Gergely

    Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy

    Pages 825-850

    Serhiyenko, Viktoria (et al.)

    Autonomic Visceral Neuropathy and Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Pages 851-861

    Drewes, Anne Mohr (et al.)

    Urologic Complications in Patients with Diabetes

    Pages 863-871

    Casco, Stephania (et al.)

    Musculoskeletal Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 873-881

    Singla, Rajiv (et al.)

    Diabetes and the Skin

    Pages 883-898

    Mestdagh, Justine (et al.)

    Foot Complications

    Pages 899-918

    Harkless, Lawrence B. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Cancer

    Pages 919-937

    Krajewska (Wojciechowska), Joanna (et al.)

    Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

    Pages 941-966

    Miranda Lora, América Liliana (et al.)

    Pregnancy: Pregestational and Gestational Management

    Pages 967-976

    García-Argueta, María Isabel (et al.)

    The Elderly with Diabetes

    Pages 977-989

    Valencia-Rodrigo, Willy Marcos

    The Artificial Pancreas

    Pages 993-998

    Ginsberg, Barry H. (et al.)

    Unproven Therapies for Diabetes

    Pages 999-1013

    Kesavadev, Jothydev (et al.)

  • 58000lei 550.00 lei

  • Pediatric Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    57800lei 560.00 lei

     

    Description:

    In a single, convenient volume, Pediatric Endocrinology offers complete coverage of all aspects of basic science and clinical practice, ideal for both pediatricians and endocrinologists. Pediatric endocrinology expert Dr. Mark Sperling teams up with world-renowned authors to bring you up to date with the latest key developments in every area of the field, providing invaluable guidance on how your clinical decision making will be affected by today?s technological and scientific advances. The user-friendly text is enhanced by all-new online access to the complete contents of the book and more.

    "Inclusion of clinical vignettes and supported by ExpertConsult access makes the text almost as good as face-to-face teaching." Reviewed byNeel Kamal on behalf of BACCH Newsletter, March 2015

    Features:

    Determine the best possible course for every patient with easy-to-follow algorithms in every clinical chapter.

    New To This Edition:

    Stay up to date with today’s hottest topics, including neonatal diabetes mellitus, Type II childhood diabetes, molecular endocrinology, and genetics.

    Explore the impact of today’s advances and challenges, including explosive growth in molecular biology, sophisticated imaging techniques, and an increase in both pediatric diabetes and obesity.

    NEW! Access the fully searchable contents of the book and new self-assessment questions online at Expert Consult.

    Quickly access the information you need with a new, streamlined organization (Concepts, Endocrine Disorders of the Newborn, Endocrine Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence, and Laboratory Tests and Imaging).

    Table Of Contents:

     Section I: Principles and Methods of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Chapter 1. Overview and Principles of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Chapter 2. Molecular Endocrinology and Endocrine Genetics

    Chapter 3. Receptor Transduction Pathways Mediating Hormone Action

    Chapter 4. Laboratory Methods in Pediatric Endocrinology

    Section II: Endocrine Disorders in the Neonate

    Chapter 5. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Chapter 6. Hypoglycemia in the Newborn and Infant

    Chapter 7. Disorders of the Thyroid in the Newborn and Infant

    Chapter 8. Disorders of Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis in the Newborn and Infant

    Chapter 9. Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus

    Section III: Endocrine Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Chapter 10. Disorders of Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Secretion and Action

    Chapter 11. Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary

    Chapter 12. Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Chapter 13. Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders

    Chapter 14. Pheochromocytoma and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Chapter 15. Puberty and Its Disorders in the Female

    Chapter 16. Turner Syndrome

    Chapter 17. Puberty and Its Disorders in the Male

    Chapter 18. Disorders of Mineral Homeostasis in Children and Adolescents

    Chapter 19. Diabetes Mellitus

    Chapter 20. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Chapter 21. Hypoglycemia in the Toddler and Child

    Chapter 22. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Disorders of Energy Balance

    Chapter 23. Lipid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

       




  • 67400lei 580.00 lei

    This timely and clinically oriented book uniquely addresses the entire spectrum of treatment for severe obesity and diabetes. It thoroughly examines all aspects from robotic surgery to cell therapy, from the latest antidiabetic drugs to endoscopic procedures and devices, from appetite-inhibiting signals and nutrients to gastric arterial embolization. It offers objective and authoritative information for practicing professionals; not only are successful interventions discussed and updated, but cutting-edge and experimental pathways are also anticipated.

    Obesity is the foremost nutritional challenge worldwide. Its companion is type-2 diabetes, the most prevalent metabolic disease. Together they represent the diabesity epidemic, which is draining resources, overwhelming healthcare facilities, and impacting life expectancy and quality of life everywhere. No country has been spared, and most medical specialties have been affected. Many books focus on the surgical options for obesity and diabetes, namely bariatric and metabolic operations. Information on the clinical and pharmacological treatment is also available, conveyed by standard texts on internal medicine and endocrinology. Yet endoscopic maneuvers and prostheses, cell therapy for diabetes, and other innovative approaches are hard to come by, as conventional texts overlook such therapies. This timely publication bridges the gaps between all different therapeutic options, also covering advances in the conservative, surgical and parasurgical domains.

    This book will appeal to seasoned specialists, students and healthcare professionals in training alike.

  • Sperling Pediatric Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    64500lei 600.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    An ideal resource for both pediatricians and endocrinologists, Sperling’s Pediatric Endocrinology, 5th Edition, brings you fully up to date with accelerating research; new discoveries in metabolic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms; and the resulting advances in today’s clinical care. The editorial team of world-renowned pediatric endocrinologists led by Dr. Mark Sperling, as well as expert contributing authors, cover comprehensive and current aspects of both basic science and clinical practice. Whether you’re preparing for certification or have extensive clinical experience, this detailed, authoritative reference helps you increase your knowledge and determine the best possible course for every patient.

     

    Key Features:

     

    Delivers trusted guidance in every area of the field: including Endocrine Disorders of the Newborn, Endocrine Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence, and Laboratory Tests.

    Features new topics such as transgender issues in children and adolescents and endocrinology of pregnancy, the fetus and the placenta.

    Offers expert coverage of hot topics such as disorders of sexual development, molecular basis of endocrine disorders, hypoglycemia in newborns and infants; neonatal and other monogenic forms of diabetes; Type I and Type II diabetes and their treatment with new insulins together with the progress in an artificial pancreas and new medications for T2DM in adolescents; the obesity epidemic and role of bariatric surgery; and advances toward personalized medicine.

    Includes easy-to-follow algorithms and numerous quick-reference tables and boxes in every clinical chapter, plus interactive questions online for self-assessment.

    Offers state-of-the-art information and fresh perspectives from new and award-winning authors in such areas as disorders of growth, multiple endocrine tumors, and puberty and its disorders in girls and boys.

    Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

    Table Of Contents:

    SECTION I Principles and Methods of Pediatric Endocrinology, 1

    1. Overview and Principles of Pediatric Endocrinology, 1
    Mark A. Sperling
    2. Molecular Endocrinology, Endocrine Genetics, and Precision Medicine, 9
    Ram K. Menon, Massimo Trucco, Joseph A. Majzoub, Constantine A. Stratakis
    3. Receptor Transduction Pathways Mediating Hormone Action,   30
    Bassil Kublaoui, Michael A. Levine
    4. Endocrinology Laboratory Testing, 86
    Jon Nakamoto

    SECTION II Endocrine Disorders in the Neonate, 106

    5. Fetal-Maternal Endocrinology and Parturition, 106
    Sam Mesiano, Helen N. Jones, Heide Aungst, Tani Malhotra, Louis J. Muglia
    6. Ambiguous Genitalia, 123
    Selma Feldman Witchel, Peter A. Lee
    7. Hypoglycemia in the Newborn and Infant, 175
    Diva D. De Leon, Paul Thornton, Charles A. Stanley, Mark A. Sperling
    8. Disorders of the Thyroid in the Newborn and Infant, 202
    Johnny Deladoey, Julia Elisabeth von Oettingen, Guy Van Vliet
    9. Disorders of Mineral Metabolism: Normal Homeostasis, 220
    Allen W. Root
    10. Monogenic Diabetes Mellitus: Neonatal Diabetes and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, 279
    Siri Atma W. Greeley*, Mary K. McCauley*, Louis H. Philipson, Mark A. Sperling
    *Authors contributed equally to this chapter

    SECTION III Childhood and Adolescent Endocrinology, 299

    11. Disorders of Childhood Growth, 299
    Alexander A.L. Jorge, Adda Grimberg, Mehul T. Dattani, Jeffrey Baron
    12. Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary, 357
    Abhinash Srivatsa, Joseph A. Majzoub
    13. Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents, 395
    Scott Rivkees, Andrew J. Bauer
    14. The Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders, 425
    Walter L. Miller, Christa E. Flück, David T. Breault, Brian J. Feldman
    15. Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Hereditary Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes, 491
    Steven G. Waguespack, Lauren Fishbein
    16. Puberty in the Female and Its Disorders, 528
    Robert L. Rosenfield, David W. Cooke, Sally Radovick
    17. Turner Syndrome, 627
    Philippe Backeljauw, Steven D. Chernausek, Claus Højbjerg Gravholt, Paul Kruszka
    18. Puberty and Its Disorders in the Male, 661
    Mark R. Palmert, Yee-Ming Chan, Leo Dunkel
    19. Care of Transgender/Gender Nonconforming Youth, 695
    Stephen M. Rosenthal, Amy B. Wisniewski
    20. Disorders of Mineral Metabolism II. Abnormalities of Mineral Homeostasis in the Newborn, Infant, Child, and Adolescent, 705
    Allen W. Root, Michael A. Levine
    21. Diabetes Mellitus, 814
    Mark A. Sperling, Joseph I. Wolfsdorf, Ram K. Menon, William V. Tamborlane, David Maahs, Tadej Battelino, Moshe Phillip
    22. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes, 884
    Bimota Nambam, Michael J. Haller, William E. Winter, Desmond Schatz
    23. Hypoglycemia in the Toddler and Child, 904
    Joseph I. Wolfsdorf, Charles A. Stanley
    24. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Disorders of Energy Balance, 939
    Joan C. Han, Ram Weiss
    25. Lipid Disorders in Children and Adolescents, 1004
    Stephen R. Daniels, Sarah C. Couch

    Index, 1022

    Interactive questions for self-assessment can be found in the e-book; see inside front cover for details.

     

     

  • 69000lei 600.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The revised and updated third edition of the essential guide to the diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot

    The revised third edition of the Atlas of the Diabetic Foot is an updated guide to the information needed for the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot problems with the aim of reducing amputations. In addition to offering the theoretical knowledge, the book is filled with more than 500 color photos from real-life cases. The cases explore a wide-variety of foot issues and the text includes information about differential diagnosis and treatment. The authors—noted experts in the field—describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and classification of diabetic foot ulcers. In addition, the book highlights the diagnosis of the main risk factors for the diabetic foot, namely diabetic neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease and the anatomic deformities of the lower extremities.

    The updated third edition, include 5 videos that clearly demonstrate the methods of examination for diabetic neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. The text includes methods of callus removal and debridement as well as offloading. In addition, it contains information on how a total contact cast is constructed. This essential resource:

    ·         Contains a full color presentation of diabetic foot cases

    ·         Explains the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot problems in a revised and updated edition

    ·         Includes a larger format that allows for a better quality images

    ·         Offers a companion website with high-resolution digital files of photographs of the case studies presented

    ·         Presents a multidisciplinary approach appropriate for a wide audience foot and diabetic professionals

    Written for diabetes specialists, endocrinologists and diabetic nurse specialists, podiatrists and podiatry nurse specialists, Atlas of the Diabetic Foot offers the information needed to help with the prevention, diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Preface to the Third Edition vii

    Preface to the Second Edition ix

    Preface to the First Edition xi

    Acknowledgements xiii

    About the Companion Website xv

    1 Introduction 1

    2 Diabetic Neuropathy 11

    3 Anatomic Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulceration 23

    4 Other Foot-Related Risk Factors 49

    5 Skin and Systemic Diseases with Manifestations in the Feet 63

    6 Neuropathic Ulcers 75

    7 Peripheral Vascular Disease 91

    8 Ischemic and Neuro-Ischemic Ulcers and Gangrene 107

    9 Heel Ulcers 135

    10 Charcot Foot 147

    11 Infections 169

    12 Methods of Prevention 197

    13 Methods of Ulcer Healing 205

    14 Amputations 229

    Appendix 237

    Index 239

     

  • 68700lei 615.00 lei

     

    Description

    The clinical laboratory plays a critical role in the diagnosis and management of endocrine and related metabolic disorders, which are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adults. The Handbook of Diagnostic Endocrinology, Third Edition, provides a ready reference for the evaluation, diagnosis, and monitoring of such disorders. This revision incorporates translational medicine, connecting what clinicians need to know with those in research providing a clinical context to which they can relate their molecular findings. This book solves the needs of clinicians and researchers by bringing together in one book endocrinology at the molecular and clinical levels. As the intricacies of intracellular signaling have become better understood, states of hormone resistance are now increasingly recognized. The most common endocrinopathy in westernized countries, the metabolic syndrome, results, to a large extent, from insulin resistance. The complexity of the circulating forms of various hormones are acknowledged in this revision.

    Key Features

    Each chapter focuses on the biochemical tests that are required, either in the basal state or following provocation or suppression, to assist in the diagnosis of the various disorders

    Describes proper sample collection and relevant interpretations of laboratory tests

    Contains essential molecular biology and incorporates it with the clinical information

    Includes the discovery of new diagnostic and treatment methods

    Readership

    Clinical chemists, chemical pathologists, endocrinologists, and senior medical technologists to aid them in the investigation of endocrine and metabolic disorders

    Table of Contents

    Maximizing the value of laboratory tests
    Raffick A.R. Bowen, Roger L. Bertholf and Brett Holmquist
    2. Laboratory investigation of disorders of the pituitary gland
    Verena Gounden, Charlotte C. Ellberg and Ishwarlal Jialal
    3. Thyroid disease and laboratory assessment
    Sridevi Devaraj and Emily Garnett
    4. Disorders of the adrenal gland
    Roger L. Bertholf
    5. Endocrine disorders of the reproductive system
    Angela M. Ferguson and Mark A. Cervinski
    6. Gastroenteropancreatic tumors
    Neeraj Ramarishnan, Seong Hyun Ahn and Ishwarlal Jialal
    7. Evaluation of hypoglycemia
    William E. Winter and Neil S. Harris
    8. Evaluation of hyperglycemia
    William E. Winter, David L. Pittman, Sridevi Devaraj, Danni Li and Neil S. Harris
    9. Lipoproteins
    Anna Wolska and Alan T. Remaley
    10. Disorders of calcium metabolism
    William E. Winter and Neil S. Harris
    11. Laboratory evaluation of endocrine hypertension
    William E. Winter and Neil S. Harris
    12. Malignancy-associated endocrine disorders
    Lori J. Sokoll and Daniel W. Chan
    13. Laboratory assessment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome endocrinopathies
    Verena Gounden and Manisha Chandalia
    14. Laboratory evaluation of short stature in children
    William E. Winter
    15. Pregnancy and the fetus
    K. Aaron Geno, Mark A. Cervinski and Robert D. Nerenz
    16. Disorders of sexual development
    William E. Winter, Paul Hiers and Dina N. Greene
    17. Transgender endocrinology
    Dina N. Greene, Tamar Reisman and Zil Goldstein
    18. The endocrinology of aging
    Daniel T. Holmes and Gregory Kline

     

  • Childhood Obesity
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    86600lei 695.00 lei

     Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and continues to increase in prevalence in almost all countries in which it has been studied, including developed and developing countries around the globe. The causes of obesity are complex and multi-factorial. Childhood obesity becomes a life-long problem in most cases and is associated with long term chronic disease risk for a variety of diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as psychosocial as issues and obesity seems to affect almost every organ system in the body. 

    In recent years there has been tremendous progress in the understanding of this problem and in strategies for prevention and treatment in the pediatric years. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Intervention Approaches presents current reviews on the complex problem of obesity from the multi-level causes throughout early life before adulthood and the implications for this for long-term disease risk. It reviews numerous types of strategies that have been used to address this issue from conventional clinical management to global policy strategies attempting to modify the global landscape of food, nutrition, and physical activity. Each chapter is written by a global authority in his or her respective field with a focus on reviewing the current status and recent developments.

    The book features information on contributing factors to obesity, including developmental origins, social/family, birth cohort studies, influence of ethnicity, and global perspectives. It takes a life-course approach to the subject matter and includes exhaustive treatment of contributing factors to childhood obesity, such as assessment, environmental factors, nutrition and dietary factors, host factors, interventions and treatment, consequences, and further action for future prevention. This broad range of topics relevant to the rapidly changing field of childhood obesity is suitable for students, health care professionals, physicians, 

  • 86600lei 695.00 lei

     At the dawn of precision medicine, there is a new opportunity for novel approaches to understand, diagnose and treat endometrial disorders that affect fertility, reproductive outcomes, and women’s health more broadly. Herein, the editors have assembled critically evaluated state-of-the-art chapters presenting basic and clinical knowledge about the human endometrium that impacts or will impact clinical practice. All clinicians and researchers in Reproductive Medicine will find this book useful as a reference and a valuable tool for continued advancement in the understanding and management of the "endometrial factor".

  • 86600lei 695.00 lei

     The Third Edition of Medical Management of Thyroid Disease provides the most up-to-date practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of common and uncommon thyroid diseases. It reflects the advancement in guidelines and research for thyroid cancer, nodules and hypothyroidism; all presented in an accessible format with more illustrations and algorithms for management. The contributions of internationally renowned endocrinologists present the clinical aspects from the world’s perspective.

    Key Features

    • Completely revised and updated

    • Reorganized with more algorithms for quick reference and enhanced usability

    • Edited by internationally renowned physicians in the field

    • Authoritative, comprehensive and yet easily digestible

  • 82600lei 715.00 lei

    The acclaimed clinical guide to managing both pediatric endocrine disorders and inborn errors of metabolism

    No other text so skillfully blends the disciplines of endocrinology and inborn metabolic disorders into one clinically focused, highly visual resource as Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

    In this practical, user-friendly tutorial, a team of international contributors delivers the latest information and clinical insights clinicians need to confidently diagnose and manage pediatric patients. This full-color resource guides readers through the etiology, pathophysiology, presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic laboratory examinations, and treatments regimens of each disorder. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism successfully balances authority and comprehensiveness with a strong clinical, practical approach that delivers an unmatched integrated discussion of the fields.

    • Full-color presentation with numerous photos, illustrations, diagnostic algorithms, tables, and text boxes that summarize key concepts and assist in the decision-making process

    • At-a-Glance feature beginning each disease-based chapter summarizes all the clinical information you need to differentiate between disorder sub-types in one easy-to-find place 

    • Complete and detailed information on all laboratory and radiographic testing used to diagnose disorders in both disciplines

  • 92400lei 740.00 lei

    Features:
    • Provides a cutting-edge, problem-orientated approach to the management of clinical problems in endocrinology
    • Presents complete updates of existing chapters and new research data, diagnostic techniques, treatment options, and safety concerns
    • Discusses neuroendocrine disease and examines strides made by the identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor–interacting protein mutations
    • Reviews changes in diagnostic imaging
    • Explores the rapidly increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors and their management
    • Reviews the endocrinology of aging
    • Includes protocols for pituitary function testing

    Summary:
    Endocrinology is a complex specialty that spans a wide range of diseases, disorders, and conditions. The field is now moving toward an increasingly personalized approach to patient management, with a greater focus on mechanisms of disease and biomarkers. Written by internationally renowned specialists, the second edition of Endocrinology in Clinical Practice provides a cutting-edge, problem-orientated approach to the management of clinical problems in endocrinology.
    Highlights of the new edition include:
    • An overview of neuroendocrine disease
    • Strides made by the identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor–interacting protein mutations in patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas
    • The diverse roles of IGF-I
    • Changes in diagnostic imaging and the increasing use of positron emission tomography
    • The rapidly increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors and their management
    • Hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism and multiple endocrine neoplasia
    • Mechanistic and genomic advances related to disorders of calcium regulation and infertility
    • The endocrinology of aging
    • Protocols for pituitary function testing With complete updates to existing chapters, the second edition also presents new research data, diagnostic techniques, treatment options, and safety concerns related to existing therapies. This edition offers current guidance and scientifically focused information relevant to a range of clinical problems, making it an essential reference for practicing endocrinologists and specialist clinicians.

  • 90000lei 800.00 lei

     The Essential Guide to Recognizing and Treating Acute Endocrine and Metabolic Illness

    Endocrinology covers some of the most common conditions and serious public health challenges facing medicine today, and endocrine and metabolic emergencies constitute a large proportion of the clinical workload. Endocrine and Metabolic Medical Emergencies: A Clinician’s Guide provides a singular reference to help endocrinologists, acute and general medicine clinicians, hospitalists and critical care physicians, and general practitioners recognize the symptoms of endocrine emergencies and provide the highest standards of care. Already the definitive and most comprehensive guide to endocrine emergency care, this new second edition: provides acute care guidance for a range of both common and unusual endocrine emergencies; details the effects of acute medical and critical illness on metabolic and endocrine systems, and their impacts on endocrine investigations; discusses special patient populations, including the impacts of aging, pregnancy, transplantation, late-effects, perioperative, inherited metabolic disorders and HIV/AIDS on presentation and management; and features detailed coverage of disorders by system, as well as, metabolic bone diseases, neuroendocrine tumors, and more.

    Packed with case studies, images, and chapters written by distinguished authors, this guide is designed for both quick reference and study. Coverage includes the presentation, diagnosis, management, and treatment of endocrine and metabolic disorders in an acute care setting, as well as the most up-to-date guidance on issues including clinical lipidology, glucose, sodium, calcium and phosphate, and more.

    Blending the latest science with clinical and practical advice, this invaluable resource helps clinicians stay up to date with the field’s relevant body of knowledge while providing the practical, clinical insight they need in order to provide their patients with the utmost level of care.

  • Microvascular Disease in Diabetes
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    87000lei 800.00 lei

     

    Presents comprehensive coverage of the many microvascular complications of diabetes

    Diabetes remains one of the main causes, in the western world, of legal blindness, end stage renal disease, and amputation, despite the implementation of tight glycemic control and the great progress in the management and care of our patients. This book provides a useful and handy tool to professionals and students in the field of diabetes and its microvascular complications by integrating information from clinical settings as well as from the frontlines of diabetic research. It provides readers with up-to-date diagnostic criteria, classifications, and therapeutic approaches. and recent discoveries on mechanisms of disease, experimental therapeutic agents, and biomarkers of disease. 

    Written by top experts in the field, Microvascular Disease in Diabetes offers in-depth chapters covering pathophysiology; the genetics of diabetic microvascular disease; and the epigenetics of diabetic microvascular disease. It then provides sections featuring both clinical and research information on diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic foot. It also looks at coronary microvascular dysfunction and cerebral microvascular disease.

    ·         Integrates new and accessible material on diabetic microvascular comorbidities

    ·         Covers all relevant microvascular systems

    ·         Provides a much-needed resource synthesizing research and clinical applications to treating microvascular complications of diabetes

    ·         Presents current diagnostic criteria, classifications, and therapeutic approaches, as well as recent discoveries on the mechanisms of disease, experimental therapeutic agents, and biomarkers of disease

    Assembled in an easily consultable manner, Microvascular Disease in Diabetes is an excellent text for investigators, clinicians, and students looking to improve their understanding of diabetic complications.

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    FRANCESCO TECILAZICH, MD, PhD, is a physician and scientist in the Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases department of the Ospedale San Raffaele—Vita Salute San Raffaele University in Milan, Italy.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Foreword to: Microvascular Disease in Diabetes xv

    Editor Biography xvii

    List of Contributors xix

    1 Introduction 1
    Andrea Giustina and Stefano Frara

    References 3

    2 Pathophysiology 5
    Francesco Tecilazich

    Introduction 5

    Anatomo-Physiology of Microvessels 5

    Regulation of Microvascular Tone 6

    Endothelial-Dependent Vasodilation 6

    Endothelial-Independent Vasodilation 6

    Nerve Axon Reflex (NARV) 7

    Myogenic Response 7

    Functional Hyperemia 7

    Venoarteriolar Response (VAR) 8

    Structural Changes in the Microcirculation 8

    Functional Changes in the Microcirculation 8

    Endothelial Dysfunction 8

    VSMC Dysfunction 9

    NARV Impairment 9

    Defective Myogenic Response 10

    Reduced Functional Hyperemia 10

    Endothelial Dysfunction 11

    Role of the Immune System and Leukostasis 11

    Role of Hyperglycemia 12

    AGEs 12

    Polyol Pathway 12

    Oxidative Stress 13

    PKC 13

    Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β 14

    Hexosamine Pathway 14

    PARP 14

    ET-1 14

    Vasoconstrictor Prostanoid Synthesis 15

    Role of Insulin Resistance 15

    Role of Inflammation 15

    References 16

    3 Genetics of Diabetic Microvascular Disease 23
    Niina Sandholm and Carol Forsblom

    Introduction 23

    Genetics of DKD 23

    Heritability of DKD 23

    Candidate Genes for DKD 24

    Linkage Studies for DKD 25

    Genome-Wide Association Studies on DKD 25

    Sequencing Efforts for DKD 29

    Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy 30

    Heritability of Diabetic Retinopathy 30

    Candidate Genes for Diabetic Retinopathy 30

    Linkage Studies for Diabetic Retinopathy 31

    GWAS on Diabetic Retinopathy 31

    Sequencing Efforts for Diabetic Retinopathy 33

    Genetics of Diabetic Neuropathy 33

    Heritability of Diabetic Neuropathy 33

    Candidate Genes for Diabetic Neuropathy 33

    GWASs on Diabetic Neuropathy 34

    Future Directions 34

    Larger Studies are Needed 34

    How to Define the Phenotype? 35

    Variability in the Phenotypic Definitions 35

    Criteria for Controls 36

    Do Genetics of Microvascular Complications in T1D and T2D Differ? 36

    Low-Frequency and Rare Variants May Affect Diabetic Complications 36

    Sequencing of Rare and Low-Frequency Variants 36

    Linkage Analysis with GWAS Data 37

    Genetics May Reveal Biology and Infer Causality 37

    Conclusions 37

    References 37

    4 Epigenetics of Diabetic Microvascular Disease 45
    Luciano Pirola

    Diabetic Complications Include Microvascular and Macrovascular Injury 45

    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study in Type 1 Diabetic Patients, and the UKPDS Study in Type 2 Diabetic Patients, Support the Existence of the Hyperglycemic Memory Phenomenon 46

    DCCT/EDIC Study 46

    The UKPDS Study 46

    Models of Hyperglycemic Memory 47

    Animal Models 47

    Cell Culture Models 48

    The “Epigenetic Code” 48

    DNA Methylation 49

    Histone Methylation in Models of Hyperglycemic Variability 49

    Epigenetic Changes in Microvascular Models of Glycemic Memory 50

    MiRNAs Contribute to the Control of Glucose Homeostasis and are Dysregulated in Diabetes 52

    Future Prospects 52

    References 54

    5 Diabetic Retinopathy – Clinical 59
    Francesco Bandello, Rosangela Lattanzio, Alessandro Marchese, and Emanuela Aragona

    Introduction 59

    Epidemiology 60

    Screening 60

    Risk Factors 61

    Clinical Patterns 61

    Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) 61

    Clinical Findings 62

    Diagnostic Tools 64

    Treatment Strategies 65

    Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) 65

    Clinical Findings 65

    Diagnostic Tools 67

    Treatment Strategies 67

    Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) 69

    Classification 70

    Clinical Findings 71

    Diagnostic Tools 71

    Treatment Strategies 71

    Conclusions 73

    References 74

    6 Diabetic Retinopathy – Research 79
    Gopalan Gnanaguru

    Retina and Induction of Hyperglycemia 79

    Hyperglycemia and Retinal Microvasculature 80

    Hyperglycemia and Reactive Gliosis 80

    Hyperglycemia and Neurodegeneration 81

    Hyperglycemia and Inflammation 81

    References 82

    7 Diabetic Nephropathy – Clinical 85
    Gianpaolo Zerbini

    Epidemiology 85

    Natural History 86

    Stages of DN 86

    Morphologic Changes 87

    Pathophysiology 88

    Clinical Course 89

    Treatment 90

    Primary Prevention 90

    Secondary Prevention 91

    Tertiary Prevention 91

    Perspectives 91

    References 92

    8 Diabetic Nephropathy – Research 97
    Silvia Maestroni and Gianpaolo Zerbini

    Essential Hypertension and DN 97

    Role of Genetics in the Pathogenesis of DN 99

    Polyol Pathway and Non-Enzymatic Glycation 100

    Environment 100

    Perspectives 101

    Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) and DN 101

    B7-1 and DN 101

    Animal Models 102

    DN in Induced Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) 102

    DN in Spontaneous Model of T1DM 103

    Ins2Akita Mice 103

    Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mice 104

    OVE26 Friend leukemia virus B (FVB) Mice 104

    DN in Spontaneous Models of T2DM 105

    db/db Mice 105

    References 105

    9 Diabetic Neuropathy – Clinical 111
    Christopher H. Gibbons

    Introduction 111

    Classification of Diabetic Neuropathies 111

    Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy (DSPN) 112

    Diagnosis 113

    Management 113

    Small Fiber Neuropathy 114

    Diagnosis 115

    Management 115

    Autonomic Neuropathy 116

    Diagnosis 117

    Management 117

    Treatment-Induced Neuropathy of Diabetes (TIND) 119

    Diagnosis 119

    Management 120

    Diabetic Radiculoplexopathy 120

    Diagnosis 120

    Management 121

    Mononeuropathies 121

    Diagnosis 121

    Management 121

    Cranial Neuropathies 121

    Diagnosis 121

    Management 122

    Screening for Neuropathy 122

    Summary of Management of Diabetic Neuropathy 122

    References 123

    10 Diabetic Neuropathy – Research 129
    Krish Chandrasekaran, Lindsay A. Zilliox, and James W. Russell

    Basic and Translational Research in Diabetic Neuropathy 129

    Animal Models of Diabetic Neuropathy 129

    Basic Pathophysiology of Diabetic Neuropathy 131

    Changes in Redox Potential 131

    Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Neuropathy 133

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Neuropathy 137

    Advanced Glycation End Products 137

    Modifying Molecular Chaperones 138

    Inflammation and Neuropathy 138

    TGF-β and Neuropathy 138

    Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs) and Oxidative Injury 139

    Growth Factors and Diabetes 139

    Clinical Research in Diabetic Neuropathy 140

    Treatment of Hypertension 141

    Improved Glycemic Control 141

    Diet and Lifestyle Interventions 142

    Alpha-Lipoic Acid 144

    Benfotiamine and Neuropathy 145

    Treatment of Neuropathic Pain 145

    Acknowledgments 146

    References 147

    11 Diabetic Foot – Clinical 157
    Cristian Nicoletti

    Introduction and Size of the Problem 157

    Pathogenesis of Diabetic Foot Complications 158

    Neuropathy 158

    Peripheral Vascular Disease 158

    Other Risk Factors 159

    Prevention 159

    Treatment 160

    Treatment of Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Offloading 160

    Treatment of PAD: Revascularization 161

    Diabetic Foot Infections (DFIs) 163

    Introduction 163

    Diagnosis 163

    Treatment 164

    Wound Healing 166

    Debridement 166

    Dressings 167

    Topical Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) 167

    Other Topical Treatments 167

    References 167

    12 Diabetic Foot – Research 173
    Georgios Theocharidis and Aristidis Veves

    Introduction 173

    Anatomy of the Skin and Microcirculation 174

    Structural Changes in the Microcirculation 174

    Functional Changes in the Microcirculation 175

    Functional Changes in the Diabetic Foot 176

    Vasodilation 176

    Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation 177

    Endothelium-Independent Vasodilation 178

    Nerve Axon Reflex 179

    Mechanisms of Endothelial Dysfunction 180

    Endothelial Dysfunction and Hyperglycemia 180

    Endothelial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance 182

    Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation 183

    Pathophysiology of Diabetic Wound Healing 184

    Hyperglycemia 184

    Chronic Inflammation 184

    Impaired Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis 186

    Hypoxia 186

    Impaired Neuropeptide Signaling 186

    Adjunctive Treatment Options 186

    Bioengineered Skin Substitutes 187

    Growth Factors 187

    Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy 188

    Negative Pressure Wound Therapy 188

    Electrical Stimulation and Shockwave Therapy 189

    Future Therapeutic Perspectives 189

    Gene Therapies 189

    Stem Cell Therapies 189

    Norleu3-Angiotensin-(1–7) 190

    Neuropeptides 190

    Cytokine Inhibition 190

    Conclusion 191

    References 191

    13 Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Diabetes – Clinical and Research 201
    Guglielmo Gallone, Francesco Moroni, and Marco Magnoni

    Introduction 201

    Clinical Classification and Mechanisms of CMD 202

    CMD in Diabetic Patients 203

    Clinical Assessment of CMD 205

    Non-Invasive Imaging Technique for the Assessment of CMD 205

    Transthoracic Doppler Evaluation 205

    Contrast Echocardiography 206

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Imaging 206

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 207

    Invasive Techniques for the Evaluation of CBF 207

    Indicator Dilution-Based Methods 207

    Thermodilution 208

    Gas Wash Out Method 208

    Intracoronary Doppler Flow Wire 208

    Treatment for CMD 210

    The Effects of Glucose-Lowering Drugs on CMD 211

    Future Perspectives for the Treatment of CMD in Diabetes 211

    References 212

    14 Cerebral Microvascular Disease in Diabetes – Clinical and Research 221
    Eelco van Duinkerken and Richard G. IJzerman

    Introduction 221

    Postmortem Studies of the Brain in Diabetes 222

    Cerebral Small Vessel Disease on MRI 223

    MRI-Measured Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Type 1 Diabetic Patients 224

    White Matter Hyperintensities 224

    Cerebral Microbleeds 226

    Summary 226

    Type 2 Diabetes and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease 227

    Lacunar Infarcts 227

    White Matter Hyperintensities 228

    Cerebral Microbleeds 230

    Synthesis 230

    Clinical Impact of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Diabetes 231

    Cognitive Functioning 231

    Stroke 233

    Dementia 234

    The Influence of Microvascular Disease on the Structure and Functioning of the Diabetic Brain 235

    Type 1 Diabetes 236

    Type 2 Diabetes 237

    Conclusions and Future Directions 239

    References 240

    Index 247

     

     

  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    815.00 lei

    An up-to-date reference for managing thyroid and parathyroid diseases

     A highly illustrated, detailed and didactic text on medical and surgical aspects of thyroid and parathyroid diseases. -- Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews

    The book is well illustrated...and serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the evaluation and treatment of those with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. It is well resourced and written with insight, and includes the newer surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery and robotics. -- Journal of Laryngology & Otology

    ...an excellent foundation for understanding all aspects of thyroid and parathyroid disease. -- Head & Neck

    Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases, Second Edition, has been revised and updated to reflect recent advances in the medical and surgical management of thyroid and parathyroid diseases. This new edition serves as both a comprehensive guide to patient evaluation as well as an atlas of advanced surgical techniques for managing patients needing operative intervention. Separate chapters are devoted to minimally invasive techniques and remote access/robotic thyroidectomy techniques, both of which have enjoyed increased application throughout the world.

    New in the second edition:

    ·         A section on state-of-the-art, evidence-based management of challenging parathyroid conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia and renal hyperparathyroidism

    ·         A more detailed discussion of thyroid cancer evaluation and staging

    ·         A new chapter dedicated to parathyroid cancer

    ·         Nearly 200 additional full-color illustrations

    This new edition is a valuable resource for all surgeons, endocrinologists, and residents seeking to expand their knowledge of thyroid and parathyroid diseases, as well as seasoned clinicians who want to improve patient care and incorporate the latest surgical advancements into their practice.

  • 840.00 lei

     

    • First textbook to be devoted entirely to hypoparathyroidism
    • Provides essential, up-to-date information on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoparathyroidism 
    • Covers a wide range of hypoparathyroid disorders Discusses novel replacement therapy with PTH 1-34 and 1-84 
    • Includes a chapter on surgical hypoparathyroidism

    About this book

    Hypoparathyroidism, a condition in which insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced to maintain normocalcemia is associated with a variety of acute and chronic symptoms and complications due to hypocalcemia. Replacement therapy utilizing PTH has long been awaited, and this book is new and very timely as it coincides with the  publication of results on the role of the PTH molecule in the pharmacological management of this disorder. This advance is sparking renewed interest in hypoparathyroidism, which is attributable to neck surgery in most cases and to inherited disorders in a minority.

    Hypoparathyroidism has been written by acknowledged experts in the field and provides essential, up-to-date information on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of the condition. It opens by addressing in detail the anatomy and physiology of the parathyroids and describing the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hypoparathyroidism. The full range of hypoparathyroid disorders are then discussed, including the various genetic forms, postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and other forms of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Individual chapters focus on refractory disease, the impact of the condition on bone, and the management of acute hypocalcemia. Both conventional treatment for hypoparathyroidism and the novel replacement therapy with PTH  peptides are then thoroughly examined. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is also extensively discussed, with information on the various forms, differential diagnosis, and genetic testing. This book will be of interest to all endocrinologists, and also to surgeons and internal medicine physicians.

    Table of contents (38 chapters)

     

    ·         The History: From Ivar Sandström to the Sequence of Parathyroid Hormone

    Mannstadt, Michael (et al.)

    Pages 3-10

    ·         Embryology of the Parathyroid Glands

    Manley, Nancy R.

    Pages 11-18

    ·         PTH and PTH-Related Peptides

    Isaia, Giancarlo (et al.)

    Pages 19-24

    ·         PTH Assays and Their Clinical Significance

    D’Amour, Pierre

    Pages 25-32

    ·         Control of Parathyroid Hormone Secretion by Extracellular Ca

    Brown, Edward M.

    Pages 33-48

    ·         Phosphate Control of PTH Secretion

    Messa, Piergiorgio

    Pages 49-59

    ·         Role of Magnesium in Parathyroid Physiology

    Steen, Oren (et al.)

    Pages 61-67

    ·         The PTH/Vitamin D/FGF23 Axis

    Goltzman, David (et al.)

    Pages 69-79

    ·         The PTH Receptorsome and Transduction Pathways

    Gardella, Thomas J.

    Pages 81-87

    ·         G Protein Gsα and

    Bastepe, Murat

    Pages 89-98

    ·         Parathyroid Hormone Actions on Bone and Kidney

    Pajevic, Paola Divieti (et al.)

    Pages 99-109

    ·         PTH and PTHrP: Nonclassical Targets

    Cianferotti, Luisella

    Pages 111-126

    ·         In Vitro Cellular Models of Parathyroid Cells

    Gomez, Ana Rita (et al.)

    Pages 127-135

    ·         Epidemiology of Hypoparathyroidism

    Clarke, Bart L.

    Pages 139-154

    ·         Clinical Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism

    Wheeler, Amber L. (et al.)

    Pages 155-165

    ·         Familial Isolated Hypoparathyroidism

    Hendy, Geoffrey N. (et al.)

    Pages 167-175

    ·         Autoimmune Hypoparathyroidism

    Kemp, E. Helen (et al.)

    Pages 177-188

    ·         DiGeorge Syndrome

    Tarsitano, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 189-197

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism, Deafness, and Renal Anomaly Syndrome

    Nesbit, M. Andrew

    Pages 199-213

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism, Dwarfism, Medullary Stenosis of Long Bones, and Eye Abnormalities (Kenny-Caffey Syndrome) and Hypoparathyroidism, Retardation, and Dysmorphism (Sanjad-Sakati) Syndrome

    Hershkovitz, Eli (et al.)

    Pages 215-224

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism in Mitochondrial Disorders

    Orsucci, Daniele (et al.)

    Pages 225-230

    ·         Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism

    Tonelli, Francesco (et al.)

    Pages 231-247

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism During Pregnancy, Lactation, and Fetal/Neonatal Development

    Kovacs, Christopher S.

    Pages 249-269

    ·         Rare Causes of Acquired Hypoparathyroidism

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    Pages 271-278

    ·         Refractory Hypoparathyroidism

    Masi, Laura

    Pages 279-286

    ·         Bone Histomorphometry in Hypoparathyroidism

    Dempster, David W.

    Pages 287-296

    ·         Management of Acute Hypocalcemia

    Cooper, Mark Stuart (et al.)

    Pages 297-301

    ·         Conventional Treatment of Chronic Hypoparathyroidism

    Rejnmark, Lars

    Pages 303-312

    ·         Follow-up in Chronic Hypoparathyroidism

    Mannstadt, Michael (et al.)

    Pages 313-318

    ·         Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism with Parathyroid Hormone 1–34

    Winer, Karen K. (et al.)

    Pages 319-331

    ·         Replacement Therapy with PTH(1–84)

    Rubin, Mishaela R. (et al.)

    Pages 333-342

    ·         Classification of Pseudohypoparathyroidism and Differential Diagnosis

    Mantovani, Giovanna (et al.)

    Pages 345-354

    ·         Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a, Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy

    Weinstein, Lee S.

    Pages 355-362

    ·         Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP-Ib): PTH-Resistant Hypocalcemia and Hyperphosphatemia Due to Abnormal

    Jüppner, Harald

    Pages 363-372

    ·         Genetic Testing in Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Linglart, Agnès (et al.)

    Pages 373-388

    ·         Blomstrand’s Chondrodysplasia

    Giusti, Francesca (et al.)

    Pages 389-395

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism During Magnesium Deficiency or Excess

    Rizzoli, René

    Pages 397-403

    ·         Advocacy and Hypoparathyroidism in the Twenty-First Century

    Sanders, James E. (et al.)

    Pages 407-414

  • Osteoporosis in Older Persons
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    840.00 lei

    This new edition includes the most up-to-date information about the pathophysiology and new therapeutic alternatives for osteoporosis of advanced age. It is written by investigators (clinicians and basic scientists) in the field of aging bone research.
    It was just recently that a new syndrome, osteoporosis of advanced age, was recognized as a new entity with its own pathophysiology and potential treatments. Unfortunately, and despite the fact that hip fractures are mostly a consequence of this process, and apart from the first edition of this book, there are few publications about this subject. 
    The first edition of this book demonstrated that there is a need to understand the particular features of osteoporosis in older persons, which is the main aim of this book. The institutions where the authors are affiliated are highly recognized as the main centers in aging bone research. As an innovation, the second edition includes some aspects of muscle and bone interaction focusing of the impact of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) on the pathogenesis of falls and fractures in older persons. As in the previous edition, this book is expected to be the reference guide for geriatricians, gerontologists, and bone biologists as well as medical trainees in order to understand the mechanisms of senile osteoporosis with a practical approach to the treatment of its consequences.

  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 14th Edition
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,02000lei 855.00 lei

     

    Expertly bridging the gap between basic science and clinical informationWilliams Textbook of Endocrinology, 14th Edition, brings together an outstanding collection of world-renowned authors to provide authoritative discussions of the full spectrum of adult and pediatric endocrine system disorders. New chapters and significant revisions throughout keep you up to date with recent advances in medications, therapies, clinical trials, and more. This essential reference is a must-have resource for endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, gynecologists, internists, pediatricians, and other clinicians who need current, comprehensive coverage of this multifaceted field.

    Table Of Contents:

    Section I: HORMONES AND HORMONE ACTION
    1. Principles of Endocrinology
    2. Principles of Hormone Action
    3. Genetics of Endocrinology
    4. Laboratory Techniques for Recognition of Endocrine Disorders
    5. The Global Burden of Endocrine Disease
    6. Navigating Through Clinical Practice Guidelines in Endocrinology
    Section II: HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY
    7. Neuroendocrinology
    8. Pituitary Physiology and Diagnostic Evaluation
    9. Pituitary Masses and Tumors
    10. Posterior Pituitary
    Section III: THYROID
    11. Thyroid Physiology and Diagnostic Evaluation
    12. Hyperthyroid Disorders
    13. Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis
    14. Nontoxic Diffuse Goiter, Nodular Thyroid Disorders, and Thyroid Malignancies
    Section IV: ADRENAL CORTEX AND ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION
    15. The Adrenal Cortex
    16. Endocrine Hypertension
    Section V: SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION
    17. Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Axis
    18. Hormonal Contraception
    19. Testicular Disorders
    20. Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women
    21. Transgender Endocrinology
    Section VI: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND THE LIFE SPAN
    Section VI A: Maternal-Fetal
    22. Endocrine Changes in Pregnancy
    23. Endocrinology of Fetal Development
    Section VI B: Childhood
    24. Disorders of Sex Development
    25. Normal and Aberrant Growth in Children
    26. Physiology and Disorders of Puberty
    Section VI C: Adult
    27. Hormones and Athletic Performance
    28. Endocrinology and Aging
    Section VII: MINERAL METABOLISM
    29. Hormones and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
    30. Osteoporosis: Basic and Clinical Aspects
    31. Rickets and Osteomalacia
    32. Kidney Stones
    Section VIII: DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FAT METABOLISM
    33. Physiology of Insulin Secretion
    34. Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    35. Therapeutics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    36. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    37. Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
    38. Hypoglycemia
    39. Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Stores
    40. Obesity
    41. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
    Section IX: POLYENDOCRINE AND NEOPLASTIC DISORDERS
    42. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
    43. The Immunoendocrinopathy Syndromes
    44. Endocrinology of HIV/AIDS
    45. Neuroendocrine Tumors
    46. Endocrinology of Cancer Survivors

  • 1,00000lei 900.00 lei

    Management of Prader-Willi Syndrome brings together the contributions of professionals with considerable expertise in diagnosis and management of PWS. Clinical, social, family, and community issues are explored and management strategies identified. The text presents historical, medical, and genetic information to orient the reader. The major portion deals with pragmatic guidelines, rather than research and diagnosis, and is directed to health and educational specialists in academic, clinical, and community settings. This manual is endorsed by The Prader-Willi Syndrome Association, which is recognized world-wide.

  • 1,01100lei 900.00 lei

    The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

  • Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Surgery
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,23500lei 1100.00 lei

    This book brings together recognized experts in the field to describe their current techniques for the surgical treatment of diseased thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as neuroendocrine tumors of small bowel, pancreas, liver, and skin. For each procedure, indications, operative steps, potential pitfalls and complications, and postoperative management are presented. The clear descriptions coupled with informative and beautiful illustrations will give the reader new perspectives and insights into the anatomy and conduct of these procedures. Endocrine surgery has been an area of special interest to surgeons for well over a century, while the increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors has more recently led to greater attention to these neoplasms. Significant advances have been made in a variety of areas, the most recent being the introduction of minimally invasive methods of removing diseased glands, and the improved understanding of the natural history of neuroendocrine tumors.

  • 1,33800lei 1150.00 lei

    Description:

    Kidney Transplantation, Bioengineering, and Regeneration: Kidney Transplantation in the Regenerative Medicine Era investigates how the field of regenerative medicine is changing the traditional premises of solid organ transplantation, specifically within the field of kidney transplantation. In Section 1, chapters illustrate the state of the art in kidney transplantation as well as the research behind the bioengineering and regeneration of kidney organoids for therapeutic renal replacement.

    In Section II, chapters catalog the technologies that are being developed and the methods that are being implemented to bioengineer or regenerate kidneys in order to restore function, while critically highlighting those technological advances which hold the most promise. The book thus encompasses clinical renal transplantation, tissue engineering, biomaterial sciences, stem cell biology, and developmental biology, as they are all applied to the kidney.

    • Focuses on the synergy between renal organ transplantation and regenerative medicine, highlighting the advances within transplantation, bioengineering, regeneration, and repair
    • Educates the transplant community on important regenerative medicine research pertinent to kidney transplantation
    • Develops a shared language for clinicians, surgeons, and basic researchers to reach across the fields of transplantation and regenerative medicine, and facilitate more productive investigation and research
    • Catalogs the technologies being developed and methods being implemented to bioengineer or regenerate kidneys to restore function

     

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Part I: Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section I: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease and Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 1. Epidemiology of End-Stage Renal Failure: The Burden of Kidney Diseases to Global Health

    ·  Chapter 2. Transplant Programs Worldwide and the Spanish Miracle

    ·  Section II: Donor Selection and Allocation

    ·  Chapter 3. The Deceased Kidney Donor

    ·  Chapter 4. The Living Donor

    ·  Chapter 5. Criteria for Kidney Allocation in the United States

    ·  Chapter 6. Strategies to Increase the Donor Pool

    ·  Section III: Kidney Preservation and Transplant Procedures

    ·  Chapter 7. Kidney Preservation

    ·  Chapter 8. Ex-vivo Normothermic Perfusion in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 9. Kidney Transplant Recipient Surgery

    ·  Chapter 10. Robotic-Assisted Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 11. Orthotopic Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 12. Kidney Transplantation Combined With Other Organs

    ·  Chapter 13. Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    ·  Section IV: Kidney Recipient: Before and Peritransplant

    ·  Chapter 14. Indications for Renal Transplantation: Evaluation of Transplant Candidates

    ·  Abstract

    ·  Chapter 15. Early Postoperative ICU Care of the Kidney Transplant Recipient

    ·  Chapter 16. Approaches to Minimize Delayed Graft Function in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Section V: Transplantation Immunology and Immunomodulation

    ·  Chapter 17. Histocompatibility Testing in the Transplant Setting

    ·  Chapter 18. The Immune Response to the Allograft

    ·  Chapter 19. Induction Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 20. Maintenance Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 21. Novel Drugs in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 22. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Induction of Allograft Tolerance

    ·  Chapter 23. Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 24. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Improve Solid Organ Transplant Outcome:

    ·  Chapter 25. Renal Transplantation Across HLA and ABO Barriers

    ·  Section VI: Graft Monitoring Tools

    ·  Chapter 26. Pathology of the Renal Allograft

    ·  Chapter 27. Imaging-Based Monitoring of the Renal Graft

    ·  Chapter 28. Immune Monitoring in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 29. Renal Function Measurements

    ·  Chapter 30. Pharmacokinetics and Genomics of Immunosuppressive Drugs

    ·  Chapter 31. Gene Expression Technology Applied to Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section VII: Early Posttransplant Immune Events

    ·  Chapter 32. Acute Cellular Rejection

    ·  Chapter 33. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection

    ·  Section VIII: Early and Late Complications

    ·  Chapter 34. Vascular Complications in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 35. Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    ·  Chapter 36. Metabolic Disorders Following Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 37. Cancer After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 38. Cardiovascular Disease and Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 39. Graft and Patient Survival

    ·  Chapter 40. Urological Complications of the Renal Graft

    ·  Chapter 41. Impact of De Novo Donor-specific Alloantibody in Primary Renal Allografts

    ·  Chapter 42. De Novo and Recurrence of Renal Disease

    ·  Section X: Transplant Issues in Specific Patient Groups

    ·  Chapter 43. Kidney Transplantation in the Elderly

    ·  Chapter 44. Dual Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 45. Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient

    ·  Chapter 46. Kidney Transplantation in the Hepatitis C Infected Recipient

    ·  Chapter 47. Pregnancy After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 48. Nutrition of the Kidney Transplant Recipients

    ·  Section XI: Ethics and Costs

    ·  Chapter 49. Kidney Transplantation in Developing Countries

    ·  Chapter 50. Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 51. Costs of Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section XII: Unmet Needs

    ·  Chapter 52. Kidney Transplantation: Have the Promises Been Kept and Needs Met

    ·  Chapter 53. Innovations in Kidney Transplant Research

    ·  Part II: Kidney Bioengineering and Regeneration

    ·  Section I: Introduction

    ·  Chapter 54. Converging Organ Transplantation Towards Regenerative Medicine

    ·  Chapter 55. A Systems Engineering Approach to Restoring Kidney Structure and Function

    ·  Abstract

    ·  Section II: Kidney Development

    ·  Chapter 56. Kidney Development in the Mammal

    ·  Chapter 57. Renal Branching Morphogenesis

    ·  Section III: Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 58. Principles of Stem Cell Biology Applied to the Kidney

    ·  Chapter 59. Extracellular Matrix Biology Applied to the Kidney

    ·  Chapter 60. Interplay Between Growth Factor Receptors, Small GTPases, and Mechanical Stress in the Maintenance of Kidney Glomerular Homeostasis

    ·  Chapter 61. Bioengineering Approach to Immunomodulation

    ·  Chapter 62. Principles of Organ Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 63. Recellularization of Kidney Scaffold With Stem Cells

    ·  Section IV: Bioreactors and Biomaterials

    ·  Chapter 64. Bioreactors for Cell Culture Systems and Organ Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 65. Synthetic Biomaterial for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    ·  Chapter 66. Immune Responses to Biomaterials Used in Renal Engineering

    ·  Section V: Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 67. Regeneration of Kidney From Human Reprogrammed Stem Cells

    ·  Chapter 68. Bioprinting Complex 3D Tissue and Organs

    ·  Chapter 69. Principles of Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 70. Markers of Repair and Regeneration in the Marginal Kidney

    ·  Chapter 71. Nephron Repair in Mammals and Fish

    ·  Chapter 72. Imaging of Glomerular Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 73. Reversibility of Renal Fibrosis

    ·  Chapter 74. Pharmacological Induction of Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 75. Developmental Approaches to Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Section VI: Adult Cells for Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 76. Nephron Progenitors

    ·  Chapter 77. Urine Progenitor Cells for Potential Application in Renal Tissue Repair

    ·  Chapter 78. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Kidney Disease

    ·  Section VII: Cell Therapy For Renal Tissue Repair

    ·  Chapter 79. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Acute Renal Injury

    ·  Chapter 80. Amniotic Fluid Cells: Kidney Injury and Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 81. Renal Cells From Spermatogonial Germline Stem Cells for Protection Against Kidney Injury

    ·  Chapter 82. Kidney-on-a-Chip: Technologies for Studying Pharmacological and Therapeutic Approaches to Kidney Repair

    ·  Chapter 83. Renal Replacement Devices

    ·  Chapter 84. Xenotransplantation and Kidney Regenerative Technology

    ·  Chapter 85. Embryonic Organoid Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 86. Lineage Reprogramming Toward Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 87. Regenerating Kidney Structure and Function: An Industry Perspective

     

     

     

  • 1,30000lei 1200.00 lei

     The seventh edition of Brook's Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology has been compiled by an experienced editorial team and internationally renowned contributors; it presents basic science and clinical management of endocrine disorders for all involved in the care of children and adolescents. It provides treatments for a variety of hormonal diseases, including diabetes and hypoglycaemia, growth problems, thyroid disease and disorders of puberty, sexual differentiation, calcium metabolism, steroid metabolism and hypopituitarism.

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    MEHUL T. DATTANI, MD, FRCP, FRCPCH, is Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology at the UCL GOS Institute of Child Health and Head of Pediatric Endocrinology at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, University College London Hospitals, and Institute of Child Health. He is currently the Chair of the Programme Organising Committee of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

     

    CHARLES G.D. BROOK, MA, MD, FRCP, was the first Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology in the UK and the founder of the London Centre for Pediatric Endocrinology at Great Ormond Street Hospital and University College London Hospitals. He was the recipient of the Andrea Prader Prize in 2000, the most prestigious award for outstanding leadership and research in the gift of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

     

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Contributors xix

    Preface xxiii

    About the Companion Website xxv

    1 Genetics and Genomics 1
    Anu Bashamboo and Ken McElreavey

    Introduction 1

    Basic Concepts in Human Genetics and Genomics 1

    Classes of RNA Molecules and their Functions 4

    Gene Mutations and Inheritance 7

    Human Populations and Genetic Variation 12

    Epigenetics 14

    Advances in Genomic Analysis 15

    Establishing Variant Causality 19

    The Age of Precision Medicine 24

    Clinical Guidelines 24

    Acknowledgments 25

    Glossary of Terms 25

    Further Reading 29

    2 Measuring Hormones 31
    Gerhard Binder

    Introduction 31

    Hormone Assays 31

    Assay Validity 33

    Technical Pitfalls When Measuring Hormones 36

    Clinical Assay Validity 38

    Stimulation Tests, Suppression Tests and Profiles 42

    Optimal Clinical Use of Hormone Tests 44

    Acknowledgements 44

    References 44

    3 Fetal Endocrinology 47
    Harshini Katugampola, Evelien F. Gevers, and Mehul T. Dattani

    Introduction 48

    Transplacental Passage of Hormones 48

    Development of Fetal Endocrine Systems 50

    Neutralization of Hormone Activity in the Fetus 82

    Plasticity of Fetal Endocrine Systems 84

    Fetal Adaptations for Transition to Extrauterine Life 85

    Frontiers in Fetal and Neonatal Endocrinology 89

    References 90

    4 Disorders of Sex Development 105
    Martine Cools and Birgit Köhler

    Normal Sex Development 105

    Terminology 106

    Causes of DSD 107

    Impaired Gonadal Development 108

    Disturbances of Testicular Hormone Production or Action 113

    Virilization of an XX Individual 116

    Management of DSD 118

    Clinical Management 122

    Other Examples of XY DSD 126

    Future Perspectives 127

    References 127

    Weblinks 131

    5 Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Axis 133
    HoongWei Gan, KyriakiSandy Alatzoglou, and Mehul T. Dattani

    Introduction 133

    The HypothalamoPituitary Neuroendocrine Axis 134

    HypothalamoPituitary Development 134

    Congenital Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Development 144

    Acquired Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Dysfunction 155

    Investigation of Hypopituitarism 172

    Management of Hypopituitarism 173

    Conclusion 174

    References 174

    6 Disorders of Growth 199
    P.G. Murray and P.E. Clayton

    Normal Growth 200

    Short Stature 205

    Acquired GH Deficiency 211

    Disorders of GH Action and GH Sensitivity (Primary IGFI Deficiency) 213

    Growth Disorders not Related to the GHIGF Axis 216

    Syndromes Associated with Short Stature 219

    Idiopathic Short Stature 225

    Skeletal Dysplasias 227

    Tall Stature 229

    References 233

    7 Puberty and Its Disorders 235
    Sasha R. Howard, Nicolas de Roux, Juliane Leger, JeanClaude Carel, and Leo Dunkel

    Normal Puberty 235

    Precocious Puberty 256

    Delayed Puberty 265

    Conclusions 283

    References 284

    8 The Thyroid Gland 289
    Catherine Peters and Nadia Schoenmakers

    Section 1: Development of the Thyroid Axis 289

    Section 2: Clinical Thyroid Disorders 301

    Section 3: Diagnostic Pitfalls 315

    References 320

    Weblinks 334

    9 The Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders 335
    Claire R. Hughes, Elim Man, and John C. Achermann

    Introduction 335

    Development, Function and Regulation of the Adrenal Gland 336

    Adrenal Insufficiency (AI) 353

    Adrenal Excess 393

    Education, Support and LongTerm Care 401

    10 The Parathyroid and Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 409
    Jeremy Allgrove and Moira Cheung

    Introduction 409

    Physiology of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 409

    Physiology of Bone Metabolism 421

    Interactions between Calciotropic Agents 425

    Fetal and Neonatal Calcium Metabolism 425

    PostNeonatal Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium Metabolism and the Calcium Cascade 426

    Clinical Conditions 426

    Drugs Used in the Treatment of Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 467

    Summary 470

    References 472

    Weblinks 479

    11 Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndromes 481
    Catherine J. Owen, Mario Abinun, Simon H.S. Pearce, and Tim D. Cheetham

    Introduction 481

    Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1 (APS1) 483

    Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 2 and Associated Disorders 494

    Other Single Gene Disorders Associated with Immune Dysregulation and Autoimmune Endocrinopathies 499

    Conclusion 502

    References 502

    12 Endocrine Neoplasia 507
    Constantine A. Stratakis and Emmanouil Saloustros

    Thyroid Neoplasia: Nodules and Cancer 507

    Paragangliomas and Phaeochromocytomas 511

    Adrenocortical Cancers 521

    Tumours of the Ovary 524

    Tumours of the Testes 528

    References 530

    13 Endocrine Late Effects of Cancer Treatments 533
    Wassim Chemaitilly and Melissa M. Hudson

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Endocrine Late Effects 538

    Diagnosis and Management of Common Endocrine Late Effects 546

    Summary 550

    References 550

    Weblinks 552

    14 Disorders of Water Balance 553
    Natascia Di Iorgi, Flavia Napoli, Giovanni Morana, and Mohamad Maghnie

    Regulation of Water Balance 554

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) 558

    Central Diabetes Insipidus and Adipsia 572

    Primary Polydipsia 572

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 573

    The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion 573

    Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus 573

    Treatment of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 574

    Treatment of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion 574

    Challenges 575

    Conclusions 575

    Clinical Guidelines 575

    References 576

    15 Diabetes Mellitus 583
    G.R. Ambler, F.J. Cameron, K. Joshi, and D.K. Wherrett

    Type 1 Diabetes 583

    Type 2 Diabetes 626

    Cystic FibrosisRelated Diabetes 637

    Monogenic Forms of Diabetes 639

    Rare Forms of Diabetes 647

    Living with Diabetes 648

    References 649

    16 Disorders Associated with Hypoglycaemia in Children 671
    Pratik Shah, Emma Footit, and Ritika Kapoor

    Introduction 671

    Physiology of Blood Glucose Control 672

    Role of Gut Hormones in Glucose Homeostasis 673

    Metabolic Adaptation to Birth 673

    Metabolic Adaptation to Feeding and Fasting 674

    The Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Role of KATP Channels 675

    Definition of Hypoglycaemia 676

    Aetiology and Clinical Approach to Hypoglycaemia 678

    Investigations for Hypoglycaemia 680

    Emergency Management of Hypoglycaemia 682

    Causes of Hypoglycaemia 682

    17 Obesity 701
    Wieland Kiess

    Introduction 701

    Definitions, Differential Diagnosis, Assessments and Measurements 701

    Aetiology of Obesity 703

    Common or Multifactorial Obesity and Fetal Programming 705

    Neurobiology of Satiety and Hunger 705

    Hedonistic Signals and Addiction 706

    Behaviour, Hypothalamus and Obesogenic Environment 707

    Biology of Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes 707

    Microbiota 708

    Endocrinology of Obesity 709

    Epigenetics 709

    Social Inheritance 709

    Sociodemographics 710

    Nutrition and Malnutrition 710

    Physical Activity 711

    Sedentary Behaviour 711

    EndocrineDisrupting Chemicals and Toxicology 711

    Media Use 712

    Cultural Aspects 712

    Evolution 712

    Epidemiology 713

    Developed Countries 713

    Developing Countries 713

    CoMorbidities and Consequences 713

    Social Participation 718

    Mortality 719

    Health Economics 720

    Treatments 720

    Microbiota 723

    Urban Living 724

    Advertising Industries 724

    Conclusions 725

    Further Reading 726

    Weblinks 728

    18 Genetic Obesity Syndromes 729
    TinhHai Collet and I. Sadaf Farooqi

    Introduction 729

    Genetic Contributors to Obesity: The Evidence 729

    Genetic Obesity Syndromes: An Overview 730

    Obesity with Developmental Delay 730

    Obesity without Development Delay 732

    Conclusions 734

    References 734

    Weblinks 736

    19 Endocrine Care During Adolescence into Young Adulthood 737
    Helena Gleeson

    Introduction 737

    Adolescence and Young Adulthood 737

    Exploratory and HealthRelated Behaviours 740

    Addressing Adherence 743

    Young People with Endocrine Conditions 744

    Conclusion 750

    References 751

    Index 757

  • 1,54800lei 1240.00 lei

     The second edition of Endocrine Surgery is a comprehensive update of the previous edition published in 2003. Edited by three leading authorities in the field of surgical endocrinology, the book encompasses the clinical, imaging, nuclear, molecular, technological and evidence-based principles that are applied in the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of endocrine tumors. Authored by experts from across the globe, this textbook reflects the best international clinical practice and also provides an outstanding educational resource.

    With full color illustrations throughout, the new edition emphasizes contemporary approaches in successive stages including: pituitary endocrine tumors; pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells; surgery of endocrine tumors of the lungs and thymus; robotic endocrine surgery; molecular testing of thyroid nodules; pediatric surgery for neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma; multiple endocrine neoplasia; retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy; radionuclide imaging of carcinoid tumors, pancreas and adrenals; serotonin-induced cardiac valvular disease and surgical treatment; multimodal management of primary and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors; pathophysiology and surgery of Type II diabetes; post-bariatric surgery hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia; and surgical management of metabolic syndrome.

    Endocrine Surgery 2e provides the clinician with a definitive resource to reach curative outcomes in the treatment of patients with endocrine pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid entities. Further coverage of broncho-pulmonary, adrenal, pancreatic, and intestinal neoplasia is also included, making this the definitive textbook on the subject.

     

    Demetrius Pertsemlidis, MD FACS The Bradley H. Jack Professor of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA

    William B. Inabnet III, MD FACS Professor of Surgery and Chief, Division of Metabolic, Endocrine and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA

    Michel Gagner, M.D. FRCSC, FACS, FASMBS

    Clinical Professor of surgery, Herbert Wertheim School of Medicine, Florida International 

  • 1,50000lei 1300.00 lei

    The International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus has been a successful, well-respected medical textbook for almost 20 years, over 3 editions. Encyclopaedic and international in scope, the textbook covers all aspects of diabetes ensuring a truly multidisciplinary and global approach. Sections covered include epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, management and complications of diabetes and public health issues worldwide. It incorporates a vast amount of new data regarding the scientific understanding and clinical management of this disease, with each new edition always reflecting the substantial advances in the field. Whereas other diabetes textbooks are primarily clinical with less focus on the basic science behind diabetes, ITDM's primary philosophy has always been to comprehensively cover the basic science of metabolism, linking this closely to the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of the disease. Edited by four world-famous diabetes specialists, the book is divided into 13 sections, each section edited by a section editor of major international prominence. As well as covering all aspects of diabetes, from epidemiology and pathophysiology to the management of the condition and the complications that arise, this fourth edition also includes two new sections on NAFLD, NASH and non-traditional associations with diabetes, and clinical trial evidence in diabetes. This fourth edition of an internationally recognised textbook will once again provide all those involved in diabetes research and development, as well as diabetes specialists with the most comprehensive scientific reference book on diabetes available.

  • Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,51800lei 1400.00 lei

     

    Through ten outstanding editions, Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text has been the go-to reference for the most comprehensive coverage of the thyroid, including anatomy, development, biochemistry, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of all thyroid disorders. Now in full color throughout, the 11th Edition of this award-winning text remains the clinician’s preferred source of authoritative information on the thyroid—an essential resource for all endocrinologists and thyroid surgeons.

    • Includes thorough updates and new content throughout the text, especially on thyroid cytopathology, thyroid imaging, and targeted therapy of thyroid cancer as well as a new full-color format.
    • Covers all aspects of the thyroid, including thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, thyroid function, and disorders such as thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and cancer.
    • Discusses surgical management of thyroid cancer, thyroid disruptors, thyroid hormone analogs, thyroid dysfunction’s effects on other organ systems, the aging thyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and thyroid disease in pregnancy.
    • Features insights from international experts, including new editor Dr. Peter Kopp of Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

    Enrich Your Ebook Reading Experience

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    Table of Contents
    :

     

    Cover

    Title Page

    Copyright

    Dedication

    Contributors

    Preface to the Eleventh Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Contents

    Section I: The Normal Thyroid

    A. History, Development, Anatomy

    Chapter 1: The heritage of the thyroid: A brief history

    GOITER, CRETINISM, AND THE THYROID GLAND

    GOITER AND IODINE

    THYROTOXICOSIS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM AND THE RECOGNITION OF THYROID FUNCTION

    THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE AND THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SCREENING AND THERAPY OF CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF CURRENT CONCEPTS OF THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND ACTION

    AUTOIMMUNE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE AND HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    THYROID CANCER

    OUTLOOK

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2: Development and anatomy of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

    THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY AXIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANOGENESIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PITUITARY ORGANOGENESIS

    THE THYROID GLAND

    THYROID BUD FORMATION

    THYROID MIGRATION

    THYROID FOLLICULOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIATED THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    HISTOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

    THYROID TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    OTHER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS INVOLVED IN THYROID DEVELOPMENT

    IN VITRO GENERATION OF THYROID CELLS FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    MODELING THYROID BY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS OVEREXPRESSION

    MODELING THYROID BY CHEMICAL PATHWAYS MANIPULATIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    B. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion

    Chapter 3: Thyroid hormone synthesis: Thyroid iodide transport

    IDENTIFICATION BY FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF THE CDNA ENCODING RAT NIS

    THE NIS MOLECULE

    ISOLATION OF THE CDNA ENCODING HUMAN NIS (hNIS) AND ELUCIDATION OF THE GENOMIC ORGANIZATION OF hNIS

    NIS IN EXTRATHYROIDAL TISSUES

    NIS MECHANISM AND STOICHIOMETRY

    SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY OF NIS

    NIS TRANSPORTS THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT ClO4− WITH A 1 Na+:1 ClO4− STOICHIOMETRY

    IODIDE TRANSPORT DEFECT, A CONGENITAL CONDITION CAUSED BY MUTATIONS IN THE NIS (SLC5A5) GENE

    NIS KO MICE, A USEFUL MODEL FOR STUDYING MULTIPLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    REGULATION OF NIS TRANSCRIPTION

    REGULATION OF NIS IN THE THYROID BY TSH

    REGULATION OF NIS BY I−

    REGULATION OF NIS BY A K+ CHANNEL

    NIS IN THYROID CANCER

    I− EFFLUX

    NIS IN BREAST CANCER

    IMPACT OF NIS ON PUBLIC HEALTH

    NIS GENE TRANSFER

    CONCLUDING REMARKS AND AVENUES FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4: Thyroid hormone synthesis

    IODIDE UPTAKE INTO THE THYROID

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    REGULATION OF IODIDE UPTAKE AND SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER FUNCTION AND EXPRESSION

    MUTATIONS IN THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER GENE

    IODIDE EFFLUX FROM THE THYROID

    PENDRED SYNDROME AND PENDRIN (PDS/SLC26A4)

    PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF PENDRIN

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF PENDRIN

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PENDRIN

    GOITER AND THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN PENDRED SYNDROME

    ANOCTAMIN

    SLC26A7

    THYROGLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE AND PROTEIN

    MUTATIONS IN THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE

    THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    MUTATIONS IN THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE–GENERATING SYSTEM

    CLONING OF THE DUAL OXIDASE AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTOR GENES

    THE PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    MECHANISM OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    REGULATION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ACTIVITY

    GENETIC DEFECTS IN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    IODINATION AND THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    OXIDATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE TO COMPOUND I AND COMPOUND II

    OXIDATION OF IODIDE

    IODINATION AND COUPLING OF TYROSYL RESIDUES

    INHIBITION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE BY THIONAMIDE DRUGS

    CELLULAR UPTAKE AND PROTEOLYSIS OF THYROGLOBULIN

    SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES

    DEHALOGENATION OF MONOIODOTYROSINE AND DIIODOTYROSINE

    IODOTYROSINE (IYD/DEHAL1) DEIODINASE GENE AND PROTEIN

    DEHALOGENASE DEFICIENCY

    REFERENCES

    C. Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Binding and Metabolism

    Chapter 5: Thyroid hormone transport proteins

    EVOLUTIONARY CONSIDERATIONS

    FUNCTIONS OF THBPs

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    THYROID-BINDING GLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TBG IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN SERPINA7 GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TBG CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    TRANSTHYRETIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TTR IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN TTR GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TTR CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    DYSTRANSTHYRETINEMIC HYPERTHYROXINEMIA

    ALBUMIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    HUMAN ALB GENE VARIANTS AFFECTING ALB CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    p.Arg242His

    OTHER SEQUENCE VARIANTS AT Arg242

    p.Arg246Ile

    T3 VARIANTS OF FDH

    MINOR CARRIERS

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THBPs

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6: Intracellular pathways of iodothyronine metabolism/implications of deiodination for thyroid hormone action

    STRUCTURE OF THE DEIODINASES

    TOPOLOGY AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS OF DEIODINASES AND MECHANISM OF DEIODINATION

    SPECIFIC PROPERTIES OF THE DEIODINASES

    TYPE 1 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 2 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 3 DEIODINASE

    NONDEIODINATIVE METABOLISM OF IODOTHYRONINES

    PHYSIOLOGIC ROLES OF THE SELENODEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES AND THE REGULATION OF T3 PRODUCTION

    ADAPTATION TO HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INTRACELLULAR TRIIODOTHYRONINE HOMEOSTASIS

    DEIODINASES AND REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN SECRETION

    DEIODINASES AND THE BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONE

    DEIODINASES AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    DEIODINASES AND THE SKELETON

    DEIODINASES AND METABOLISM

    DEVELOPMENTAL ROLES OF THE DEIODINASES

    MATERNAL–FETAL PHYSIOLOGY

    TRIIODOTHYRONINE MODULATION OF PLACENTAL THYROID HORMONE TRANSFER

    D3 EXPRESSION AND THE REQUIREMENT FOR THYROXINE IN NORMAL PREGNANCY

    THE DEIODINASES IN HUMAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DEIODINASES IN CANCER

    HYPERTHYROIDISM AND OVEREXPRESSION OF DEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES IN THE ISCHEMIC HEART

    DEIODINASES IN LUNG INJURY

    CONCLUSION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    D. Thyroid Hormone Action

    Chapter 7: Intracellular actions by thyroid hormones

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH DIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 1)

    THYROID HORMONE RESPONSE ELEMENTS

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION BY TRs

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COREPRESSORS/BASAL REPRESSION

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COACTIVATORS/TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATION

    NEGATIVE REGULATION BY TRs

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF TR

    RESISTANCE TO TH

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR ISOFORM KNOCKOUT AND KNOCKIN MICE

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL CASCADES

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH INDIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 2)

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITHOUT DNA BINDING (TYPE 3)

    TR-INDEPENDENT TH SIGNALING (TYPE IV)

    TH ANALOGS, DISRUPTORS, AND METABOLITES

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8: Thyroid hormone structure–function relationships

    THYROID HORMONE STRUCTURE, METABOLISM, AND ACTIVITY

    TR ACTIVATION BY NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC AGONISTS

    DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTIVE TR SUBTYPE AGONISTS

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS AT TR MUTANTS—THE ISSUE OF TH RESISTANCE

    TR ANTAGONISM

    THYROID HORMONE INTERACTIONS WITH ALTERNATE RECEPTORS AND BINDING PROTEINS

    THYRONAMINES AND ANALOGS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    E. Factors That Control Thyroid Function

    Chapter 9: Chemistry and biosynthesis of thyrotropin

    CHEMISTRY

    GENES ENCODING THE SUBUNITS OF THYROTROPIN

    CHROMOSOME LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE OF THE COMMON α-SUBUNIT GENE

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE

    CENTRAL HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE ABNORMALITIES

    PRETRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    NEGATIVE REGULATORS

    POSITIVE REGULATORS

    SUMMARY OF PRETRANSLATION REGULATION OF THE HUMAN COMMON α- AND TSH-β–SUBUNIT GENE EXPRESSION

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL PROCESSING OF THYROTROPIN

    IN VITRO TRANSLATION OF THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT AND α-SUBUNIT MESSENGER RNA

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF THYROTROPIN IN INTACT CELLS

    PROCESSING OF HIGH-MANNOSE PRECURSOR OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    TERMINAL SULFATION AND SIALYLATION OF COMPLEX OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN GLYCOSYLATION

    BIOACTIVITY AND METABOLIC CLEARANCE OF THYROTROPIN

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONFORMATION OF THYROTROPIN

    RECOMBINANT HUMAN THYROTROPIN

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10: The thyrotropin receptor

    THE STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR GENE

    RECOGNITION OF THE RECEPTOR BY THYROTROPIN

    PROPOSED MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION OF THE RECEPTOR BY TSH

    ACTIVATION BY THYROSTIMULIN

    ACTIVATION BY CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    ACTIVATION BY THYROTROPIN-RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

    ACTIVATION BY LOW–MOLECULAR-WEIGHT DRUG-LIKE CHEMICALS

    DOWNREGULATION OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11: Aging and the thyroid

    CHANGES IN THYROID ANATOMY WITH AGE

    PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THYROID FUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NODULAR DISEASE AND THYROID CANCER

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12: Effects of drugs on TSH secretion, thyroid hormones’ absorption, synthesis, metabolism, and action

    INTRODUCTION

    DRUGS THAT ALTER SERUM TSH LEVELS (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 1)

    DOPAMINE/DOPAMINE AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS

    SOMATOSTATIN AND SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGS

    REXINOIDS

    OTHER DRUGS THAT SUPPRESS TSH SECRETION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE THYROID HORMONE ABSORPTION

    BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS

    FERROUS SULFATE

    SUCRALFATE AND ALUMINUM-CONTAINING ANTACIDS

    CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PHOSPHATE BINDERS

    OTHER MEDICATIONS THAT MAY REDUCE T4 INTESTINAL ABSORPTION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 2)

    THIONAMIDES (ANTITHYROID DRUGS)

    IONIC INHIBITORS (PERCHLORATE, THIOCYANATE; SEE Chapter 13 ON THYROID DISRUPTORS)

    LITHIUM

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE METABOLISM OF THYROID HORMONES (FIGS. 12-1, PANEL 3 AND 12-2)

    DRUGS THAT INDUCE CYP3a (PHENYTOIN, CARBAMAZEPINE, PHENOBARBITAL, RIFAMPIN, RITONAVIR, SERTRALINE)

    DRUGS THAT INHIBIT THE DEIODINATION OF T4 AND T3

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    PROPRANOLOL AND NADOLOL

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE TRANSPORT OR ACTION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 3)

    NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (SALICYLATES, SALSALATE, FENCLOFENAC)

    FUROSEMIDE

    HEPARIN AND FATTY ACIDS

    ESTROGEN AND SELECTIVE ESTROGEN MODULATORS (SERM) (TAMOXIFEN, RALOXIFENE)

    ANDROGENS

    OTHER DRUGS ALTERING TBG LEVELS

    DRUGS ACTING AT MULTIPLE SITES TO ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    IODINATED RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST AGENTS

    PHENYTOIN

    AMIODARONE

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS

    CYTOKINES (INTERFERON, INTERLEUKIN, AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR)

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    DRUGS ALTERING THYROID FUNCTION THROUGH ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNITY

    IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION SYNDROME

    ANTI-CD52 ANTIBODY ALEMTUZUMAB

    CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13: Thyroid disruptors

    INTRODUCTION

    SUBSTANCES THAT INHIBIT THYROIDAL IODINE UPTAKE

    PERCHLORATE

    THIOCYANATE

    NITRATE

    COMPOUNDS WITH DIRECT ACTIONS ON THE THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR

    POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS

    BISPHENOL-A AND PHTHALATES

    TRICLOSAN

    COMPOUNDS THAT DISPLACE T4 FROM SERUM THYROID BINDING PROTEINS

    PCBs AND PBDEs

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT THYROPEROXIDASE ACTIVITY

    ISOFLAVONES

    COMPOUNDS THAT DECREASE T4 HALF-LIFE BY ACTIVATING HEPATIC ENZYMES

    ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES

    DIOXINS AND FURANS

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT DEIODINASE ACTIVITY

    OTHER EXPOSURES

    STYRENES

    PERFLUORINATED AND GEN X COMPOUNDS

    ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    SUNSCREENS

    LEAD

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14: Nonthyroidal illness syndrome

    INTRODUCTION

    DESCRIPTION OF NTIS

    CHANGES IN SERUM THYROID HORMONE AND THYROTROPIN CONCENTRATIONS

    CHANGES IN THYROID HORMONE KINETICS

    CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    PATHOGENESIS OF NTIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING FASTING

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING ILLNESS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    CHANGES IN SERUM IODOTHYRONINE–BINDING PROTEINS

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE TRANSPORT INTO TISSUES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE DEIODINASES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE NUCLEAR RECEPTORS

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE OF NTIS

    PROGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF NTIS

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID DISEASE IN NTIS

    TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH NTIS

    SPECIFIC TYPES OF NTIS

    CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    LIVER DISEASE

    HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15: Iodine deficiency and excess, endemic cretinism

    INTRODUCTION

    THE ECOLOGY OF IODINE

    DIETARY SOURCES, ABSORPTION, AND METABOLISM OF IODINE

    GOITROGENS

    IODINE REQUIREMENTS

    ADULTHOOD

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

    ASSESSMENT OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION

    BREAST MILK IODINE CONCENTRATION

    THYROID SIZE

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROID HORMONES

    THYROGLOBULIN

    EFFECTS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    THYROIDAL ADAPTATION TO IODINE DEFICIENCY

    EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    CRETINISM

    THE BENEFITS OF CORRECTION OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN SEVERELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN MILD TO MODERATELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    INFANCY

    CHILDHOOD

    ADULTHOOD

    THYROID CANCER

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    SALT FORTIFICATION WITH IODINE

    IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

    EFFECTS OF EXCESS IODIDE

    PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO EXCESS IODIDE

    TOLERABLE UPPER LIMITS FOR IODINE INTAKE

    MONITORING OF IODINE EXCESS IN POPULATIONS

    SOURCES OF EXCESS IODIDE

    IODINE-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM OR GOITER IN THE ABSENCE OF APPARENT UNDERLYING THYROID DISEASE

    IODINE AND THYROIDITIS

    IODINE-INDUCED THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE-INDUCED THYROID DISEASE (SEE Chapter 11)

    REFERENCES

    Section II: Assessment of Thyroid Structure and Function

    Chapter 16: Physical examination of the thyroid gland

    HISTORY

    PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    INSPECTION

    PALPATION

    FACING THE PATIENT

    STANDING BEHIND THE PATIENT

    AUSCULTATION

    PALPATING LOBES AND EVALUATING THYROID SIZE

    THYROID NODULES

    HEMIAGENESIS

    CONSISTENCY

    PAIN/TENDERNESS

    LYMPHADENOPATHY

    DISTINGUISHING BENIGN FROM MALIGNANT DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17: Laboratory measurement of thyroid-related hormones, proteins, and autoantibodies in serum

    INTRODUCTION

    NOMENCLATURE FOR SENSITIVITY AND ASSESSMENT OF ASSAYS

    FUNCTIONAL VERSUS ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY OF ASSAYS

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE

    METHODS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    TSH ISOFORMS

    INDICATIONS FOR TRH TESTING

    TSH REFERENCE INTERVALS

    THE CLINICAL UTILITY OF TSH MEASUREMENT

    TSH AND THYROID FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN PREGNANCY (SEE Chapter 66)

    HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    THYROID HORMONE MEASUREMENTS

    SERUM TOTAL THYROID HORMONE (TT4 AND TT3) ASSAY METHODOLOGY

    CLINICAL UTILITY OF TT4 AND TT3 MEASUREMENTS

    TT4 AND TT3 REFERENCE INTERVALS

    SERUM FREE THYROID HORMONE TESTS (FT4 AND FT3)

    DIRECT FT4 AND FT3 METHODS

    INDIRECT FT4 AND FT3 ESTIMATE TESTS

    SERUM-FREE THYROXINE AND FREE TRIIODOTHYRONINE INDEXES

    THYROID HORMONE–BINDING PROTEINS

    FAMILIAL DYSALBUMINEMIC AND TRANSTHYRETIN-ASSOCIATED HYPERTHYROXINEMIAS

    SERUM THYROGLOBULIN (Tg)

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM Tg METHODS

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CIRCULATING Tg CONCENTRATIONS

    ANALYTICAL AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

    THYROID-SPECIFIC AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTI–TSH RECEPTOR AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROID PEROXIDASE AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROGLOBULIN AUTOANTIBODIES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID TEST OUTCOMES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGIES

    ASSAY INTERFERENCES

    AUTOMATION OF THYROID TESTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18: Nonisotopic thyroid imaging

    INTRODUCTION

    PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY

    ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES (1)

    CONDUCTING THE EXAMINATION

    CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    GOITER

    DIFFUSE NONNEOPLASTIC THYROID DISEASES

    NODULES AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES

    COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (22)

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    INCIDENTALOMAS

    CT IN LARGE BENIGN GOITERS

    ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    CT AND PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS, LYMPHOMAS, AND METASTASIS

    CT AND FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (41)

    NORMAL THYROID TISSUE

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    THYROID INCIDENTALOMAS AND NODULE CHARACTERIZATION

    PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS: ASSESSING INVASION (48)

    FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19: Thyroid radionuclide uptake and imaging studies

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    MODALITIES

    RADIOIODINE

    UPTAKE STUDIES

    PLANAR IMAGING: HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PLANAR IMAGING: THYROID CANCER

    TOMOGRAPHY

    DOSIMETRY

    FDG PET/CT IN THYROID CANCER

    FDG PET/CT IN INCIDENTAL THYROID DISEASE

    IMAGING OF MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 20: Cytopathology of the thyroid gland

    INTRODUCTION

    SPECIMEN PREPARATIONS

    THYROID FNA CLASSIFICATION

    NONDIAGNOSTIC OR UNSATISFACTORY (CATEGORY I)

    BENIGN (CATEGORY II)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS) (CATEGORY III)

    FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM OR SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM (CATEGORY IV)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR MALIGNANCY (CATEGORY V)

    MALIGNANT (CATEGORY VI)

    CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY

    KEY CYTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF THYROID FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION DIAGNOSES

    DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS (11,15)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM/FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM (INCLUDING TUMORS WITH ONCOCYTIC FEATURES)

    MALIGNANT LESIONS

    PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND ITS VARIANTS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    ROLE OF ANCILLARY STUDIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID TUMORS IN CYTOLOGIC SPECIMENS’ IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21: Histopathology of the thyroid gland

    NORMAL THYROID

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID LESIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL VARIATIONS

    GOITER

    GRAVES DISEASE/DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER

    IATROGENIC AND RELATED HYPERPLASIAS

    AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    SILENT THYROIDITIS

    SPECIFIC INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    GRANULOMATOUS THYROIDITIS

    PALPATION THYROIDITIS

    AMIODARONE INJURY WITH THYROTOXICOSIS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (AKA RIEDEL STRUMA)

    COMBINED RIEDEL STRUMA AND FIBROSING HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    MISCELLANEOUS DISORDERS

    RADIATION EFFECTS

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    BLACK THYROID

    NEOPLASMS

    BENIGN NEOPLASMS

    ADENOMAS AND ADENOMATOUS NODULES

    MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA

    HÜRTHLE-CELL NEOPLASM/ONCOCYTIC FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF PAPILLARY AND FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA OF THYROID: CONTROVERSIES

    CLEAR CELL TUMORS

    HIGH-GRADE THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA, MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA, AND INTRATHYROIDAL THYMOMA-LIKE NEOPLASMS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    CALCITONIN NEGATIVE NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA OF THYROID

    LYMPHOMA

    SARCOMA

    CARCINOMA IN ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    METASTATIC NEOPLASMS

    REFERENCES

    Section III: Thyroid Diseases: Thyrotoxicosis

    A. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 22: Pathogenesis of Graves disease

    INTRODUCTION

    AUTOIMMUNITY

    DEFINITION OF AN AUTOANTIGEN

    THE NATURE OF T CELLS

    ANTIBODY AND T-CELL INTERACTIONS WITH ANTIGEN

    SECOND SIGNALS

    CRITERIA FOR AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    RESTRICTION VERSUS POLYCLONALITY

    THYROID IMMUNOLOGY

    INTRATHYROIDAL B CELLS

    AUTOANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN TSHR

    BIOACTIVITY OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    PREVALENCE OF TSHR ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    TSHR FUNCTION IN GRAVES DISEASE

    LESSONS FROM MONOCLONAL TSHR ANTIBODIES WITH STIMULATING ACTIVITY

    OTHER THYROID ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL LYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATE

    FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INTRATHYROIDAL T CELLS

    T-CELL SELECTION

    APOPTOSIS IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL T-CELL RECEPTOR V GENE REPERTOIRE

    REGULATORY EFFECTS OF T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE

    THE Th17 CELLS

    IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    FAILURE OF IMMUNE CELL DELETION AND/OR SUPPRESSION

    SPECIFICITY CROSSOVER (MOLECULAR MIMICRY)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS

    EPIGENETIC CHANGES

    THYROID CELL EXPRESSION OF HLA MOLECULES

    ANIMAL MODELS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    KNOWN RISK FACTORS FOR PRECIPITATING GRAVES DISEASE (TABLE 22-5)

    SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES

    INFECTION

    THYROID AUTOANTIBODIES

    THYROID TISSUE DAMAGE

    STRESS

    SEX STEROIDS

    THE X CHROMOSOME

    THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    MATERNAL MICROCHIMERISM

    IODINE

    IRRADIATION

    OVERVIEW OF THE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 23: Thyrotropin-induced thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOLOGIC AND PATHOGENIC ASPECTS

    SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

    LABORATORY AND BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES

    SERUM THYROTROPIN AND THYROID HORMONE LEVELS

    PITUITARY GLYCOPROTEIN HORMONE α-SUBUNIT

    PARAMETERS OF PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

    IMAGING STUDIES AND LOCALIZATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

    CRITERIA OF CURE AND FOLLOW-UP

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 24: Toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    NATURAL HISTORY

    MORPHOLOGY

    ETIOLOGY

    LESSONS FROM EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    FROM HYPERPLASTIC GROWTH TO NODULAR TRANSFORMATION

    TRANSFORMATION TO HOT THYROID NODULES

    TREATMENT OF AUTONOMOUS THYROID NODULES (SEE CHAPTER 32)

    SURGERY

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    COST-EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    FOLLOW-UP

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 25: Trophoblastic tumors

    INTRODUCTION

    HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    GRADATIONS OF SEVERITY

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    DIAGNOSIS

    HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM

    MUTANT THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR

    THERAPY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 26: Sporadic painless, painful subacute and acute infectious thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    DESTRUCTION-INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PAINFUL THYROID

    SPORADIC PAINLESS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    INFECTIOUS ASSOCIATION

    AUTOIMMUNE ASSOCIATION

    GENETIC ASSOCIATION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    ACUTE INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    BACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    FUNGAL INFECTIONS

    MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    SYPHILITIC INFECTIONS

    THYROIDAL INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING STUDIES

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 27: Thyrotoxicosis of extrathyroidal origin

    INTRODUCTION

    EXOGENOUS THYROID HORMONE

    CAUSES

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO METASTATIC THYROID CARCINOMA

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    STRUMA OVARII

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations

    Chapter 28: Overview of the clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREVALENCE OF CLINICAL FINDINGS

    ORGAN SYSTEM–SPECIFIC MANIFESTATIONS

    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANIFESTATIONS

    CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS

    PULMONARY MANIFESTATIONS

    GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS

    RENAL MANIFESTATIONS

    INTEGUMENTARY FINDINGS

    MUSCULOSKELETAL MANIFESTATIONS

    REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES

    HEMATOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS

    MODULATING FACTORS

    AGE

    PREGNANCY

    COMORBIDITY

    ETIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CLINICAL ASSESSMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 29: Ophthalmopathy

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    PATHOGENESIS

    RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTION

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH GO

    MANAGEMENT OF GO

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 30: The cardiovascular system in thyrotoxicosis

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THE HEART AND VASCULAR SYSTEM

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES

    HEART FAILURE

    HYPERTENSION AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    MAJOR ADVERSE CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

    ROLE OF OTHER HORMONES IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE AND IODINE CONTAINING CONTRAST AGENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 31: Thyroid hormones in intermediary metabolism, thermogenesis, and obesity

    THYROID HORMONE SIGNALING, TISSUE- AND TARGET GENE–SPECIFICITY IN RELATION TO INTERMEDIARY AND ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM

    CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    PROTEIN METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    LIPID METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ACTIVITY-RELATED ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD

    ENERGY STATUS AND THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    POTENTIAL USE OF THYROID HORMONE AS TREATMENT FOR WEIGHT LOSS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 32: The skeletal system in thyrotoxicosis

    REGULATION OF THYROID STATUS

    CONTROL OF INTRACELLULAR T3 AVAILABILITY

    MECHANISM OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    ROLE OF TSH IN BONE

    BONE REMODELING CYCLE

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD THYROTOXICOSIS

    SKELETAL EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES IN ADULTS

    POPULATION STUDIES IN NORMAL EUTHYROID INDIVIDUALS

    STUDIES OF ADULT THYROTOXICOSIS

    EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PATIENTS TREATED WITH SUPPRESSIVE DOSES OF THYROXINE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 33: Thyroid dermopathy and thyroid acropachy

    THYROID DERMOPATHY

    HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS IN THYROID DERMOPATHY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    PATHOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    OUTCOMES OF THERAPY OF THYROID DERMOPATHY

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THERAPY

    THYROID ACROPACHY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 34: Psychiatric and cognitive effects of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    COGNITIVE MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE ASPECTS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: BEHAVIORAL SYNDROMES THAT MAY MIMIC THYROTOXICOSIS

    PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS

    POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN THYROID HORMONE AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    USE OF THYROID HORMONE IN AFFECTIVE DISORDERS

    LITHIUM AND THYROID FUNCTION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 35: Thyrotoxic storm

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    PATHOGENESIS

    TREATMENT

    THERAPY TO REDUCE THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST SYSTEMIC DISTURBANCES

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST THE PERIPHERAL ACTIONS OF THYROID HORMONE

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST PRECIPITATING ILLNESS

    REFERENCES

    C. Diagnosis and Management of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 36: Diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLUES FROM ROUTINE LABORATORY TESTS

    LABORATORY TESTING FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SERUM THYROXINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM TRIIODOTHYRONINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM THYROTROPIN DETERMINATIONS

    SCREENING, CASE FINDING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 37: Treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    DRUG THERAPY OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS (Fig. 37-1)

    MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    INTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EXTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

    CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF THE ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    METHIMAZOLE

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS TAKING AN ANTITHYROID DRUG FOR GRAVES DISEASE

    REMISSIONS AND ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    THERAPY FACTORS RELATING TO REMISSION OF GRAVES DISEASE

    DISCONTINUATION OF ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    OTHER DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    INORGANIC IODIDE

    ORAL CHOLECYSTOGRAPHIC AGENTS

    β-ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST DRUGS

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    PRACTICAL THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS

    COMPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL RISKS OF RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    POSTRADIOIODINE WORSENING OF THYROID FUNCTION

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY AND GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY

    INDICATIONS FOR RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    SURGICAL THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY PATIENTS

    THYROTOXICOSIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND DURING LACTATION

    THYROTOXIC STORM

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO TOXIC ADENOMA AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    TOXIC ADENOMA

    TOXIC MULTINODULAR GOITER

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 38: Subclinical thyrotoxicosis

    ETIOLOGY

    ENDOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EXOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EVALUATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE

    PHYSIOLOGY OF SUPPRESSION OF TSH SECRETION

    CARDIOVASCULAR CONSEQUENCES

    BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM

    COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND DEMENTIA

    TREATMENT

    CHOICE OF TREATMENT MODALITY

    SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    REFERENCES

    Section IV: Thyroid Diseases: Hypothyroidism

    A. Causes of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 39: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREDISPOSITION TO CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    ANTIGEN PRESENTATION

    T-CELL RESPONSES

    B-CELL RESPONSES

    EFFECTOR MECHANISMS

    EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    CLINICAL ASPECTS

    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 40: Genetic defects causing hypothyroidism

    MONOGENIC CAUSES OF THYROID DYSGENESIS

    KEY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR MUTATIONS IN TD

    NKX2-1

    PAX8

    FOXE1

    GLIS3

    TSHR

    ADDITIONAL GENES ASSOCIATED WITH TD

    NKX2-5

    JAG1

    CDCA8 (BOREALIN)

    TUBB1

    NETRIN 1 (NTN1)

    SYNDROMES WHICH MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH CH

    GENETIC CAUSES OF DYSHORMONOGENESIS

    THYROGLOBULIN

    TPO

    DUOX2 AND DUOXA2

    IYD (PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AS DEHAL1)

    SLC5A5 (NIS)

    SLC26A4 (PENDRIN)

    SLC26A7

    EVIDENCE FOR AN UNDIAGNOSED GENETIC COMPONENT IN TD

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 41: Primary hypothyroidism due to other causes

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE (131I THERAPY)

    THYROIDECTOMY

    TREATMENT OF TOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    TREATMENT OF NONTOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    EXTERNAL RADIATION

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THERAPEUTIC PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS

    LITHIUM CARBONATE

    CYTOKINES

    AMIODARONE

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    OTHER DRUGS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO INFILTRATIVE DISORDERS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (INVASIVE FIBROUS THYROIDITIS)

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    SARCOIDOSIS

    SCLERODERMA

    HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    CYSTINOSIS

    OTHER INFILTRATIVE OR INFECTIOUS DISORDERS (SEE CHAPTER 22)

    PRIMARY THYROID LYMPHOMA

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS (SEE CHAPTER 12)

    EMBRYOLOGIC VARIANTS

    LINGUAL THYROID (SEE CHAPTER 63)

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 42: Central hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOGENESIS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CeH

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 43: Overview of the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND MORTALITY

    PULMONARY SYSTEM

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC FEATURES

    MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

    INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    KIDNEYS AND ELECTROLYTE METABOLISM

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND LIVER

    HEMATOLOGY AND HEMOSTASIS

    PITUITARY DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    ADRENAL DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 44: Hypothyroidism and the heart

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV RISK FACTORS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LIPIDS

    BLOOD PRESSURE AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    THROMBOGENESIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SPECIAL SITUATIONS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM RELATED TO THE HEART

    POSTACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    HEART FAILURE

    TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    CARDIAC SURGERY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION PROCEDURES

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 45: The skeletal system in hypothyroidism

    PHYSIOLOGIC CONTROL OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN BONE

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN BONE

    ROLE OF TSH ON SKELETAL GROWTH AND MATURATION

    SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD HYPOTHYROIDISM