pe pagina
  • 57.00 lei

    Originally published in 1935, this volume contains the text of the fifth Horsley Memorial Lecture, delivered by Sir Walter Langdon-Brown. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in medical history, particularly the history of the discovery of the endocrine system.

  • Osteoporosis
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    115.00 lei

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in the last ten years, the condition still poses major clinical challenges. Non-adherence to drug therapy is a widespread problem in patients with rheumatic diseases and osteoporosis in particular.
    Part of the Oxford Rheumatology Library, this second edition summarizes the latest developments in the management of osteoporosis and includes new chapters covering the clinical role of denosumab and orthopaedic issues in the management of fractures in patients with osteoporosis. This practical pocketbook is an essential resource for trainees and clinicians in rheumatology, endocrinology, and geriatric medicine, as well as general practitioners and paramedical staff involved in osteoporosis care.

  • FAQs In Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    13400lei 127.00 lei

    The book is in question and answer format, very easy and comfortable to read. It incorporates objective structures practical examination (OSPE) and other format on Endocrinology questions. Contents of the book have been updated as per the latest guidelines by various endocrine organizations all over the world, especially American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) guidelines, American Diabetes Association (ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, and other organizations of the world.

  • 17300lei 140.00 lei

    Osteoporosis is a common, underdiagnosed, and undertreated condition, complicated by fractures which lead to significant mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women exceeds the combined prevalence of breast cancer, stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Often called "the silent disease," it does not reveal itself with obvious symptoms until a fracture occurs. In the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, mortality is increased by almost 24% in women and is even higher in men. About half of those who sustain an osteoporotic hip fracture become so disabled that they are no longer able to resume their daily activities, and as many as 20% require long-term institutional care. Effective treatments for osteoporosis are now available if it is diagnosed and addressed in a timely manner. Unfortunately, this disease remains shockingly underdiagnosed and undertreated, even in patients who sustain low-trauma hip fractures.
    The past two decades have witnessed radical changes in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. The densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis is noninvasive, quick, and relatively simple. Tools are now available to predict the patient's probability of sustaining fractures, to identify patients who are particularly vulnerable, and to determine which patients will benefit from further investigation and treatment. Various associations have developed guidelines to help clinicians reach a diagnosis and initiate treatment. Due to better understanding of the basic pathophysiology of bone turnover, potent and relatively safe medications that significantly reduce the risk of fractures are now widely available. It is of paramount importance that this disease be diagnosed and treated as early as possible in order to take advantage of these developments and reduce the enormous socioeconomic and psychological impact of osteoporosis.
    Given the burden of osteoporotic fractures, all clinicians should have a working knowledge of e diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Clinicians should feel comfortable diagnosing and initiating treatment for the majority of patients with osteoporosis. Only complicated cases or patients who are unresponsive to treatment should be referred to specialists. The aim of this book is to distill the available information on osteoporosis into an easily comprehensible format that will serve as a practical guide for busy clinicians. Numerous boxes, tables, diagrams, and figures present the information in an accessible manner. This book will be of particular use to general practitioners, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, gynecologists, internists, geriatricians, and orthopedic surgeons.

  • Evolution of Obesity.
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    141.00 lei

    In this sweeping exploration of the relatively recent obesity epidemic, Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin probe evolutionary biology, history, physiology, and medical science to uncover the causes of our growing girth. The unexpected answer? Our own evolutionary success. For most of the past few million years, our evolutionary ancestors' survival depended on being able to consume as much as possible when food was available and to store the excess energy for periods when it was scarce. In the developed world today, high-calorie foods are readily obtainable, yet the propensity to store fat is part of our species' heritage, leaving an increasing number of the world's people vulnerable to obesity. In an environment of abundant food, we are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and behaviorally programmed in a way that makes it difficult for us to avoid gaining weight. Power and Schulkin's engagingly argued book draws on popular examples and sound science to explain our expanding waistlines and to discuss the consequences of being overweight for different demographic groups. They review the various studies of human and animal fat use and storage, including those that examine fat deposition and metabolism in men and women; chronicle cultural differences in food procurement, preparation, and consumption; and consider the influence of sedentary occupations and lifestyles. A compelling and comprehensive examination of the causes and consequences of the obesity epidemic, "The Evolution of Obesity" offers fascinating insights into the question, Why are we getting fatter?

  • 170.00 lei

    Effectively manage parathyroid and bone metabolism disorders with "The Parathyroid Gland and Bone Metabolism! "Brought to you by the same leading endocrinologists responsible for the highly acclaimed two-volume textbook, "Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric, " this derivative book presents a compilation of chapters covering all endocrinology material related to parathyroid and bone metabolism. Never before available as a stand-alone offering, this content will enable you to give your patients the benefit of today's best know-how on parathyroid and bone metabolism from the leading resource in endocrinology.

  • Harrison s Endocrinology, 3E
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    255.00 lei

     Endocrinology - as only "HARRISON'S" can cover it

    A Doody's Core Title for 2015.

    Featuring a superb compilation of chapters on endocrinology that appear in "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Eighteenth Edition," this concise, full-color clinical companion delivers the latest knowledge in the field backed by the scientific rigor and authority that have defined "Harrison's." You will find content from renowned editors and contributors in a carry-anywhere presentation that is ideal for the classroom, clinic, ward, or exam/certification preparation.

    Features An organization that reflects the physiologic roots of endocrinology: Pituitary, Thyroid, and Adrenal Disorders; Reproductive Endocrinology; Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, Lipoprotein Metabolism; Disorders Affecting Multiple Endocrine Systems; and Disorders of Bone and Calcium Metabolism An important introduction that uses numerous examples of translational research to link genetics, cell biology, and physiology with pathophysiology and treatment Integration of pathophysiology with clinical management 108 high-yield questions and answers drawn from "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine Self-Assessment and Board Review, 18e" Updates and new developments since the publication of "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e" 29 chapters written by physicians who are recognized experts in the field of endocrinology Helpful appendix of laboratory values of clinical importance

  • 300.00 lei

    Meet the growing challenges of diabetes and obesity management with "Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity," a compilation of chapters from the highly acclaimed two-volume textbook, "Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric." Never before available as a stand-alone offering, this derivative book will enable you to put today's best endocrinology practices in diabetes and obesity management to work for your patients.

  • 320.00 lei

    Greenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology delivers a succinct, leading-edge overview of the underlying molecular biology of the endocrine system and the latest perspectives on the diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases and disorders. Featuring an enhanced design that includes hundreds of full-color illustrations and clinical photographs, Greenspan’s is a true must-have during traditional or integrated courses in endocrinology, endocrinology rotation, or exam prep in internal medicine and endocrinology and as reference for disease management.

    Greenspan’s provides clinically relevant coverage of metabolic bone disease, pancreatic hormones and diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, obesity, geriatric endocrinology, and many other diseases and disorders. Supporting this essential material is a handy appendix of normal hormone reference ranges across the lifespan.

    Here’s why Greenspan’s is an essential tool for learning how to manage endocrine patients:

    • The Tenth Edition is enhanced by updated content throughout each chapter
    • NEW CHAPTERS on Transgender Endocrinology and Disorders of Sexual Determination and Differentiation
    • Important chapter on Evidence-Based Endocrinology and Clinical Epidemiology
    • Concise, balanced coverage of both scientific and clinical principles that guide patient management
    • The best source for current concepts in endocrine pathophysiology to aid clinical decision making
    • The most practical, current insights into diagnostic testing
    • More than 270 full-color illustrations and clinical photographs

    If you are in need of a well-illustrated, completely up-to-date guide to the entire field of clinical endocrinology, this trusted classic belongs on your desk or computer.

  • 45300lei 410.00 lei

  • Pediatric Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    44500lei 420.00 lei

     In a single, convenient volume, Pediatric Endocrinology offers complete coverage of all aspects of basic science and clinical practice, ideal for both pediatricians and endocrinologists. Pediatric endocrinology expert Dr. Mark Sperling teams up with world-renowned authors to bring you up to date with the latest key developments in every area of the field, providing invaluable guidance on how your clinical decision making will be affected by today's technological and scientific advances. The user-friendly text is enhanced by all-new online access to the complete contents of the book and more.

    "Inclusion of clinical vignettes and supported by ExpertConsult access makes the text almost as good as face-to-face teaching." Reviewed by Neel Kamal on behalf of BACCH Newsletter, March 2015

  • 47400lei 425.00 lei

     At the dawn of precision medicine, there is a new opportunity for novel approaches to understand, diagnose and treat endometrial disorders that affect fertility, reproductive outcomes, and women’s health more broadly. Herein, the editors have assembled critically evaluated state-of-the-art chapters presenting basic and clinical knowledge about the human endometrium that impacts or will impact clinical practice. All clinicians and researchers in Reproductive Medicine will find this book useful as a reference and a valuable tool for continued advancement in the understanding and management of the "endometrial factor".

  • 458.00 lei

    Up-to-date and evidence-based, Updates on Treatment and Management of Endocrinopathies [correct title?] provides an overview of recent developments regarding the most prevalent endocrine disorders. A concise, easy-to-read reference for endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons, this timely reference includes an overview of each disorder as well as diagnosis, management, treatment, prognosis, and a summary by a renowned expert who has contributed to the most current literature. Addresses endocrine diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands as well as familial endocrine syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 2 (MEN). Includes both surgical and nonsurgical treatments. Consolidates today's available information on this timely topic into one convenient resource.

  • Pubertal Suppression in Transgender Youth, 1e
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    468.00 lei

    Description:

    Offering current guidelines on the relatively new practice of puberty suppression for gender-dysphoric adolescents, Pubertal Suppression in Transgender Youth provides a succinct, easy-to-digest overview of this timely topic. This concise, clinically-focused resource by Dr. Courtney Finlayson covers all relevant topics, from a brief history of medical care of transgender youth to emerging developments in the field.

     

     Table of Contents

     

    ·  Copyright

    ·  List of Contributors

    ·  Chapter 1. History of Care of Transgender Youth

    ·  Dedication

    ·  Chapter 2. Models of Care and Current Guidelines for Care of Transgender Individuals

    ·  Gender-Affirming Care

    ·  Multidisciplinary Care

    ·  Practice Guidelines

    ·  Mental Healthcare

    ·  Medical Care

    ·  Adjunctive Services

    ·  Barriers to Care

    ·  Summary

    ·  Chapter 3. Puberty

    ·  Physical Changes Associated With Puberty

    ·  Physiology of Puberty

    ·  Delayed Puberty or Absent Puberty (Sexual Infantilism)

    ·  Precocious Puberty (Sexual Precocity)

    ·  Chapter 4. GnRH Analogs (Mechanism, Past Studies, Drug Options, Use in Precocious Puberty, Use in Gender-Nonconforming Youth)

    ·  Historical Perspective

    ·  Physiology and Mechanism of Action

    ·  Use in Central Precocious Puberty

    ·  Outcomes in Central Precocious Puberty

    ·  Use in Gender-Nonconforming Youth

    ·  Options for Treatment

    ·  Outcomes in Gender-Nonconforming Youth

    ·  Challenges in Care

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 5. Rationale for the Initiation, Use, and Monitoring of GnRHa in Gender Non-conforming Youth

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Rationale

    ·  Initiation

    ·  Monitoring

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 6. Psychosocial Considerations in Pubertal Suppression Treatment

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Possible Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogues on Gender Identity and/or Sexuality Development

    ·  Unknown Neurocognitive Sequelae of Pubertal Suppression Treatment

    ·  Psychosocial Implications of Known Medical Side Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment

    ·  Family Factors

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 7. Medical Side Effects of GnRH Agonists

    ·  Bone Health

    ·  Brain

    ·  Fertility

    ·  Body Mass Index and Body Composition

    ·  Summary

    ·  Chapter 8. Surgical Side Effects of GnRHa

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Goals of Surgery

    ·  Timing of Surgery

    ·  Surgical Considerations for Individuals on GnRHa

    ·  Areas of Uncertainty

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 9. Fertility Preservation: Considerations for Gender-Diverse Youth

    ·  Risk of Infertility due to Hormonal Therapies

    ·  Fertility Preservation Options in Birth-Assigned Males

    ·  Fertility Preservation Options in Birth-Assigned Females

    ·  Attitudes Toward FP and Other Psychological Considerations

    ·  Ethical Considerations

    ·  Financial Considerations

    ·  Future Directions

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  Chapter 10. Duration of Pubertal Suppression and Initiation of Gender-Affirming Hormone Treatment in Youth

    ·  Pubertal Suppression and Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapies

    ·  Relevant Time Points in Clinical Guidelines and Protocols

    ·  Unresolved Questions

    ·  Case Examples

    ·  Initiation of Gender-Affirming Hormones

    ·  Testosterone

    ·  Estrogen

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  Chapter 11. Ethical Considerations of GnRHa Treatment and Consent Process

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Pubertal Suppression

    ·  Benefits of Pubertal Suppression

    ·  Ethical Issues

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  Chapter 12. Emerging Developments in Pubertal Suppression for Gender Incongruent/Gender Dysphoric Youth

    ·  Triptorelin, a New Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist

    ·  Prolonged Use of Histrelin acetate implant in Transgender Youth

    ·  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Use in Nonbinary Youth

    ·  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Gonadotropin Antagonists

    ·  Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Antagonists

    ·  Oxandrolone as an Alternative Gender-Affirming Masculinizing Hormone

    ·  Low-Dose Estrogen and Testosterone

    ·  Antiandrogens and Androgen Receptor Inhibitors

    ·  Antiandrogens

    ·  Conclusion

  • Imaging in Endocrinology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    495.00 lei

    Imaging in Endocrinology will provide endocrinologists and radiologists of all levels with an outstanding diagnostic imaging atlas to aid them in the diagnosis and management of all the major endocrine diseases they are likely to encounter. In full colour throughout, the 300 high–quality images consist of CT scans, MRI, NMR and histopathology slides, and are arranged by each specific endocrine condition, resulting in a visually outstanding and easily accessible tool that guides the user through exactly what to look out for and provides a practical and extremely useful aid in helping them formulate a diagnosis.

    Every major endocrine condition is covered in a specific section, including diseases of the thyroid, pituitary, reproductive and adrenal glands, the pancreas, bone metabolism problems, and the various forms of endocrine cancers. Each disease covered will offer a comparison of the normal findings so as to further assist in diagnosis.
    An accompanying website contains an online slide–atlas of all the figures in the book, to allow users to download all figures for use in presentations. Led by Paolo Pozzilli, an internationally–recognised expert in this field, the authors have assembled a wonderful collection of images that will be greatly valued by endocrinologists and radiologists alike, ensuring this is the perfect tool to consult when assessing patients with endocrine disease.

  • 580.00 lei

    This timely and clinically oriented book uniquely addresses the entire spectrum of treatment for severe obesity and diabetes. It thoroughly examines all aspects from robotic surgery to cell therapy, from the latest antidiabetic drugs to endoscopic procedures and devices, from appetite-inhibiting signals and nutrients to gastric arterial embolization. It offers objective and authoritative information for practicing professionals; not only are successful interventions discussed and updated, but cutting-edge and experimental pathways are also anticipated.

    Obesity is the foremost nutritional challenge worldwide. Its companion is type-2 diabetes, the most prevalent metabolic disease. Together they represent the diabesity epidemic, which is draining resources, overwhelming healthcare facilities, and impacting life expectancy and quality of life everywhere. No country has been spared, and most medical specialties have been affected. Many books focus on the surgical options for obesity and diabetes, namely bariatric and metabolic operations. Information on the clinical and pharmacological treatment is also available, conveyed by standard texts on internal medicine and endocrinology. Yet endoscopic maneuvers and prostheses, cell therapy for diabetes, and other innovative approaches are hard to come by, as conventional texts overlook such therapies. This timely publication bridges the gaps between all different therapeutic options, also covering advances in the conservative, surgical and parasurgical domains.

    This book will appeal to seasoned specialists, students and healthcare professionals in training alike.

  • 72100lei 615.00 lei

     The Third Edition of Medical Management of Thyroid Disease provides the most up-to-date practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of common and uncommon thyroid diseases. It reflects the advancement in guidelines and research for thyroid cancer, nodules and hypothyroidism; all presented in an accessible format with more illustrations and algorithms for management. The contributions of internationally renowned endocrinologists present the clinical aspects from the world’s perspective.

    Key Features

    • Completely revised and updated

    • Reorganized with more algorithms for quick reference and enhanced usability

    • Edited by internationally renowned physicians in the field

    • Authoritative, comprehensive and yet easily digestible

  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 13e
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    75000lei 625.00 lei

    For more than 65 years, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology has been the gold standard in the field, delivering authoritative guidance on every aspect of adult and pediatric endocrine system disorders. The 13th Edition has been thoroughly updated by Drs. Shlomo Melmed, Kenneth S. Polonsky, P. Reed Larsen, and Henry M. Kronenberg, to bring you state-of-the-art coverage of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, thyroid disease, testicular disorders, and much more, all designed to help you provide optimal care to every patient. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical information, it is an essential, relevant resource for endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, gynecologists, internists, and pediatricians - any clinician who needs the most reliable coverage available on the diverse features across the spectrum of endocrine disease.

  • Osteoporosis in Older Persons
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    74000lei 640.00 lei

    This new edition includes the most up-to-date information about the pathophysiology and new therapeutic alternatives for osteoporosis of advanced age. It is written by investigators (clinicians and basic scientists) in the field of aging bone research.
    It was just recently that a new syndrome, osteoporosis of advanced age, was recognized as a new entity with its own pathophysiology and potential treatments. Unfortunately, and despite the fact that hip fractures are mostly a consequence of this process, and apart from the first edition of this book, there are few publications about this subject. 
    The first edition of this book demonstrated that there is a need to understand the particular features of osteoporosis in older persons, which is the main aim of this book. The institutions where the authors are affiliated are highly recognized as the main centers in aging bone research. As an innovation, the second edition includes some aspects of muscle and bone interaction focusing of the impact of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) on the pathogenesis of falls and fractures in older persons. As in the previous edition, this book is expected to be the reference guide for geriatricians, gerontologists, and bone biologists as well as medical trainees in order to understand the mechanisms of senile osteoporosis with a practical approach to the treatment of its consequences.

  • 652.00 lei

    Management of Prader-Willi Syndrome brings together the contributions of professionals with considerable expertise in diagnosis and management of PWS. Clinical, social, family, and community issues are explored and management strategies identified. The text presents historical, medical, and genetic information to orient the reader. The major portion deals with pragmatic guidelines, rather than research and diagnosis, and is directed to health and educational specialists in academic, clinical, and community settings. This manual is endorsed by The Prader-Willi Syndrome Association, which is recognized world-wide.

  • 71000lei 670.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION

    The revised and updated third edition of the essential guide to the diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot

    The revised third edition of the Atlas of the Diabetic Foot is an updated guide to the information needed for the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot problems with the aim of reducing amputations. In addition to offering the theoretical knowledge, the book is filled with more than 500 color photos from real-life cases. The cases explore a wide-variety of foot issues and the text includes information about differential diagnosis and treatment. The authors—noted experts in the field—describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and classification of diabetic foot ulcers. In addition, the book highlights the diagnosis of the main risk factors for the diabetic foot, namely diabetic neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease and the anatomic deformities of the lower extremities.

    The updated third edition, include 5 videos that clearly demonstrate the methods of examination for diabetic neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. The text includes methods of callus removal and debridement as well as offloading. In addition, it contains information on how a total contact cast is constructed. This essential resource:

    ·         Contains a full color presentation of diabetic foot cases

    ·         Explains the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot problems in a revised and updated edition

    ·         Includes a larger format that allows for a better quality images

    ·         Offers a companion website with high-resolution digital files of photographs of the case studies presented

    ·         Presents a multidisciplinary approach appropriate for a wide audience foot and diabetic professionals

    Written for diabetes specialists, endocrinologists and diabetic nurse specialists, podiatrists and podiatry nurse specialists, Atlas of the Diabetic Foot offers the information needed to help with the prevention, diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Preface to the Third Edition vii

    Preface to the Second Edition ix

    Preface to the First Edition xi

    Acknowledgements xiii

    About the Companion Website xv

    1 Introduction 1

    2 Diabetic Neuropathy 11

    3 Anatomic Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulceration 23

    4 Other Foot-Related Risk Factors 49

    5 Skin and Systemic Diseases with Manifestations in the Feet 63

    6 Neuropathic Ulcers 75

    7 Peripheral Vascular Disease 91

    8 Ischemic and Neuro-Ischemic Ulcers and Gangrene 107

    9 Heel Ulcers 135

    10 Charcot Foot 147

    11 Infections 169

    12 Methods of Prevention 197

    13 Methods of Ulcer Healing 205

    14 Amputations 229

    Appendix 237

    Index 239

     

  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    725.00 lei

    An up-to-date reference for managing thyroid and parathyroid diseases

     A highly illustrated, detailed and didactic text on medical and surgical aspects of thyroid and parathyroid diseases. -- Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews

    The book is well illustrated...and serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the evaluation and treatment of those with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. It is well resourced and written with insight, and includes the newer surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery and robotics. -- Journal of Laryngology & Otology

    ...an excellent foundation for understanding all aspects of thyroid and parathyroid disease. -- Head & Neck

    Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases, Second Edition, has been revised and updated to reflect recent advances in the medical and surgical management of thyroid and parathyroid diseases. This new edition serves as both a comprehensive guide to patient evaluation as well as an atlas of advanced surgical techniques for managing patients needing operative intervention. Separate chapters are devoted to minimally invasive techniques and remote access/robotic thyroidectomy techniques, both of which have enjoyed increased application throughout the world.

    New in the second edition:

    ·         A section on state-of-the-art, evidence-based management of challenging parathyroid conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia and renal hyperparathyroidism

    ·         A more detailed discussion of thyroid cancer evaluation and staging

    ·         A new chapter dedicated to parathyroid cancer

    ·         Nearly 200 additional full-color illustrations

    This new edition is a valuable resource for all surgeons, endocrinologists, and residents seeking to expand their knowledge of thyroid and parathyroid diseases, as well as seasoned clinicians who want to improve patient care and incorporate the latest surgical advancements into their practice.

  • 82500lei 725.00 lei

    The acclaimed clinical guide to managing both pediatric endocrine disorders and inborn errors of metabolism

    No other text so skillfully blends the disciplines of endocrinology and inborn metabolic disorders into one clinically focused, highly visual resource as Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

    In this practical, user-friendly tutorial, a team of international contributors delivers the latest information and clinical insights clinicians need to confidently diagnose and manage pediatric patients. This full-color resource guides readers through the etiology, pathophysiology, presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic laboratory examinations, and treatments regimens of each disorder. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism successfully balances authority and comprehensiveness with a strong clinical, practical approach that delivers an unmatched integrated discussion of the fields.

    • Full-color presentation with numerous photos, illustrations, diagnostic algorithms, tables, and text boxes that summarize key concepts and assist in the decision-making process

    • At-a-Glance feature beginning each disease-based chapter summarizes all the clinical information you need to differentiate between disorder sub-types in one easy-to-find place 

    • Complete and detailed information on all laboratory and radiographic testing used to diagnose disorders in both disciplines

  • 86600lei 735.00 lei

     The Essential Guide to Recognizing and Treating Acute Endocrine and Metabolic Illness

    Endocrinology covers some of the most common conditions and serious public health challenges facing medicine today, and endocrine and metabolic emergencies constitute a large proportion of the clinical workload. Endocrine and Metabolic Medical Emergencies: A Clinician’s Guide provides a singular reference to help endocrinologists, acute and general medicine clinicians, hospitalists and critical care physicians, and general practitioners recognize the symptoms of endocrine emergencies and provide the highest standards of care. Already the definitive and most comprehensive guide to endocrine emergency care, this new second edition: provides acute care guidance for a range of both common and unusual endocrine emergencies; details the effects of acute medical and critical illness on metabolic and endocrine systems, and their impacts on endocrine investigations; discusses special patient populations, including the impacts of aging, pregnancy, transplantation, late-effects, perioperative, inherited metabolic disorders and HIV/AIDS on presentation and management; and features detailed coverage of disorders by system, as well as, metabolic bone diseases, neuroendocrine tumors, and more.

    Packed with case studies, images, and chapters written by distinguished authors, this guide is designed for both quick reference and study. Coverage includes the presentation, diagnosis, management, and treatment of endocrine and metabolic disorders in an acute care setting, as well as the most up-to-date guidance on issues including clinical lipidology, glucose, sodium, calcium and phosphate, and more.

    Blending the latest science with clinical and practical advice, this invaluable resource helps clinicians stay up to date with the field’s relevant body of knowledge while providing the practical, clinical insight they need in order to provide their patients with the utmost level of care.

  • 83000lei 763.00 lei

    Features:
    • Provides a cutting-edge, problem-orientated approach to the management of clinical problems in endocrinology
    • Presents complete updates of existing chapters and new research data, diagnostic techniques, treatment options, and safety concerns
    • Discusses neuroendocrine disease and examines strides made by the identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor–interacting protein mutations
    • Reviews changes in diagnostic imaging
    • Explores the rapidly increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors and their management
    • Reviews the endocrinology of aging
    • Includes protocols for pituitary function testing

    Summary:
    Endocrinology is a complex specialty that spans a wide range of diseases, disorders, and conditions. The field is now moving toward an increasingly personalized approach to patient management, with a greater focus on mechanisms of disease and biomarkers. Written by internationally renowned specialists, the second edition of Endocrinology in Clinical Practice provides a cutting-edge, problem-orientated approach to the management of clinical problems in endocrinology.
    Highlights of the new edition include:
    • An overview of neuroendocrine disease
    • Strides made by the identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor–interacting protein mutations in patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas
    • The diverse roles of IGF-I
    • Changes in diagnostic imaging and the increasing use of positron emission tomography
    • The rapidly increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors and their management
    • Hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism and multiple endocrine neoplasia
    • Mechanistic and genomic advances related to disorders of calcium regulation and infertility
    • The endocrinology of aging
    • Protocols for pituitary function testing With complete updates to existing chapters, the second edition also presents new research data, diagnostic techniques, treatment options, and safety concerns related to existing therapies. This edition offers current guidance and scientifically focused information relevant to a range of clinical problems, making it an essential reference for practicing endocrinologists and specialist clinicians.

  • 764.00 lei

     Pret: 764 lei 570 lei (valabil in perioada 17 – 30 martie 2020)

    About this Textbook

     Diabetes has become a worldwide health problem, the global estimated prevalence approaches ten percent and the burden of this disease in terms of morbidity and mortality is unprecedented. The advances acquired through the knowledge of the mechanisms of the disease and the variety of therapeutic approaches contrast with the inability of private and public health systems in underdeveloped and even developed countries to achieve the goals of treatment. This paradox has been described in many sources: the surge of scientific advances contrast with an unprecedented amount of human suffering. Thus, a patient centered and an evidence-based approach with the capacity to produce measurable clinical and economic outcomes is required.

    The purpose of this textbook is multiple: to offer a comprehensive resource covering all aspects of outpatient management; to address diabetes as a health problem from an epidemiological, economic and clinical perspective; to discuss the role of social determinants of health on the worldwide increase in diabetes; to highlight the challenges and obstacles in providing adequate care; and to outline a multidisciplinary approach to management in which medical visits retain their importance as part of a team comprising the patient, his or her family and a multidisciplinary group of health professionals who are able to move beyond the traditional approach of diabetes as a disease and greatly improve outcomes.

     

    Table of contents (64 chapters)

     

    Preface: A New Disease?

    Pages 1-8

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    The Dynamics of Diabetes Prevalence, Morbidity, and Mortality

    Pages 11-21

    Gregg, Edward W. (et al.)

    Economic Costs, from Individuals to Health Systems: Evidence from a Middle-Income Country

    Pages 23-32

    Arredondo, Armando (et al.)

    The Ecological Approach to Self-Management in Diabetes

    Pages 33-59

    Fisher, Edwin B. (et al.)

    Social Determinants of Health and Diabetes Outcomes

    Pages 61-69

    Hashimoto, Hideki

    Definition, Diagnostic Criteria, Screening, Diagnosis, and Classification of Diabetes and Categories of Glucose Intolerance

    Pages 71-85

    Nandhini, Lakshmana Perumal (et al.)

    Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes

    Pages 89-99

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita A.

    Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 101-116

    Kesavadev, Jothydev (et al.)

    Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 117-125

    Cruz, Miguel (et al.)

    Gene Expression Modifications in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 127-144

    Suarez-Sanchez, Fernando (et al.)

    The Immune System and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 145-167

    Macedo, Rebeca García

    Dysfunction and Death of Pancreatic Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes

    Pages 169-184

    Ortega-Camarillo, Clara

    Obesity in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes

    Pages 185-213

    Paniagua González, Juan Antonio (et al.)

    Pathogenesis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 215-225

    Kintiraki, Evangelia (et al.)

    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

    Pages 227-235

    Villela Nogueira, Cristiane A. (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in Asia

    Pages 239-253

    Shivashankar, Roopa (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in the United States

    Pages 255-271

    Ali, Mohammed K. (et al.)

    Diabetes Management in Africa

    Pages 273-288

    Choukem, Simeon Pierre (et al.)

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home, Primary Care, and Diabetes

    Pages 291-304

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Outpatient Diabetes Management and the Chronic Care Model

    Pages 305-332

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Clinical Practice Guidelines, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Diabetes

    Pages 333-355

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Measuring Diabetes Quality of Care: Clinical Outcomes, Cost-Effectiveness, and Patient Experience of Care

    Pages 357-365

    O’Connor, Patrick J. (et al.)

    Clinical Inertia: The Role of Physicians in Diabetes Outcomes

    Pages 367-380

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Patient Adherence: Challenges, Myths, and Realities

    Pages 381-400

    Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel

    Challenges and Opportunities in Diabetes Education

    Pages 403-416

    Dickinson, Jane K. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Mental Health: From Distress to Depression

    Pages 417-428

    Heinze, Gerhard (et al.)

    Tools of Self-Care: Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Tele-Health Resources

    Pages 429-450

    Ginsberg, Barry H.

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Clinical Practice: Ambulatory Glucose Profile and the Application of Advanced Glucose Sensing Technologies to Clinical Decision-Making

    Pages 451-462

    Mazze, Roger S.

    Type 2 Diabetes and Lifestyle Medicine

    Pages 463-476

    Galaviz, Karla I. (et al.)

    Evidence and Implementation of Medical Nutrition Therapy in Persons with Diabetes

    Pages 477-483

    Maryniuk, Melinda Downie (et al.)

    Evidence and Implementation of Physical Activity and Exercise

    Pages 485-498

    Jáuregui-Ulloa, Edtna (et al.)

    The “Old” Oral Antidiabetics

    Pages 501-513

    Buhse, Susanne (et al.)

    Incretin Therapies: Current Use and Emerging Possibilities

    Pages 515-529

    Schlögl, Haiko (et al.)

    Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors

    Pages 531-539

    Dailey, George, III (et al.)

    Use of Insulin in Outpatient Diabetes Management

    Pages 541-554

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Insulin Pump Therapy

    Pages 555-570

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Hypertension

    Pages 573-585

    Khangura, D. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia

    Pages 587-596

    Mooradian, Arshag D.

    Obesity and Diabetes

    Pages 597-610

    Wharton, Sean (et al.)

    Diabetes and Smoking: The Burden of Evidence

    Pages 611-616

    Aggarwal, Sameer (et al.)

    Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Pages 619-627

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    Hypoglycemia: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention

    Pages 629-653

    Faradji, Raquel N. (et al.)

    Inpatient Management of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia

    Pages 655-668

    Horton, William B.

    Diabetes and Infection

    Pages 669-691

    Atreja, Atulya (et al.)

    Biochemical Mechanisms of Vascular Complications in Diabetes

    Pages 695-707

    Margarita Díaz-Flores, (et al.)

    Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Pages 709-730

    Coutiño-Castelán, Daniel (et al.)

    Diabetes and Stroke: The Role of Glucose Regulation

    Pages 731-746

    Lowe, Forrest (et al.)

    Peripheral Arterial Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 747-763

    Cheun, Tracy J. (et al.)

    Ophthalmic Disease in Diabetes

    Pages 765-775

    Henriques, José (et al.)

    Diabetes and Oral Health

    Pages 777-790

    Díaz-Romero, Rosa Maria (et al.)

    Renal Disease in Diabetes

    Pages 791-807

    Garza-García, Carlos A. (et al.)

    Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathies

    Pages 809-823

    Feher, Gergely

    Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy

    Pages 825-850

    Serhiyenko, Viktoria (et al.)

    Autonomic Visceral Neuropathy and Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Pages 851-861

    Drewes, Anne Mohr (et al.)

    Urologic Complications in Patients with Diabetes

    Pages 863-871

    Casco, Stephania (et al.)

    Musculoskeletal Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Pages 873-881

    Singla, Rajiv (et al.)

    Diabetes and the Skin

    Pages 883-898

    Mestdagh, Justine (et al.)

    Foot Complications

    Pages 899-918

    Harkless, Lawrence B. (et al.)

    Diabetes and Cancer

    Pages 919-937

    Krajewska (Wojciechowska), Joanna (et al.)

    Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

    Pages 941-966

    Miranda Lora, América Liliana (et al.)

    Pregnancy: Pregestational and Gestational Management

    Pages 967-976

    García-Argueta, María Isabel (et al.)

    The Elderly with Diabetes

    Pages 977-989

    Valencia-Rodrigo, Willy Marcos

    The Artificial Pancreas

    Pages 993-998

    Ginsberg, Barry H. (et al.)

    Unproven Therapies for Diabetes

    Pages 999-1013

    Kesavadev, Jothydev (et al.)

  • 775.00 lei

     

    • First textbook to be devoted entirely to hypoparathyroidism
    • Provides essential, up-to-date information on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoparathyroidism 
    • Covers a wide range of hypoparathyroid disorders Discusses novel replacement therapy with PTH 1-34 and 1-84 
    • Includes a chapter on surgical hypoparathyroidism

    About this book

    Hypoparathyroidism, a condition in which insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced to maintain normocalcemia is associated with a variety of acute and chronic symptoms and complications due to hypocalcemia. Replacement therapy utilizing PTH has long been awaited, and this book is new and very timely as it coincides with the  publication of results on the role of the PTH molecule in the pharmacological management of this disorder. This advance is sparking renewed interest in hypoparathyroidism, which is attributable to neck surgery in most cases and to inherited disorders in a minority.

    Hypoparathyroidism has been written by acknowledged experts in the field and provides essential, up-to-date information on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of the condition. It opens by addressing in detail the anatomy and physiology of the parathyroids and describing the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hypoparathyroidism. The full range of hypoparathyroid disorders are then discussed, including the various genetic forms, postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and other forms of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Individual chapters focus on refractory disease, the impact of the condition on bone, and the management of acute hypocalcemia. Both conventional treatment for hypoparathyroidism and the novel replacement therapy with PTH  peptides are then thoroughly examined. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is also extensively discussed, with information on the various forms, differential diagnosis, and genetic testing. This book will be of interest to all endocrinologists, and also to surgeons and internal medicine physicians.

    Table of contents (38 chapters)

     

    ·         The History: From Ivar Sandström to the Sequence of Parathyroid Hormone

    Mannstadt, Michael (et al.)

    Pages 3-10

    ·         Embryology of the Parathyroid Glands

    Manley, Nancy R.

    Pages 11-18

    ·         PTH and PTH-Related Peptides

    Isaia, Giancarlo (et al.)

    Pages 19-24

    ·         PTH Assays and Their Clinical Significance

    D’Amour, Pierre

    Pages 25-32

    ·         Control of Parathyroid Hormone Secretion by Extracellular Ca

    Brown, Edward M.

    Pages 33-48

    ·         Phosphate Control of PTH Secretion

    Messa, Piergiorgio

    Pages 49-59

    ·         Role of Magnesium in Parathyroid Physiology

    Steen, Oren (et al.)

    Pages 61-67

    ·         The PTH/Vitamin D/FGF23 Axis

    Goltzman, David (et al.)

    Pages 69-79

    ·         The PTH Receptorsome and Transduction Pathways

    Gardella, Thomas J.

    Pages 81-87

    ·         G Protein Gsα and

    Bastepe, Murat

    Pages 89-98

    ·         Parathyroid Hormone Actions on Bone and Kidney

    Pajevic, Paola Divieti (et al.)

    Pages 99-109

    ·         PTH and PTHrP: Nonclassical Targets

    Cianferotti, Luisella

    Pages 111-126

    ·         In Vitro Cellular Models of Parathyroid Cells

    Gomez, Ana Rita (et al.)

    Pages 127-135

    ·         Epidemiology of Hypoparathyroidism

    Clarke, Bart L.

    Pages 139-154

    ·         Clinical Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism

    Wheeler, Amber L. (et al.)

    Pages 155-165

    ·         Familial Isolated Hypoparathyroidism

    Hendy, Geoffrey N. (et al.)

    Pages 167-175

    ·         Autoimmune Hypoparathyroidism

    Kemp, E. Helen (et al.)

    Pages 177-188

    ·         DiGeorge Syndrome

    Tarsitano, Marina (et al.)

    Pages 189-197

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism, Deafness, and Renal Anomaly Syndrome

    Nesbit, M. Andrew

    Pages 199-213

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism, Dwarfism, Medullary Stenosis of Long Bones, and Eye Abnormalities (Kenny-Caffey Syndrome) and Hypoparathyroidism, Retardation, and Dysmorphism (Sanjad-Sakati) Syndrome

    Hershkovitz, Eli (et al.)

    Pages 215-224

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism in Mitochondrial Disorders

    Orsucci, Daniele (et al.)

    Pages 225-230

    ·         Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism

    Tonelli, Francesco (et al.)

    Pages 231-247

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism During Pregnancy, Lactation, and Fetal/Neonatal Development

    Kovacs, Christopher S.

    Pages 249-269

    ·         Rare Causes of Acquired Hypoparathyroidism

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    Pages 271-278

    ·         Refractory Hypoparathyroidism

    Masi, Laura

    Pages 279-286

    ·         Bone Histomorphometry in Hypoparathyroidism

    Dempster, David W.

    Pages 287-296

    ·         Management of Acute Hypocalcemia

    Cooper, Mark Stuart (et al.)

    Pages 297-301

    ·         Conventional Treatment of Chronic Hypoparathyroidism

    Rejnmark, Lars

    Pages 303-312

    ·         Follow-up in Chronic Hypoparathyroidism

    Mannstadt, Michael (et al.)

    Pages 313-318

    ·         Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism with Parathyroid Hormone 1–34

    Winer, Karen K. (et al.)

    Pages 319-331

    ·         Replacement Therapy with PTH(1–84)

    Rubin, Mishaela R. (et al.)

    Pages 333-342

    ·         Classification of Pseudohypoparathyroidism and Differential Diagnosis

    Mantovani, Giovanna (et al.)

    Pages 345-354

    ·         Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a, Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy

    Weinstein, Lee S.

    Pages 355-362

    ·         Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP-Ib): PTH-Resistant Hypocalcemia and Hyperphosphatemia Due to Abnormal

    Jüppner, Harald

    Pages 363-372

    ·         Genetic Testing in Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Linglart, Agnès (et al.)

    Pages 373-388

    ·         Blomstrand’s Chondrodysplasia

    Giusti, Francesca (et al.)

    Pages 389-395

    ·         Hypoparathyroidism During Magnesium Deficiency or Excess

    Rizzoli, René

    Pages 397-403

    ·         Advocacy and Hypoparathyroidism in the Twenty-First Century

    Sanders, James E. (et al.)

    Pages 407-414

  • Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Surgery
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    95000lei 800.00 lei

    This book brings together recognized experts in the field to describe their current techniques for the surgical treatment of diseased thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as neuroendocrine tumors of small bowel, pancreas, liver, and skin. For each procedure, indications, operative steps, potential pitfalls and complications, and postoperative management are presented. The clear descriptions coupled with informative and beautiful illustrations will give the reader new perspectives and insights into the anatomy and conduct of these procedures. Endocrine surgery has been an area of special interest to surgeons for well over a century, while the increasing incidence of neuroendocrine tumors has more recently led to greater attention to these neoplasms. Significant advances have been made in a variety of areas, the most recent being the introduction of minimally invasive methods of removing diseased glands, and the improved understanding of the natural history of neuroendocrine tumors.

  • 850.00 lei

    The WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs is the 10th volume in the 4th Edition of the WHO series on histological and genetic typing of human tumours. This authoritative, concise reference provides an international standard for oncologists and pathologists and will serve as an indispensable guide for use in the design of studies evaluating response to therapy and clinical outcome. Diagnostic criteria, pathological features, and associated genetic alterations are described in a disease-oriented manner. Sections on all recognized neoplasms and their variants include new ICD-O codes, epidemiology, clinical features, pathology, genetics, prognosis, and predictive factors. The book, prepared by 166 authors from 25 countries, contains more than 700 color images and tables and more than 3100 references.

  • 96100lei 850.00 lei

    Yen Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology helps you successfully diagnose and manage the spectrum of female and male reproductive system diseases, from impaired fertility, infertility, and recurrent pregnancy loss through problems of sexual development, puberty, menstrual disturbances, fibroids, endometriosis, and reproductive aging. This trusted endocrinology reference book is ideal for fellows, endocrinologists, or as a quick reference when making daily diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. It is just the resource you need to offer your patients the best possible reproductive care. "This new edition helps the reader to stay on top of recent developments. It is a must for subspecialists in reproductive medicine and a valuable source of information in the library of any department and clinical unit involved in reproductive medicine." Reviewed by Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica February 2015 "It is a must for subspecialists in reproductive medicine and a valuable source of information in the library of any department and clinical unit involved in reproductive medicine." Reviewed by Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica , March 2015

  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 14th Edition
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    97700lei 870.00 lei

     

    Expertly bridging the gap between basic science and clinical informationWilliams Textbook of Endocrinology, 14th Edition, brings together an outstanding collection of world-renowned authors to provide authoritative discussions of the full spectrum of adult and pediatric endocrine system disorders. New chapters and significant revisions throughout keep you up to date with recent advances in medications, therapies, clinical trials, and more. This essential reference is a must-have resource for endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, gynecologists, internists, pediatricians, and other clinicians who need current, comprehensive coverage of this multifaceted field.

    Table Of Contents:

    Section I: HORMONES AND HORMONE ACTION
    1. Principles of Endocrinology
    2. Principles of Hormone Action
    3. Genetics of Endocrinology
    4. Laboratory Techniques for Recognition of Endocrine Disorders
    5. The Global Burden of Endocrine Disease
    6. Navigating Through Clinical Practice Guidelines in Endocrinology
    Section II: HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY
    7. Neuroendocrinology
    8. Pituitary Physiology and Diagnostic Evaluation
    9. Pituitary Masses and Tumors
    10. Posterior Pituitary
    Section III: THYROID
    11. Thyroid Physiology and Diagnostic Evaluation
    12. Hyperthyroid Disorders
    13. Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis
    14. Nontoxic Diffuse Goiter, Nodular Thyroid Disorders, and Thyroid Malignancies
    Section IV: ADRENAL CORTEX AND ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION
    15. The Adrenal Cortex
    16. Endocrine Hypertension
    Section V: SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION
    17. Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Axis
    18. Hormonal Contraception
    19. Testicular Disorders
    20. Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women
    21. Transgender Endocrinology
    Section VI: ENDOCRINOLOGY AND THE LIFE SPAN
    Section VI A: Maternal-Fetal
    22. Endocrine Changes in Pregnancy
    23. Endocrinology of Fetal Development
    Section VI B: Childhood
    24. Disorders of Sex Development
    25. Normal and Aberrant Growth in Children
    26. Physiology and Disorders of Puberty
    Section VI C: Adult
    27. Hormones and Athletic Performance
    28. Endocrinology and Aging
    Section VII: MINERAL METABOLISM
    29. Hormones and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
    30. Osteoporosis: Basic and Clinical Aspects
    31. Rickets and Osteomalacia
    32. Kidney Stones
    Section VIII: DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FAT METABOLISM
    33. Physiology of Insulin Secretion
    34. Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    35. Therapeutics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    36. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    37. Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
    38. Hypoglycemia
    39. Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Stores
    40. Obesity
    41. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
    Section IX: POLYENDOCRINE AND NEOPLASTIC DISORDERS
    42. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
    43. The Immunoendocrinopathy Syndromes
    44. Endocrinology of HIV/AIDS
    45. Neuroendocrine Tumors
    46. Endocrinology of Cancer Survivors

  • 897.00 lei

    The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

  • 1,09700lei 990.00 lei

     The second edition of Endocrine Surgery is a comprehensive update of the previous edition published in 2003. Edited by three leading authorities in the field of surgical endocrinology, the book encompasses the clinical, imaging, nuclear, molecular, technological and evidence-based principles that are applied in the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of endocrine tumors. Authored by experts from across the globe, this textbook reflects the best international clinical practice and also provides an outstanding educational resource.

    With full color illustrations throughout, the new edition emphasizes contemporary approaches in successive stages including: pituitary endocrine tumors; pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells; surgery of endocrine tumors of the lungs and thymus; robotic endocrine surgery; molecular testing of thyroid nodules; pediatric surgery for neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma; multiple endocrine neoplasia; retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy; radionuclide imaging of carcinoid tumors, pancreas and adrenals; serotonin-induced cardiac valvular disease and surgical treatment; multimodal management of primary and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors; pathophysiology and surgery of Type II diabetes; post-bariatric surgery hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia; and surgical management of metabolic syndrome.

    Endocrine Surgery 2e provides the clinician with a definitive resource to reach curative outcomes in the treatment of patients with endocrine pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid entities. Further coverage of broncho-pulmonary, adrenal, pancreatic, and intestinal neoplasia is also included, making this the definitive textbook on the subject.

     

    Demetrius Pertsemlidis, MD FACS The Bradley H. Jack Professor of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA

    William B. Inabnet III, MD FACS Professor of Surgery and Chief, Division of Metabolic, Endocrine and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA

    Michel Gagner, M.D. FRCSC, FACS, FASMBS

    Clinical Professor of surgery, Herbert Wertheim School of Medicine, Florida International 

  • 1,40000lei 1000.00 lei

    This much-anticipated book presents the procedural phases required to achieve optimal results in the esthetic rehabilitation of patients in need of fixed prostheses. Communication between the clinician and the technician, which is essential to the aesthetic, biologic, and functional integration of the prosthetic rehabilitation, is highlighted through a step-by-step presentation of all clinical and laboratory procedures. Chapters demonstrate methods to obtain accurate facebow recordings, impression materials and techniques, fabrication of provisional restorations, and incorporation of interdisciplinary therapies for ideal comfort and aesthetics. All this information is transferred to the final restorations, which should provide patients with long-term prosthetic solutions exhibiting appropriate fit, form, and function. Hundreds of full-colour clinical photographs and detailed illustrations accompany each treatment phase and situation. This beautiful book picks up where Volume 1 ended and delivers its message with equal clarity and precision.

  • 1,34500lei 1070.00 lei

     The seventh edition of Brook's Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology has been compiled by an experienced editorial team and internationally renowned contributors; it presents basic science and clinical management of endocrine disorders for all involved in the care of children and adolescents. It provides treatments for a variety of hormonal diseases, including diabetes and hypoglycaemia, growth problems, thyroid disease and disorders of puberty, sexual differentiation, calcium metabolism, steroid metabolism and hypopituitarism.

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    MEHUL T. DATTANI, MD, FRCP, FRCPCH, is Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology at the UCL GOS Institute of Child Health and Head of Pediatric Endocrinology at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, University College London Hospitals, and Institute of Child Health. He is currently the Chair of the Programme Organising Committee of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

     

    CHARLES G.D. BROOK, MA, MD, FRCP, was the first Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology in the UK and the founder of the London Centre for Pediatric Endocrinology at Great Ormond Street Hospital and University College London Hospitals. He was the recipient of the Andrea Prader Prize in 2000, the most prestigious award for outstanding leadership and research in the gift of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology.

     

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Contributors xix

    Preface xxiii

    About the Companion Website xxv

    1 Genetics and Genomics 1
    Anu Bashamboo and Ken McElreavey

    Introduction 1

    Basic Concepts in Human Genetics and Genomics 1

    Classes of RNA Molecules and their Functions 4

    Gene Mutations and Inheritance 7

    Human Populations and Genetic Variation 12

    Epigenetics 14

    Advances in Genomic Analysis 15

    Establishing Variant Causality 19

    The Age of Precision Medicine 24

    Clinical Guidelines 24

    Acknowledgments 25

    Glossary of Terms 25

    Further Reading 29

    2 Measuring Hormones 31
    Gerhard Binder

    Introduction 31

    Hormone Assays 31

    Assay Validity 33

    Technical Pitfalls When Measuring Hormones 36

    Clinical Assay Validity 38

    Stimulation Tests, Suppression Tests and Profiles 42

    Optimal Clinical Use of Hormone Tests 44

    Acknowledgements 44

    References 44

    3 Fetal Endocrinology 47
    Harshini Katugampola, Evelien F. Gevers, and Mehul T. Dattani

    Introduction 48

    Transplacental Passage of Hormones 48

    Development of Fetal Endocrine Systems 50

    Neutralization of Hormone Activity in the Fetus 82

    Plasticity of Fetal Endocrine Systems 84

    Fetal Adaptations for Transition to Extrauterine Life 85

    Frontiers in Fetal and Neonatal Endocrinology 89

    References 90

    4 Disorders of Sex Development 105
    Martine Cools and Birgit Köhler

    Normal Sex Development 105

    Terminology 106

    Causes of DSD 107

    Impaired Gonadal Development 108

    Disturbances of Testicular Hormone Production or Action 113

    Virilization of an XX Individual 116

    Management of DSD 118

    Clinical Management 122

    Other Examples of XY DSD 126

    Future Perspectives 127

    References 127

    Weblinks 131

    5 Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Axis 133
    HoongWei Gan, KyriakiSandy Alatzoglou, and Mehul T. Dattani

    Introduction 133

    The HypothalamoPituitary Neuroendocrine Axis 134

    HypothalamoPituitary Development 134

    Congenital Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Development 144

    Acquired Disorders of HypothalamoPituitary Dysfunction 155

    Investigation of Hypopituitarism 172

    Management of Hypopituitarism 173

    Conclusion 174

    References 174

    6 Disorders of Growth 199
    P.G. Murray and P.E. Clayton

    Normal Growth 200

    Short Stature 205

    Acquired GH Deficiency 211

    Disorders of GH Action and GH Sensitivity (Primary IGFI Deficiency) 213

    Growth Disorders not Related to the GHIGF Axis 216

    Syndromes Associated with Short Stature 219

    Idiopathic Short Stature 225

    Skeletal Dysplasias 227

    Tall Stature 229

    References 233

    7 Puberty and Its Disorders 235
    Sasha R. Howard, Nicolas de Roux, Juliane Leger, JeanClaude Carel, and Leo Dunkel

    Normal Puberty 235

    Precocious Puberty 256

    Delayed Puberty 265

    Conclusions 283

    References 284

    8 The Thyroid Gland 289
    Catherine Peters and Nadia Schoenmakers

    Section 1: Development of the Thyroid Axis 289

    Section 2: Clinical Thyroid Disorders 301

    Section 3: Diagnostic Pitfalls 315

    References 320

    Weblinks 334

    9 The Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders 335
    Claire R. Hughes, Elim Man, and John C. Achermann

    Introduction 335

    Development, Function and Regulation of the Adrenal Gland 336

    Adrenal Insufficiency (AI) 353

    Adrenal Excess 393

    Education, Support and LongTerm Care 401

    10 The Parathyroid and Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 409
    Jeremy Allgrove and Moira Cheung

    Introduction 409

    Physiology of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 409

    Physiology of Bone Metabolism 421

    Interactions between Calciotropic Agents 425

    Fetal and Neonatal Calcium Metabolism 425

    PostNeonatal Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium Metabolism and the Calcium Cascade 426

    Clinical Conditions 426

    Drugs Used in the Treatment of Disorders of Calcium and Bone Metabolism 467

    Summary 470

    References 472

    Weblinks 479

    11 Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndromes 481
    Catherine J. Owen, Mario Abinun, Simon H.S. Pearce, and Tim D. Cheetham

    Introduction 481

    Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1 (APS1) 483

    Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 2 and Associated Disorders 494

    Other Single Gene Disorders Associated with Immune Dysregulation and Autoimmune Endocrinopathies 499

    Conclusion 502

    References 502

    12 Endocrine Neoplasia 507
    Constantine A. Stratakis and Emmanouil Saloustros

    Thyroid Neoplasia: Nodules and Cancer 507

    Paragangliomas and Phaeochromocytomas 511

    Adrenocortical Cancers 521

    Tumours of the Ovary 524

    Tumours of the Testes 528

    References 530

    13 Endocrine Late Effects of Cancer Treatments 533
    Wassim Chemaitilly and Melissa M. Hudson

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Endocrine Late Effects 538

    Diagnosis and Management of Common Endocrine Late Effects 546

    Summary 550

    References 550

    Weblinks 552

    14 Disorders of Water Balance 553
    Natascia Di Iorgi, Flavia Napoli, Giovanni Morana, and Mohamad Maghnie

    Regulation of Water Balance 554

    Diabetes Insipidus (DI) 558

    Central Diabetes Insipidus and Adipsia 572

    Primary Polydipsia 572

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 573

    The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion 573

    Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus 573

    Treatment of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 574

    Treatment of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion 574

    Challenges 575

    Conclusions 575

    Clinical Guidelines 575

    References 576

    15 Diabetes Mellitus 583
    G.R. Ambler, F.J. Cameron, K. Joshi, and D.K. Wherrett

    Type 1 Diabetes 583

    Type 2 Diabetes 626

    Cystic FibrosisRelated Diabetes 637

    Monogenic Forms of Diabetes 639

    Rare Forms of Diabetes 647

    Living with Diabetes 648

    References 649

    16 Disorders Associated with Hypoglycaemia in Children 671
    Pratik Shah, Emma Footit, and Ritika Kapoor

    Introduction 671

    Physiology of Blood Glucose Control 672

    Role of Gut Hormones in Glucose Homeostasis 673

    Metabolic Adaptation to Birth 673

    Metabolic Adaptation to Feeding and Fasting 674

    The Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Role of KATP Channels 675

    Definition of Hypoglycaemia 676

    Aetiology and Clinical Approach to Hypoglycaemia 678

    Investigations for Hypoglycaemia 680

    Emergency Management of Hypoglycaemia 682

    Causes of Hypoglycaemia 682

    17 Obesity 701
    Wieland Kiess

    Introduction 701

    Definitions, Differential Diagnosis, Assessments and Measurements 701

    Aetiology of Obesity 703

    Common or Multifactorial Obesity and Fetal Programming 705

    Neurobiology of Satiety and Hunger 705

    Hedonistic Signals and Addiction 706

    Behaviour, Hypothalamus and Obesogenic Environment 707

    Biology of Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes 707

    Microbiota 708

    Endocrinology of Obesity 709

    Epigenetics 709

    Social Inheritance 709

    Sociodemographics 710

    Nutrition and Malnutrition 710

    Physical Activity 711

    Sedentary Behaviour 711

    EndocrineDisrupting Chemicals and Toxicology 711

    Media Use 712

    Cultural Aspects 712

    Evolution 712

    Epidemiology 713

    Developed Countries 713

    Developing Countries 713

    CoMorbidities and Consequences 713

    Social Participation 718

    Mortality 719

    Health Economics 720

    Treatments 720

    Microbiota 723

    Urban Living 724

    Advertising Industries 724

    Conclusions 725

    Further Reading 726

    Weblinks 728

    18 Genetic Obesity Syndromes 729
    TinhHai Collet and I. Sadaf Farooqi

    Introduction 729

    Genetic Contributors to Obesity: The Evidence 729

    Genetic Obesity Syndromes: An Overview 730

    Obesity with Developmental Delay 730

    Obesity without Development Delay 732

    Conclusions 734

    References 734

    Weblinks 736

    19 Endocrine Care During Adolescence into Young Adulthood 737
    Helena Gleeson

    Introduction 737

    Adolescence and Young Adulthood 737

    Exploratory and HealthRelated Behaviours 740

    Addressing Adherence 743

    Young People with Endocrine Conditions 744

    Conclusion 750

    References 751

    Index 757

  • 1,26500lei 1141.00 lei

    This book presents an overview of the research advances and clinical challenges of the pineal gland. The topics analysed cover a broad spectrum of functions played by the pineal gland and present new information in this area of research. These topics include: the physiology and pathology of skeletal and cardiac muscles; the beneficial actions of melatonin; n3 and n6 essential fatty acids, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis; the structure and functions of the fish pineal organ; therapeutical aspects of melatonin in bone marrow and thyroid-associated immune regulation; melatonin as a promising cytoprotective agent against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the liver; therapeutic approaches with melatonin; melatonin and neuroinflammation: encouraging findings vs. fundamental problems; melatonin and aging; pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation; pineal glial cysts: features and clinical significance; melatonin as a modulator of radiosensibility and chemosensibility in cancer, circadian rhythm and melatonin associated with cancer development and treatment.

  • 1,31100lei 1175.00 lei

    Description:

    Kidney Transplantation, Bioengineering, and Regeneration: Kidney Transplantation in the Regenerative Medicine Era investigates how the field of regenerative medicine is changing the traditional premises of solid organ transplantation, specifically within the field of kidney transplantation. In Section 1, chapters illustrate the state of the art in kidney transplantation as well as the research behind the bioengineering and regeneration of kidney organoids for therapeutic renal replacement.

    In Section II, chapters catalog the technologies that are being developed and the methods that are being implemented to bioengineer or regenerate kidneys in order to restore function, while critically highlighting those technological advances which hold the most promise. The book thus encompasses clinical renal transplantation, tissue engineering, biomaterial sciences, stem cell biology, and developmental biology, as they are all applied to the kidney.

    • Focuses on the synergy between renal organ transplantation and regenerative medicine, highlighting the advances within transplantation, bioengineering, regeneration, and repair
    • Educates the transplant community on important regenerative medicine research pertinent to kidney transplantation
    • Develops a shared language for clinicians, surgeons, and basic researchers to reach across the fields of transplantation and regenerative medicine, and facilitate more productive investigation and research
    • Catalogs the technologies being developed and methods being implemented to bioengineer or regenerate kidneys to restore function

     

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Part I: Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section I: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease and Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 1. Epidemiology of End-Stage Renal Failure: The Burden of Kidney Diseases to Global Health

    ·  Chapter 2. Transplant Programs Worldwide and the Spanish Miracle

    ·  Section II: Donor Selection and Allocation

    ·  Chapter 3. The Deceased Kidney Donor

    ·  Chapter 4. The Living Donor

    ·  Chapter 5. Criteria for Kidney Allocation in the United States

    ·  Chapter 6. Strategies to Increase the Donor Pool

    ·  Section III: Kidney Preservation and Transplant Procedures

    ·  Chapter 7. Kidney Preservation

    ·  Chapter 8. Ex-vivo Normothermic Perfusion in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 9. Kidney Transplant Recipient Surgery

    ·  Chapter 10. Robotic-Assisted Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 11. Orthotopic Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 12. Kidney Transplantation Combined With Other Organs

    ·  Chapter 13. Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    ·  Section IV: Kidney Recipient: Before and Peritransplant

    ·  Chapter 14. Indications for Renal Transplantation: Evaluation of Transplant Candidates

    ·  Abstract

    ·  Chapter 15. Early Postoperative ICU Care of the Kidney Transplant Recipient

    ·  Chapter 16. Approaches to Minimize Delayed Graft Function in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Section V: Transplantation Immunology and Immunomodulation

    ·  Chapter 17. Histocompatibility Testing in the Transplant Setting

    ·  Chapter 18. The Immune Response to the Allograft

    ·  Chapter 19. Induction Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 20. Maintenance Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 21. Novel Drugs in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 22. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Induction of Allograft Tolerance

    ·  Chapter 23. Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 24. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Improve Solid Organ Transplant Outcome:

    ·  Chapter 25. Renal Transplantation Across HLA and ABO Barriers

    ·  Section VI: Graft Monitoring Tools

    ·  Chapter 26. Pathology of the Renal Allograft

    ·  Chapter 27. Imaging-Based Monitoring of the Renal Graft

    ·  Chapter 28. Immune Monitoring in Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 29. Renal Function Measurements

    ·  Chapter 30. Pharmacokinetics and Genomics of Immunosuppressive Drugs

    ·  Chapter 31. Gene Expression Technology Applied to Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section VII: Early Posttransplant Immune Events

    ·  Chapter 32. Acute Cellular Rejection

    ·  Chapter 33. Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection

    ·  Section VIII: Early and Late Complications

    ·  Chapter 34. Vascular Complications in Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 35. Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    ·  Chapter 36. Metabolic Disorders Following Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 37. Cancer After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 38. Cardiovascular Disease and Renal Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 39. Graft and Patient Survival

    ·  Chapter 40. Urological Complications of the Renal Graft

    ·  Chapter 41. Impact of De Novo Donor-specific Alloantibody in Primary Renal Allografts

    ·  Chapter 42. De Novo and Recurrence of Renal Disease

    ·  Section X: Transplant Issues in Specific Patient Groups

    ·  Chapter 43. Kidney Transplantation in the Elderly

    ·  Chapter 44. Dual Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 45. Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient

    ·  Chapter 46. Kidney Transplantation in the Hepatitis C Infected Recipient

    ·  Chapter 47. Pregnancy After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 48. Nutrition of the Kidney Transplant Recipients

    ·  Section XI: Ethics and Costs

    ·  Chapter 49. Kidney Transplantation in Developing Countries

    ·  Chapter 50. Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 51. Costs of Kidney Transplantation

    ·  Section XII: Unmet Needs

    ·  Chapter 52. Kidney Transplantation: Have the Promises Been Kept and Needs Met

    ·  Chapter 53. Innovations in Kidney Transplant Research

    ·  Part II: Kidney Bioengineering and Regeneration

    ·  Section I: Introduction

    ·  Chapter 54. Converging Organ Transplantation Towards Regenerative Medicine

    ·  Chapter 55. A Systems Engineering Approach to Restoring Kidney Structure and Function

    ·  Abstract

    ·  Section II: Kidney Development

    ·  Chapter 56. Kidney Development in the Mammal

    ·  Chapter 57. Renal Branching Morphogenesis

    ·  Section III: Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 58. Principles of Stem Cell Biology Applied to the Kidney

    ·  Chapter 59. Extracellular Matrix Biology Applied to the Kidney

    ·  Chapter 60. Interplay Between Growth Factor Receptors, Small GTPases, and Mechanical Stress in the Maintenance of Kidney Glomerular Homeostasis

    ·  Chapter 61. Bioengineering Approach to Immunomodulation

    ·  Chapter 62. Principles of Organ Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 63. Recellularization of Kidney Scaffold With Stem Cells

    ·  Section IV: Bioreactors and Biomaterials

    ·  Chapter 64. Bioreactors for Cell Culture Systems and Organ Bioengineering

    ·  Chapter 65. Synthetic Biomaterial for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    ·  Chapter 66. Immune Responses to Biomaterials Used in Renal Engineering

    ·  Section V: Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 67. Regeneration of Kidney From Human Reprogrammed Stem Cells

    ·  Chapter 68. Bioprinting Complex 3D Tissue and Organs

    ·  Chapter 69. Principles of Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 70. Markers of Repair and Regeneration in the Marginal Kidney

    ·  Chapter 71. Nephron Repair in Mammals and Fish

    ·  Chapter 72. Imaging of Glomerular Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 73. Reversibility of Renal Fibrosis

    ·  Chapter 74. Pharmacological Induction of Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 75. Developmental Approaches to Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Section VI: Adult Cells for Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 76. Nephron Progenitors

    ·  Chapter 77. Urine Progenitor Cells for Potential Application in Renal Tissue Repair

    ·  Chapter 78. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Kidney Disease

    ·  Section VII: Cell Therapy For Renal Tissue Repair

    ·  Chapter 79. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Acute Renal Injury

    ·  Chapter 80. Amniotic Fluid Cells: Kidney Injury and Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 81. Renal Cells From Spermatogonial Germline Stem Cells for Protection Against Kidney Injury

    ·  Chapter 82. Kidney-on-a-Chip: Technologies for Studying Pharmacological and Therapeutic Approaches to Kidney Repair

    ·  Chapter 83. Renal Replacement Devices

    ·  Chapter 84. Xenotransplantation and Kidney Regenerative Technology

    ·  Chapter 85. Embryonic Organoid Transplantation

    ·  Chapter 86. Lineage Reprogramming Toward Kidney Regeneration

    ·  Chapter 87. Regenerating Kidney Structure and Function: An Industry Perspective

     

     

     

  • Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,54600lei 1330.00 lei

     

    Through ten outstanding editions, Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text has been the go-to reference for the most comprehensive coverage of the thyroid, including anatomy, development, biochemistry, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of all thyroid disorders. Now in full color throughout, the 11th Edition of this award-winning text remains the clinician’s preferred source of authoritative information on the thyroid—an essential resource for all endocrinologists and thyroid surgeons.

    • Includes thorough updates and new content throughout the text, especially on thyroid cytopathology, thyroid imaging, and targeted therapy of thyroid cancer as well as a new full-color format.
    • Covers all aspects of the thyroid, including thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, thyroid function, and disorders such as thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and cancer.
    • Discusses surgical management of thyroid cancer, thyroid disruptors, thyroid hormone analogs, thyroid dysfunction’s effects on other organ systems, the aging thyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and thyroid disease in pregnancy.
    • Features insights from international experts, including new editor Dr. Peter Kopp of Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

    Enrich Your Ebook Reading Experience

    • Read directly on your preferred device(s), such as computer, tablet, or smartphone.
    • Easily convert to audiobook, powering your content with natural language text-to-speech.



    Table of Contents
    :

     

    Cover

    Title Page

    Copyright

    Dedication

    Contributors

    Preface to the Eleventh Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Contents

    Section I: The Normal Thyroid

    A. History, Development, Anatomy

    Chapter 1: The heritage of the thyroid: A brief history

    GOITER, CRETINISM, AND THE THYROID GLAND

    GOITER AND IODINE

    THYROTOXICOSIS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM AND THE RECOGNITION OF THYROID FUNCTION

    THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE AND THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SCREENING AND THERAPY OF CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF CURRENT CONCEPTS OF THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND ACTION

    AUTOIMMUNE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE AND HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    THYROID CANCER

    OUTLOOK

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2: Development and anatomy of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

    THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY AXIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANOGENESIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PITUITARY ORGANOGENESIS

    THE THYROID GLAND

    THYROID BUD FORMATION

    THYROID MIGRATION

    THYROID FOLLICULOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIATED THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    HISTOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

    THYROID TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    OTHER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS INVOLVED IN THYROID DEVELOPMENT

    IN VITRO GENERATION OF THYROID CELLS FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    MODELING THYROID BY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS OVEREXPRESSION

    MODELING THYROID BY CHEMICAL PATHWAYS MANIPULATIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    B. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion

    Chapter 3: Thyroid hormone synthesis: Thyroid iodide transport

    IDENTIFICATION BY FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF THE CDNA ENCODING RAT NIS

    THE NIS MOLECULE

    ISOLATION OF THE CDNA ENCODING HUMAN NIS (hNIS) AND ELUCIDATION OF THE GENOMIC ORGANIZATION OF hNIS

    NIS IN EXTRATHYROIDAL TISSUES

    NIS MECHANISM AND STOICHIOMETRY

    SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY OF NIS

    NIS TRANSPORTS THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT ClO4− WITH A 1 Na+:1 ClO4− STOICHIOMETRY

    IODIDE TRANSPORT DEFECT, A CONGENITAL CONDITION CAUSED BY MUTATIONS IN THE NIS (SLC5A5) GENE

    NIS KO MICE, A USEFUL MODEL FOR STUDYING MULTIPLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    REGULATION OF NIS TRANSCRIPTION

    REGULATION OF NIS IN THE THYROID BY TSH

    REGULATION OF NIS BY I−

    REGULATION OF NIS BY A K+ CHANNEL

    NIS IN THYROID CANCER

    I− EFFLUX

    NIS IN BREAST CANCER

    IMPACT OF NIS ON PUBLIC HEALTH

    NIS GENE TRANSFER

    CONCLUDING REMARKS AND AVENUES FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4: Thyroid hormone synthesis

    IODIDE UPTAKE INTO THE THYROID

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    REGULATION OF IODIDE UPTAKE AND SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER FUNCTION AND EXPRESSION

    MUTATIONS IN THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER GENE

    IODIDE EFFLUX FROM THE THYROID

    PENDRED SYNDROME AND PENDRIN (PDS/SLC26A4)

    PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF PENDRIN

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF PENDRIN

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PENDRIN

    GOITER AND THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN PENDRED SYNDROME

    ANOCTAMIN

    SLC26A7

    THYROGLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE AND PROTEIN

    MUTATIONS IN THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE

    THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    MUTATIONS IN THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE–GENERATING SYSTEM

    CLONING OF THE DUAL OXIDASE AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTOR GENES

    THE PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    MECHANISM OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    REGULATION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ACTIVITY

    GENETIC DEFECTS IN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    IODINATION AND THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    OXIDATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE TO COMPOUND I AND COMPOUND II

    OXIDATION OF IODIDE

    IODINATION AND COUPLING OF TYROSYL RESIDUES

    INHIBITION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE BY THIONAMIDE DRUGS

    CELLULAR UPTAKE AND PROTEOLYSIS OF THYROGLOBULIN

    SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES

    DEHALOGENATION OF MONOIODOTYROSINE AND DIIODOTYROSINE

    IODOTYROSINE (IYD/DEHAL1) DEIODINASE GENE AND PROTEIN

    DEHALOGENASE DEFICIENCY

    REFERENCES

    C. Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Binding and Metabolism

    Chapter 5: Thyroid hormone transport proteins

    EVOLUTIONARY CONSIDERATIONS

    FUNCTIONS OF THBPs

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    THYROID-BINDING GLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TBG IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN SERPINA7 GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TBG CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    TRANSTHYRETIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TTR IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN TTR GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TTR CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    DYSTRANSTHYRETINEMIC HYPERTHYROXINEMIA

    ALBUMIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    HUMAN ALB GENE VARIANTS AFFECTING ALB CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    p.Arg242His

    OTHER SEQUENCE VARIANTS AT Arg242

    p.Arg246Ile

    T3 VARIANTS OF FDH

    MINOR CARRIERS

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THBPs

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6: Intracellular pathways of iodothyronine metabolism/implications of deiodination for thyroid hormone action

    STRUCTURE OF THE DEIODINASES

    TOPOLOGY AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS OF DEIODINASES AND MECHANISM OF DEIODINATION

    SPECIFIC PROPERTIES OF THE DEIODINASES

    TYPE 1 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 2 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 3 DEIODINASE

    NONDEIODINATIVE METABOLISM OF IODOTHYRONINES

    PHYSIOLOGIC ROLES OF THE SELENODEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES AND THE REGULATION OF T3 PRODUCTION

    ADAPTATION TO HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INTRACELLULAR TRIIODOTHYRONINE HOMEOSTASIS

    DEIODINASES AND REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN SECRETION

    DEIODINASES AND THE BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONE

    DEIODINASES AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    DEIODINASES AND THE SKELETON

    DEIODINASES AND METABOLISM

    DEVELOPMENTAL ROLES OF THE DEIODINASES

    MATERNAL–FETAL PHYSIOLOGY

    TRIIODOTHYRONINE MODULATION OF PLACENTAL THYROID HORMONE TRANSFER

    D3 EXPRESSION AND THE REQUIREMENT FOR THYROXINE IN NORMAL PREGNANCY

    THE DEIODINASES IN HUMAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DEIODINASES IN CANCER

    HYPERTHYROIDISM AND OVEREXPRESSION OF DEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES IN THE ISCHEMIC HEART

    DEIODINASES IN LUNG INJURY

    CONCLUSION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    D. Thyroid Hormone Action

    Chapter 7: Intracellular actions by thyroid hormones

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH DIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 1)

    THYROID HORMONE RESPONSE ELEMENTS

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION BY TRs

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COREPRESSORS/BASAL REPRESSION

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COACTIVATORS/TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATION

    NEGATIVE REGULATION BY TRs

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF TR

    RESISTANCE TO TH

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR ISOFORM KNOCKOUT AND KNOCKIN MICE

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL CASCADES

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH INDIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 2)

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITHOUT DNA BINDING (TYPE 3)

    TR-INDEPENDENT TH SIGNALING (TYPE IV)

    TH ANALOGS, DISRUPTORS, AND METABOLITES

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8: Thyroid hormone structure–function relationships

    THYROID HORMONE STRUCTURE, METABOLISM, AND ACTIVITY

    TR ACTIVATION BY NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC AGONISTS

    DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTIVE TR SUBTYPE AGONISTS

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS AT TR MUTANTS—THE ISSUE OF TH RESISTANCE

    TR ANTAGONISM

    THYROID HORMONE INTERACTIONS WITH ALTERNATE RECEPTORS AND BINDING PROTEINS

    THYRONAMINES AND ANALOGS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    E. Factors That Control Thyroid Function

    Chapter 9: Chemistry and biosynthesis of thyrotropin

    CHEMISTRY

    GENES ENCODING THE SUBUNITS OF THYROTROPIN

    CHROMOSOME LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE OF THE COMMON α-SUBUNIT GENE

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE

    CENTRAL HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE ABNORMALITIES

    PRETRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    NEGATIVE REGULATORS

    POSITIVE REGULATORS

    SUMMARY OF PRETRANSLATION REGULATION OF THE HUMAN COMMON α- AND TSH-β–SUBUNIT GENE EXPRESSION

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL PROCESSING OF THYROTROPIN

    IN VITRO TRANSLATION OF THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT AND α-SUBUNIT MESSENGER RNA

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF THYROTROPIN IN INTACT CELLS

    PROCESSING OF HIGH-MANNOSE PRECURSOR OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    TERMINAL SULFATION AND SIALYLATION OF COMPLEX OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN GLYCOSYLATION

    BIOACTIVITY AND METABOLIC CLEARANCE OF THYROTROPIN

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONFORMATION OF THYROTROPIN

    RECOMBINANT HUMAN THYROTROPIN

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10: The thyrotropin receptor

    THE STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR GENE

    RECOGNITION OF THE RECEPTOR BY THYROTROPIN

    PROPOSED MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION OF THE RECEPTOR BY TSH

    ACTIVATION BY THYROSTIMULIN

    ACTIVATION BY CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    ACTIVATION BY THYROTROPIN-RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

    ACTIVATION BY LOW–MOLECULAR-WEIGHT DRUG-LIKE CHEMICALS

    DOWNREGULATION OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11: Aging and the thyroid

    CHANGES IN THYROID ANATOMY WITH AGE

    PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THYROID FUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NODULAR DISEASE AND THYROID CANCER

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12: Effects of drugs on TSH secretion, thyroid hormones’ absorption, synthesis, metabolism, and action

    INTRODUCTION

    DRUGS THAT ALTER SERUM TSH LEVELS (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 1)

    DOPAMINE/DOPAMINE AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS

    SOMATOSTATIN AND SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGS

    REXINOIDS

    OTHER DRUGS THAT SUPPRESS TSH SECRETION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE THYROID HORMONE ABSORPTION

    BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS

    FERROUS SULFATE

    SUCRALFATE AND ALUMINUM-CONTAINING ANTACIDS

    CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PHOSPHATE BINDERS

    OTHER MEDICATIONS THAT MAY REDUCE T4 INTESTINAL ABSORPTION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 2)

    THIONAMIDES (ANTITHYROID DRUGS)

    IONIC INHIBITORS (PERCHLORATE, THIOCYANATE; SEE Chapter 13 ON THYROID DISRUPTORS)

    LITHIUM

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE METABOLISM OF THYROID HORMONES (FIGS. 12-1, PANEL 3 AND 12-2)

    DRUGS THAT INDUCE CYP3a (PHENYTOIN, CARBAMAZEPINE, PHENOBARBITAL, RIFAMPIN, RITONAVIR, SERTRALINE)

    DRUGS THAT INHIBIT THE DEIODINATION OF T4 AND T3

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    PROPRANOLOL AND NADOLOL

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE TRANSPORT OR ACTION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 3)

    NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (SALICYLATES, SALSALATE, FENCLOFENAC)

    FUROSEMIDE

    HEPARIN AND FATTY ACIDS

    ESTROGEN AND SELECTIVE ESTROGEN MODULATORS (SERM) (TAMOXIFEN, RALOXIFENE)

    ANDROGENS

    OTHER DRUGS ALTERING TBG LEVELS

    DRUGS ACTING AT MULTIPLE SITES TO ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    IODINATED RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST AGENTS

    PHENYTOIN

    AMIODARONE

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS

    CYTOKINES (INTERFERON, INTERLEUKIN, AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR)

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    DRUGS ALTERING THYROID FUNCTION THROUGH ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNITY

    IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION SYNDROME

    ANTI-CD52 ANTIBODY ALEMTUZUMAB

    CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13: Thyroid disruptors

    INTRODUCTION

    SUBSTANCES THAT INHIBIT THYROIDAL IODINE UPTAKE

    PERCHLORATE

    THIOCYANATE

    NITRATE

    COMPOUNDS WITH DIRECT ACTIONS ON THE THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR

    POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS

    BISPHENOL-A AND PHTHALATES

    TRICLOSAN

    COMPOUNDS THAT DISPLACE T4 FROM SERUM THYROID BINDING PROTEINS

    PCBs AND PBDEs

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT THYROPEROXIDASE ACTIVITY

    ISOFLAVONES

    COMPOUNDS THAT DECREASE T4 HALF-LIFE BY ACTIVATING HEPATIC ENZYMES

    ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES

    DIOXINS AND FURANS

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT DEIODINASE ACTIVITY

    OTHER EXPOSURES

    STYRENES

    PERFLUORINATED AND GEN X COMPOUNDS

    ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    SUNSCREENS

    LEAD

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14: Nonthyroidal illness syndrome

    INTRODUCTION

    DESCRIPTION OF NTIS

    CHANGES IN SERUM THYROID HORMONE AND THYROTROPIN CONCENTRATIONS

    CHANGES IN THYROID HORMONE KINETICS

    CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    PATHOGENESIS OF NTIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING FASTING

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING ILLNESS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    CHANGES IN SERUM IODOTHYRONINE–BINDING PROTEINS

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE TRANSPORT INTO TISSUES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE DEIODINASES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE NUCLEAR RECEPTORS

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE OF NTIS

    PROGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF NTIS

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID DISEASE IN NTIS

    TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH NTIS

    SPECIFIC TYPES OF NTIS

    CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    LIVER DISEASE

    HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15: Iodine deficiency and excess, endemic cretinism

    INTRODUCTION

    THE ECOLOGY OF IODINE

    DIETARY SOURCES, ABSORPTION, AND METABOLISM OF IODINE

    GOITROGENS

    IODINE REQUIREMENTS

    ADULTHOOD

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

    ASSESSMENT OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION

    BREAST MILK IODINE CONCENTRATION

    THYROID SIZE

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROID HORMONES

    THYROGLOBULIN

    EFFECTS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    THYROIDAL ADAPTATION TO IODINE DEFICIENCY

    EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    CRETINISM

    THE BENEFITS OF CORRECTION OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN SEVERELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN MILD TO MODERATELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    INFANCY

    CHILDHOOD

    ADULTHOOD

    THYROID CANCER

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    SALT FORTIFICATION WITH IODINE

    IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

    EFFECTS OF EXCESS IODIDE

    PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO EXCESS IODIDE

    TOLERABLE UPPER LIMITS FOR IODINE INTAKE

    MONITORING OF IODINE EXCESS IN POPULATIONS

    SOURCES OF EXCESS IODIDE

    IODINE-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM OR GOITER IN THE ABSENCE OF APPARENT UNDERLYING THYROID DISEASE

    IODINE AND THYROIDITIS

    IODINE-INDUCED THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE-INDUCED THYROID DISEASE (SEE Chapter 11)

    REFERENCES

    Section II: Assessment of Thyroid Structure and Function

    Chapter 16: Physical examination of the thyroid gland

    HISTORY

    PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    INSPECTION

    PALPATION

    FACING THE PATIENT

    STANDING BEHIND THE PATIENT

    AUSCULTATION

    PALPATING LOBES AND EVALUATING THYROID SIZE

    THYROID NODULES

    HEMIAGENESIS

    CONSISTENCY

    PAIN/TENDERNESS

    LYMPHADENOPATHY

    DISTINGUISHING BENIGN FROM MALIGNANT DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17: Laboratory measurement of thyroid-related hormones, proteins, and autoantibodies in serum

    INTRODUCTION

    NOMENCLATURE FOR SENSITIVITY AND ASSESSMENT OF ASSAYS

    FUNCTIONAL VERSUS ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY OF ASSAYS

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE

    METHODS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    TSH ISOFORMS

    INDICATIONS FOR TRH TESTING

    TSH REFERENCE INTERVALS

    THE CLINICAL UTILITY OF TSH MEASUREMENT

    TSH AND THYROID FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN PREGNANCY (SEE Chapter 66)

    HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    THYROID HORMONE MEASUREMENTS

    SERUM TOTAL THYROID HORMONE (TT4 AND TT3) ASSAY METHODOLOGY

    CLINICAL UTILITY OF TT4 AND TT3 MEASUREMENTS

    TT4 AND TT3 REFERENCE INTERVALS

    SERUM FREE THYROID HORMONE TESTS (FT4 AND FT3)

    DIRECT FT4 AND FT3 METHODS

    INDIRECT FT4 AND FT3 ESTIMATE TESTS

    SERUM-FREE THYROXINE AND FREE TRIIODOTHYRONINE INDEXES

    THYROID HORMONE–BINDING PROTEINS

    FAMILIAL DYSALBUMINEMIC AND TRANSTHYRETIN-ASSOCIATED HYPERTHYROXINEMIAS

    SERUM THYROGLOBULIN (Tg)

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM Tg METHODS

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CIRCULATING Tg CONCENTRATIONS

    ANALYTICAL AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

    THYROID-SPECIFIC AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTI–TSH RECEPTOR AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROID PEROXIDASE AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROGLOBULIN AUTOANTIBODIES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID TEST OUTCOMES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGIES

    ASSAY INTERFERENCES

    AUTOMATION OF THYROID TESTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18: Nonisotopic thyroid imaging

    INTRODUCTION

    PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY

    ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES (1)

    CONDUCTING THE EXAMINATION

    CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    GOITER

    DIFFUSE NONNEOPLASTIC THYROID DISEASES

    NODULES AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES

    COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (22)

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    INCIDENTALOMAS

    CT IN LARGE BENIGN GOITERS

    ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    CT AND PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS, LYMPHOMAS, AND METASTASIS

    CT AND FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (41)

    NORMAL THYROID TISSUE

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    THYROID INCIDENTALOMAS AND NODULE CHARACTERIZATION

    PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS: ASSESSING INVASION (48)

    FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19: Thyroid radionuclide uptake and imaging studies

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    MODALITIES

    RADIOIODINE

    UPTAKE STUDIES

    PLANAR IMAGING: HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PLANAR IMAGING: THYROID CANCER

    TOMOGRAPHY

    DOSIMETRY

    FDG PET/CT IN THYROID CANCER

    FDG PET/CT IN INCIDENTAL THYROID DISEASE

    IMAGING OF MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 20: Cytopathology of the thyroid gland

    INTRODUCTION

    SPECIMEN PREPARATIONS

    THYROID FNA CLASSIFICATION

    NONDIAGNOSTIC OR UNSATISFACTORY (CATEGORY I)

    BENIGN (CATEGORY II)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS) (CATEGORY III)

    FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM OR SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM (CATEGORY IV)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR MALIGNANCY (CATEGORY V)

    MALIGNANT (CATEGORY VI)

    CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY

    KEY CYTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF THYROID FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION DIAGNOSES

    DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS (11,15)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM/FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM (INCLUDING TUMORS WITH ONCOCYTIC FEATURES)

    MALIGNANT LESIONS

    PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND ITS VARIANTS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    ROLE OF ANCILLARY STUDIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID TUMORS IN CYTOLOGIC SPECIMENS’ IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21: Histopathology of the thyroid gland

    NORMAL THYROID

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID LESIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL VARIATIONS

    GOITER

    GRAVES DISEASE/DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER

    IATROGENIC AND RELATED HYPERPLASIAS

    AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    SILENT THYROIDITIS

    SPECIFIC INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    GRANULOMATOUS THYROIDITIS

    PALPATION THYROIDITIS

    AMIODARONE INJURY WITH THYROTOXICOSIS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (AKA RIEDEL STRUMA)

    COMBINED RIEDEL STRUMA AND FIBROSING HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    MISCELLANEOUS DISORDERS

    RADIATION EFFECTS

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    BLACK THYROID

    NEOPLASMS

    BENIGN NEOPLASMS

    ADENOMAS AND ADENOMATOUS NODULES

    MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA

    HÜRTHLE-CELL NEOPLASM/ONCOCYTIC FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF PAPILLARY AND FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA OF THYROID: CONTROVERSIES

    CLEAR CELL TUMORS

    HIGH-GRADE THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA, MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA, AND INTRATHYROIDAL THYMOMA-LIKE NEOPLASMS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    CALCITONIN NEGATIVE NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA OF THYROID

    LYMPHOMA

    SARCOMA

    CARCINOMA IN ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    METASTATIC NEOPLASMS

    REFERENCES

    Section III: Thyroid Diseases: Thyrotoxicosis

    A. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 22: Pathogenesis of Graves disease

    INTRODUCTION

    AUTOIMMUNITY

    DEFINITION OF AN AUTOANTIGEN

    THE NATURE OF T CELLS

    ANTIBODY AND T-CELL INTERACTIONS WITH ANTIGEN

    SECOND SIGNALS

    CRITERIA FOR AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    RESTRICTION VERSUS POLYCLONALITY

    THYROID IMMUNOLOGY

    INTRATHYROIDAL B CELLS

    AUTOANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN TSHR

    BIOACTIVITY OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    PREVALENCE OF TSHR ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    TSHR FUNCTION IN GRAVES DISEASE

    LESSONS FROM MONOCLONAL TSHR ANTIBODIES WITH STIMULATING ACTIVITY

    OTHER THYROID ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL LYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATE

    FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INTRATHYROIDAL T CELLS

    T-CELL SELECTION

    APOPTOSIS IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL T-CELL RECEPTOR V GENE REPERTOIRE

    REGULATORY EFFECTS OF T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE

    THE Th17 CELLS

    IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    FAILURE OF IMMUNE CELL DELETION AND/OR SUPPRESSION

    SPECIFICITY CROSSOVER (MOLECULAR MIMICRY)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS

    EPIGENETIC CHANGES

    THYROID CELL EXPRESSION OF HLA MOLECULES

    ANIMAL MODELS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    KNOWN RISK FACTORS FOR PRECIPITATING GRAVES DISEASE (TABLE 22-5)

    SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES

    INFECTION

    THYROID AUTOANTIBODIES

    THYROID TISSUE DAMAGE

    STRESS

    SEX STEROIDS

    THE X CHROMOSOME

    THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    MATERNAL MICROCHIMERISM

    IODINE

    IRRADIATION

    OVERVIEW OF THE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 23: Thyrotropin-induced thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOLOGIC AND PATHOGENIC ASPECTS

    SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

    LABORATORY AND BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES

    SERUM THYROTROPIN AND THYROID HORMONE LEVELS

    PITUITARY GLYCOPROTEIN HORMONE α-SUBUNIT

    PARAMETERS OF PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

    IMAGING STUDIES AND LOCALIZATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

    CRITERIA OF CURE AND FOLLOW-UP

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 24: Toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    NATURAL HISTORY

    MORPHOLOGY

    ETIOLOGY

    LESSONS FROM EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    FROM HYPERPLASTIC GROWTH TO NODULAR TRANSFORMATION

    TRANSFORMATION TO HOT THYROID NODULES

    TREATMENT OF AUTONOMOUS THYROID NODULES (SEE CHAPTER 32)

    SURGERY

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    COST-EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    FOLLOW-UP

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 25: Trophoblastic tumors

    INTRODUCTION

    HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    GRADATIONS OF SEVERITY

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    DIAGNOSIS

    HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM

    MUTANT THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR

    THERAPY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 26: Sporadic painless, painful subacute and acute infectious thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    DESTRUCTION-INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PAINFUL THYROID

    SPORADIC PAINLESS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    INFECTIOUS ASSOCIATION

    AUTOIMMUNE ASSOCIATION

    GENETIC ASSOCIATION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    ACUTE INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    BACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    FUNGAL INFECTIONS

    MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    SYPHILITIC INFECTIONS

    THYROIDAL INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING STUDIES

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 27: Thyrotoxicosis of extrathyroidal origin

    INTRODUCTION

    EXOGENOUS THYROID HORMONE

    CAUSES

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO METASTATIC THYROID CARCINOMA

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    STRUMA OVARII

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations

    Chapter 28: Overview of the clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREVALENCE OF CLINICAL FINDINGS

    ORGAN SYSTEM–SPECIFIC MANIFESTATIONS

    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANIFESTATIONS

    CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS

    PULMONARY MANIFESTATIONS

    GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS

    RENAL MANIFESTATIONS

    INTEGUMENTARY FINDINGS

    MUSCULOSKELETAL MANIFESTATIONS

    REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES

    HEMATOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS

    MODULATING FACTORS

    AGE

    PREGNANCY

    COMORBIDITY

    ETIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CLINICAL ASSESSMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 29: Ophthalmopathy

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    PATHOGENESIS

    RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTION

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH GO

    MANAGEMENT OF GO

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 30: The cardiovascular system in thyrotoxicosis

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THE HEART AND VASCULAR SYSTEM

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES

    HEART FAILURE

    HYPERTENSION AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    MAJOR ADVERSE CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

    ROLE OF OTHER HORMONES IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE AND IODINE CONTAINING CONTRAST AGENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 31: Thyroid hormones in intermediary metabolism, thermogenesis, and obesity

    THYROID HORMONE SIGNALING, TISSUE- AND TARGET GENE–SPECIFICITY IN RELATION TO INTERMEDIARY AND ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM

    CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    PROTEIN METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    LIPID METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ACTIVITY-RELATED ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD

    ENERGY STATUS AND THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    POTENTIAL USE OF THYROID HORMONE AS TREATMENT FOR WEIGHT LOSS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 32: The skeletal system in thyrotoxicosis

    REGULATION OF THYROID STATUS

    CONTROL OF INTRACELLULAR T3 AVAILABILITY

    MECHANISM OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    ROLE OF TSH IN BONE

    BONE REMODELING CYCLE

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD THYROTOXICOSIS

    SKELETAL EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES IN ADULTS

    POPULATION STUDIES IN NORMAL EUTHYROID INDIVIDUALS

    STUDIES OF ADULT THYROTOXICOSIS

    EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PATIENTS TREATED WITH SUPPRESSIVE DOSES OF THYROXINE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 33: Thyroid dermopathy and thyroid acropachy

    THYROID DERMOPATHY

    HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS IN THYROID DERMOPATHY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    PATHOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    OUTCOMES OF THERAPY OF THYROID DERMOPATHY

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THERAPY

    THYROID ACROPACHY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 34: Psychiatric and cognitive effects of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    COGNITIVE MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE ASPECTS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: BEHAVIORAL SYNDROMES THAT MAY MIMIC THYROTOXICOSIS

    PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS

    POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN THYROID HORMONE AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    USE OF THYROID HORMONE IN AFFECTIVE DISORDERS

    LITHIUM AND THYROID FUNCTION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 35: Thyrotoxic storm

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    PATHOGENESIS

    TREATMENT

    THERAPY TO REDUCE THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST SYSTEMIC DISTURBANCES

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST THE PERIPHERAL ACTIONS OF THYROID HORMONE

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST PRECIPITATING ILLNESS

    REFERENCES

    C. Diagnosis and Management of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 36: Diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLUES FROM ROUTINE LABORATORY TESTS

    LABORATORY TESTING FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SERUM THYROXINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM TRIIODOTHYRONINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM THYROTROPIN DETERMINATIONS

    SCREENING, CASE FINDING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 37: Treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    DRUG THERAPY OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS (Fig. 37-1)

    MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    INTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EXTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

    CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF THE ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    METHIMAZOLE

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS TAKING AN ANTITHYROID DRUG FOR GRAVES DISEASE

    REMISSIONS AND ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    THERAPY FACTORS RELATING TO REMISSION OF GRAVES DISEASE

    DISCONTINUATION OF ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    OTHER DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    INORGANIC IODIDE

    ORAL CHOLECYSTOGRAPHIC AGENTS

    β-ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST DRUGS

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    PRACTICAL THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS

    COMPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL RISKS OF RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    POSTRADIOIODINE WORSENING OF THYROID FUNCTION

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY AND GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY

    INDICATIONS FOR RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    SURGICAL THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY PATIENTS

    THYROTOXICOSIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND DURING LACTATION

    THYROTOXIC STORM

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO TOXIC ADENOMA AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    TOXIC ADENOMA

    TOXIC MULTINODULAR GOITER

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 38: Subclinical thyrotoxicosis

    ETIOLOGY

    ENDOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EXOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EVALUATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE

    PHYSIOLOGY OF SUPPRESSION OF TSH SECRETION

    CARDIOVASCULAR CONSEQUENCES

    BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM

    COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND DEMENTIA

    TREATMENT

    CHOICE OF TREATMENT MODALITY

    SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    REFERENCES

    Section IV: Thyroid Diseases: Hypothyroidism

    A. Causes of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 39: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREDISPOSITION TO CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    ANTIGEN PRESENTATION

    T-CELL RESPONSES

    B-CELL RESPONSES

    EFFECTOR MECHANISMS

    EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    CLINICAL ASPECTS

    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 40: Genetic defects causing hypothyroidism

    MONOGENIC CAUSES OF THYROID DYSGENESIS

    KEY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR MUTATIONS IN TD

    NKX2-1

    PAX8

    FOXE1

    GLIS3

    TSHR

    ADDITIONAL GENES ASSOCIATED WITH TD

    NKX2-5

    JAG1

    CDCA8 (BOREALIN)

    TUBB1

    NETRIN 1 (NTN1)

    SYNDROMES WHICH MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH CH

    GENETIC CAUSES OF DYSHORMONOGENESIS

    THYROGLOBULIN

    TPO

    DUOX2 AND DUOXA2

    IYD (PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AS DEHAL1)

    SLC5A5 (NIS)

    SLC26A4 (PENDRIN)

    SLC26A7

    EVIDENCE FOR AN UNDIAGNOSED GENETIC COMPONENT IN TD

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 41: Primary hypothyroidism due to other causes

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE (131I THERAPY)

    THYROIDECTOMY

    TREATMENT OF TOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    TREATMENT OF NONTOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    EXTERNAL RADIATION

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THERAPEUTIC PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS

    LITHIUM CARBONATE

    CYTOKINES

    AMIODARONE

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    OTHER DRUGS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO INFILTRATIVE DISORDERS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (INVASIVE FIBROUS THYROIDITIS)

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    SARCOIDOSIS

    SCLERODERMA

    HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    CYSTINOSIS

    OTHER INFILTRATIVE OR INFECTIOUS DISORDERS (SEE CHAPTER 22)

    PRIMARY THYROID LYMPHOMA

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS (SEE CHAPTER 12)

    EMBRYOLOGIC VARIANTS

    LINGUAL THYROID (SEE CHAPTER 63)

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 42: Central hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOGENESIS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CeH

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 43: Overview of the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND MORTALITY

    PULMONARY SYSTEM

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC FEATURES

    MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

    INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    KIDNEYS AND ELECTROLYTE METABOLISM

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND LIVER

    HEMATOLOGY AND HEMOSTASIS

    PITUITARY DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    ADRENAL DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 44: Hypothyroidism and the heart

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV RISK FACTORS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LIPIDS

    BLOOD PRESSURE AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    THROMBOGENESIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SPECIAL SITUATIONS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM RELATED TO THE HEART

    POSTACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    HEART FAILURE

    TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    CARDIAC SURGERY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION PROCEDURES

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 45: The skeletal system in hypothyroidism

    PHYSIOLOGIC CONTROL OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN BONE

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN BONE

    ROLE OF TSH ON SKELETAL GROWTH AND MATURATION

    SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF IMPAIRED SENSITIVITY TO THYROID HORMONE

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF ADULT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    A POSSIBLE ROLE FOR THYROID HORMONE SIGNALING IN OSTEOARTHRITIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 46: Psychiatric and cognitive effects of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    PSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    PSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    EFFECT OF THYROID FUNCTION VARIATIONS WITHIN THE NORMAL RANGE ON MOOD AND COGNITION

    HASHIMOTO ENCEPHALOPATHY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 47: Myxedema Coma

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL FEATURES: PRECIPITATING EVENTS

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION

    HYPOTHERMIA

    RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS

    GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS

    RENAL AND ELECTROLYTE MANIFESTATIONS

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS

    INFECTIONS

    DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    VENTILATORY SUPPORT

    HYPONATREMIA

    HYPOTHERMIA

    HYPOTENSION

    GLUCOCORTICOID THERAPY

    THYROID HORMONE THERAPY

    COMMENTS

    REFERENCES

    C. Management of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 48: Diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    PREDISPOSITION TO HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LABORATORY TESTING

    SERUM THYROXINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM TSH DETERMINATIONS

    OTHER MEASURES OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    SCREENING, CASE FINDING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    FUTURE ADVANCES IN LABORATORY ASSESSMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 49: Treatment of hypothyroidism

    HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    ENDPOINTS DURING LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    FACTORS AFFECTING LEVOTHYROXINE DOSE

    INITIATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    CHOICE OF LEVOTHYROXINE PRODUCT

    LEVOTHYROXINE ABSORPTION, METABOLISM, AND TRANSPORT

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY IN SPECIFIC SUBPOPULATIONS

    PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY AND T3 LEVELS

    THERAPIES OTHER THAN LEVOTHYROXINE

    THYROID EXTRACTS

    SYNTHETIC COMBINATION THERAPY

    LIOTHYRONINE THERAPY

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 50: Subclinical hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    ETIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE

    CURRENT EVIDENCE

    TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Section V: Thyroid Diseases: Nontoxic Diffuse and Multinodular Goiter

    Chapter 51: Multinodular goiter: pathogenesis and management

    INTRODUCTION

    ETIOLOGY

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    DIAGNOSIS EVALUATION

    MANAGEMENT

    IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

    TSH SUPPRESSIVE THERAPY WITH LEVOTHYROXINE

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    SURGERY

    131I THERAPY

    OTHER TREATMENT OPTIONS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 52: Clinical evaluation and management of thyroid nodules

    CLINICAL EVALUATION

    LABORATORY EVALUATION

    SERUM HORMONE AND OTHER MEASUREMENTS

    IMAGING STUDIES

    ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    ELASTOGRAPHY

    RADIONUCLIDE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY

    OTHER IMAGING STUDIES

    FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY

    RISK STRATIFICATION FOR THYROID NODULES

    TECHNIQUE OF FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY

    RESULTS OF FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY

    LIMITATIONS OF FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY OF THYROID NODULES

    CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON FNA CYTOLOGY RESULTS

    NONDIAGNOSTIC CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA I

    BENIGN CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA II

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS) CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA III

    FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM CYTOLOGY (INCLUDES HüRTHLE CELL NEOPLASM): BETHESDA IV

    ROLE OF MOLECULAR TESTING FOR BETHESDA III AND IV NODULES

    SUSPICIOUS FOR MALIGNANCY CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA V

    MALIGNANT CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA VI

    TREATMENT AFTER THYROID SURGERY

    REFERENCES

    Section VI: Thyroid Cancers

    Chapter 53: Carcinomas of follicular epithelium: epidemiology and pathogenesis

    RADIATION

    EXTERNAL RADIATION AND THYROID CARCINOMA

    INTERNAL RADIATION AND THYROID CARCINOMA

    COMPARISON OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RADIATION

    PREVENTING IODINE 131–RELATED THYROID CARCINOMA

    EVALUATION OF IRRADIATED PATIENTS

    RADIATION AND OTHER HEAD AND NECK TUMORS

    CLINICAL FEATURES OF RADIATION-RELATED THYROID NEOPLASMS

    GENETIC PREDISPOSITION

    SYNDROMIC NONMEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    NONSYNDROMIC FAMILIAL NONMEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA (FNMTC)

    GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    PRE-EXISTING THYROID DISEASE

    HORMONAL AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS

    DIETARY FACTORS

    IODINE AND GOITROGENS

    OTHER DIETARY FACTORS

    ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND METABOLIC FACTORS

    SMOKING AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 54: Genomic landscapes of thyroid cancers of follicular cell derivation

    GENOMIC HALLMARKS OF NEOPLASMS ARISING FROM THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    FOLLICULAR NEOPLASMS

    AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING ADENOMA

    FOLLICULAR ADENOMA AND CARCINOMA

    PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    NIFTP

    RARE PTC VARIANTS

    OTHER SOMATIC MUTATIONS

    TERT PROMOTER MUTATIONS

    SOMATIC COPY NUMBER ALTERATIONS

    HÜRTHLE CELL NEOPLASMS

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER

    GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS OF THYROID CANCER GENOMICS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 55: Carcinoma of the follicular epithelium: surgical therapy

    INTRODUCTION

    THYROIDECTOMY NOMENCLATURE

    EXTENT OF THYROIDECTOMY AND RISK OF COMPLICATIONS

    SURGERY FOR INDETERMINATE THYROID NODULES

    THYROIDECTOMY FOR THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CERVICAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION NOMENCLATURE

    EXTENT OF LYMPH NODE DISSECTION AND RISK OF COMPLICATIONS

    LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE AND LOCATION OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    PROGNOSIS OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CENTRAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION

    LATERAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 56: Staging and prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    INTRODUCTION

    STAGING TO PREDICT RISK OF THYROID CANCER DEATH

    ELEMENTS AND COMPARISON OF PUBLISHED STAGING SYSTEMS

    EVOLUTION OF THE TNM SYSTEM TO THE CURRENT 8TH EDITION

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES IN 8TH EDITION TNM STAGING

    PREDICTING THE RISK OF THYROID CANCER RECURRENCE

    ELEMENTS OF INITIAL RISK STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES FOR INITIAL RISK SYSTEMS

    DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION/RESPONSE-TO-THERAPY

    ELEMENTS OF DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES FOR DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION

    HOW TO USE CURRENT RISK STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS IN PRACTICE

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 57: Medical management of differentiated epithelial cell thyroid cancer

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY

    THE GOALS OF THE FIRST ADMINISTERED ACTIVITY OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    ABLATION OF RESIDUAL NORMAL THYROID TISSUE

    RAI TREATMENT AS AN ADJUVANT THERAPY

    PREPARATION FOR RAI THERAPY

    SELECTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE ACTIVITY FOR REMNANT ABLATION

    WHOLE-BODY 131I SCANS AND SPECT/CT

    RAI THERAPY FOR LOCAL OR DISTANT METASTATIC DISEASE

    INDICATIONS FOR RAI THERAPY

    TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH HIGH SERUM THYROGLOBULIN LEVELS AND NEGATIVE IMAGING STUDIES

    COMPLICATIONS OF RAI THERAPY

    FOLLOW-UP PARADIGMS

    EARLY FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS (FIRST YEAR AFTER INITIAL THERAPY)

    FOLLOW-UP PARADIGMS BASED ON RESPONSE TO THERAPY RESTRATIFICATION

    ONGOING, DYNAMIC RISK ASSESSMENT DURING LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP

    TSH-SUPPRESSIVE THYROID HORMONE THERAPY

    EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY

    SYSTEMIC THERAPY FOR ADVANCED DISEASE

    BIOLOGICALLY TARGETED THERAPIES

    CYTOTOXIC CHEMOTHERAPY

    OTHER PALLIATIVE INTERVENTIONS FOR SYMPTOMATIC METASTATIC DTC

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 58: Papillary microcarcinomas

    INCREASING INCIDENCE OF THYROID CANCER WITH STABLE MORTALITY

    SURGERY OF PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA AND OUTCOMES

    FREQUENT MULTIPLICITY AND REGIONAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS

    PROGNOSIS OF HIGH-RISK AND LOW-RISK PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    SURGICAL APPROACH TO PMCs

    ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE OF LOW-RISK PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    HISTORY AND HYPOTHESIS

    PROTOCOL OF THE ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE AT KUMA HOSPITAL

    OUTCOMES OF ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    EVALUATION OF THE RISK OF TRACHEA AND RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE INVASION

    INCIDENCES OF UNFAVORABLE EVENTS IN IMMEDIATE SURGERY VERSUS ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    MEDICAL ECONOMY OF MANAGEMENT OF PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    FACTORS THAT MIGHT BE ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE PROGRESSION

    NATURAL HISTORY OF PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    LIFETIME PROBABILITY OF DISEASE PROGRESSION

    TUMOR VOLUME KINETICS DURING ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    ESTIMATING TUMOR GROWTH BEFORE PRESENTATION

    IMPLEMENTING ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 59: Medullary thyroid cancer

    NATURAL HISTORY

    TUMOR PROGRESSION

    PREOPERATIVE SCREENING

    SURGICAL TREATMENT

    DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION AND FOLLOW-UP

    RECURRENT AND PERSISTENT DISEASE

    REOPERATION

    DISTANT DISEASE

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 60: Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and miscellaneous tumors of the thyroid

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    DEFINITION/EPIDEMIOLOGY

    TREATMENT/PROGNOSIS

    ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOGENESIS

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    PATHOLOGY

    GENOMICS/MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY/IMMUNOLOGY

    STAGING

    MANAGEMENT—GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVA

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVB

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVC

    MANAGEMENT—OLIGOMETASTATIC STAGE IVC

    PALLIATIVE AND HOSPICE CARE

    ATC SUMMARY

    MISCELLANEOUS TUMORS OF THE THYROID GLAND

    HYALINIZING TRABECULAR TUMOR

    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    THYROID MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA

    SCLEROSING MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA WITH EOSINOPHILIA

    MUCINOUS CARCINOMA OF THE THYROID

    ECTOPIC THYMOMA

    SPINDLE EPITHELIAL TUMOR WITH THYMUS-LIKE DIFFERENTIATION

    INTRATHYROID THYMIC CARCINOMA

    PARAGANGLIOMA AND MESENCHYMAL/STROMAL TUMORS

    HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS

    GERM CELL TUMORS (BENIGN TERATOMA, IMMATURE TERATOMA, MALIGNANT TERATOMA)

    SECONDARY MALIGNANCIES OF THE THYROID

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 61: Thyroid cancer in children

    RISK OF THYROID CANCER IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH A THYROID NODULE

    DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCERS

    PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA (PTC)

    PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA (PTMC)

    FOLLICULAR VARIANT PTC

    FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA (FTC)

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA 2A

    MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA 2B

    EARLY THYROIDECTOMY IN MEN2

    MANAGEMENT OF MTC IN MEN2

    REFERENCES

    Section VII: The Thyroid in Infancy and Childhood

    Chapter 62: The maturation of thyroid function in the fetus, in the perinatal period and during childhood

    MATURATION OF THYROID FUNCTION IN UTERO

    ORGANOGENESIS AND STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE THYROID GLAND

    FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE THYROID GLAND AND ONSET OF THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    THE ROLE OF THE PLACENTA FOR MATERNOFETAL INTERACTION

    MATURATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    SYNTHESIS OF THE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT PROTEINS

    REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN UTERO BY SULFATION

    REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN UTERO BY DEIODINATION

    ONTOGENY OF TRANSMEMBRANE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORTERS

    ONTOGENY OF THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS

    THE ROLE OF THYROID HORMONES FOR THE FETUS AND THE CHILD

    BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

    COCHLEA DEVELOPMENT

    RETINA DEVELOPMENT

    MUSCLE AND MYOCARDIAL DEVELOPMENT

    BONE DEVELOPMENT AND LINEAR GROWTH

    METABOLIC EFFECTS

    PERINATAL AND POSTNATAL CHANGES IN THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM

    PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE TERM NEONATE

    THYROID FUNCTION IN THE PRETERM NEONATE

    THYROID FUNCTION IN SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE NEONATES

    INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADOLESCENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 63: Hypothyroidism in infants and children

    CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    NEWBORN SCREENING

    RATIONALE FOR BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING FOR CH

    PREMATURE AND VERY LOW–BIRTH-WEIGHT NEWBORNS

    NEWBORNS WITH TRISOMY 21

    EVALUATION OF NEWBORNS WITH A POSITIVE SCREENING RESULT

    QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SCREENING PROGRAMS

    CLASSIFICATION OF CH (Table 63-2)

    ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

    PERMANENT CH

    TRANSIENT CH

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION (Table 63-3)

    TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

    ACQUIRED HYPOTHYROIDISM (CH)

    ETIOLOGIES (Table 63-4)

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION (Fig. 63-4)

    EVALUATION

    TREATMENT

    PROGNOSIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 64: Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone: defects of transport, metabolism, and action

    TH SECRETION, CELL-MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, METABOLISM, AND ACTION

    THE PARADOX OF COEXISTING MANIFESTATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION DEFECTS KNOWN AS RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE

    RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE BETA (RTHβ)

    CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF TR ACTION

    PROPERTIES OF MUTANT TRβ RECEPTORS AND ASSOCIATED DOMINANT-NEGATIVE EFFECT

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE VARIABLE RTHβ PHENOTYPE

    RTHβ WITHOUT THRB GENE MUTATIONS (NON–TRβ-RTH)

    ANIMAL MODELS OF RTHβ

    PATHOGENESIS

    PATHOLOGY

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    TH AND ITS METABOLITES

    THYROTROPIN AND OTHER THYROID STIMULATORS

    THYROID GLAND ACTIVITY AND INTEGRITY OF HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    IN VIVO EFFECTS OF TH

    IN VITRO TESTS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    RESPONSES TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THYROID HORMONE

    EFFECTS OF OTHER DRUGS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE ALPHA (RTHα)

    BACKGROUND

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DEFECT AND PROPERTIES OF THE MUTANT TRα

    ANIMAL MODELS OF RTHα (SEE ALSO ANIMAL MODELS UNDER RTHβ, ABOVE)

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROID HORMONE CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORTER DEFECT (THCMTD)

    CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS OF TH

    INHERITANCE AND INCIDENCE

    ETIOLOGY

    THE MCT8 GENE AND MUTATIONS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    SERUM TESTS OF THYROID FUNCTION

    OTHER SERUM TESTS

    X-RAYS AND IMAGING

    TESTS IN TISSUES

    GENETIC TESTING

    ANIMAL MODELS OF MCT8 DEFICIENCY

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DISORDER

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM DEFECT

    INTRACELLULAR METABOLISM OF TH

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    THE SBP2 GENE AND MUTATIONS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DISORDER

    THMD CAUSED BY MUTATION IN THE TRU-TCA1-1 GENE

    ANIMAL MODELS OF THMD

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 65: Hyperthyroidism in the neonate, child, and adolescent

    CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE HYPERTHYROID STATE

    BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THYROID FUNCTION

    GRAVES DISEASE

    ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY

    THYROIDECTOMY AND RISKS

    SOMATIC COMPLICATIONS OF GD

    NEONATAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    FETAL CONSIDERATIONS

    OTHER CAUSES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM

    HASHITOXICOSIS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Section VIII: Thyroid Disorders in Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Chapter 66: Thyroid disorders during preconception, pregnancy, and the postpartum period

    PRECONCEPTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PHYSIOLOGY

    CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND MANAGEMENT

    PREGNANCY

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PHYSIOLOGY

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID DISEASE

    OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    ISOLATED HYPOTHYROXINEMIA

    AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE IN PREGNANCY

    HYPERTHYROIDISM

    POSTPARTUM

    POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS

    REFERENCES

    Index

     

     

  • 1,70300lei 1430.00 lei

    Now in its third edition, Osteoporosis, is the most comprehensive, authoritative reference on this disease. Written by renowned experts in the field, this two-volume reference is a must-have for academic and medical libraries, physicians, researchers, and any company involved in osteoporosis research and development. Worldwide, 200 million women between 60-80 suffer from osteoporosis and have a lifetime risk of fracture between 30 and 40 % continuing to make osteoporosis a hot topic in medicine.

  • 1530.00 lei

     A much-needed comprehensive resource, Endocrine Pathology covers clinical, radiologic, biochemical, molecular, cytogenetic, immunologic and histopathologic aspects of endocrine disorders, including the full spectrum of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The first section of the book provides an overview of the clinical presentations of endocrine diseases, while the second section reviews the wide variety of investigative techniques used in their diagnosis. The third and largest section provides a comprehensive tissue- and organ-based approach to the diagnosis of endocrine disorders, including morphologic, genetic and proteomic features with clinicopathologic correlations. All chapters are richly illustrated with numerous color images, tables and algorithms, and the book is packaged with a password, giving the user online access to all text and images. Written and edited by the world's leading experts, this comprehensive and up-to-date book is the definitive resource on endocrine pathology for all pathologists, endocrinologists and researchers.

     

    o    Highlights advances in laboratory technology and new concepts in the molecular basis of endocrine diseases, allowing readers to understand and adopt modern approaches to the diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders

    o    Integrates numerous illustrations, tables, algorithms, charts and high-quality color images, all of which are available to the reader in both print and electronic formats

    o    Provides a definite review of the evolving landscape of endocrine pathology practice, illustrating the role of the pathologist in the multidisciplinary medical team

     

    Table of Contents

     

    List of contributors
    Preface
    Part I. Clinical Approaches:
    1. Clinical presentations of endocrine diseases Karen Gomez Hernandez and Shereen Ezzat
    2. Familial endocrine tumor syndromes Charalampos Lyssikatos, Fabio R. Faucz and Constantine A. Stratakis
    3. Immunologic basis of endocrine diseases Shawn Winer, Hubert Tsui, and Daniel Winer
    Part II. Investigative Techniques:
    4. Biochemical testing Paul M. Yip, Karen Gomez-Hernandez, and Shereen Ezzat
    5. Radiologic imaging Artur Salmaslioglu, Baris Bakir, M. Gulbiz Dagoglu Kartal, Michael Chan, Juan Pablo Cruz, Walter Kucharczyk, Eugene Yu, and Karen Gulenchyn
    6. Cytologic assessment Scott L. Boerner
    7. Intraoperative consultations Ozgur Mete and Sylvia L. Asa
    8. Morphology and immunohistochemistry Robert Osamura
    9. Cytogenetic testing methods Hong Wang and Cuihong Wei
    10. Experimental models of endocrine diseases Toru Tateno and Tae Nakano-Tateno
    Part III. Anatomical Endocrine Pathology:
    11. The brain as an endocrine organ (including the pineal gland) M. Beatriz S. Lopes, Sugoto Mukherjee, Michael A. Reardon, and Carrie A. Mohila
    12. The pituitary gland Sylvia L. Asa and Ozgur Mete
    13. Thyroid Vania Nosé, Ana Carolina de Jesus, Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L. Asa, Marco Volante, Mauro Papotti and Darcy Kerr
    14. Parathyroid gland Lori A. Erickson
    15. Adrenal cortex Kai Duan, Thomas J. Giordano and Ozgur Mete
    16. Adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia Lindsey Oudijk, Ronald R. de Krijger, Karel Pacak, and Arthur S. Tischler
    17. Endocrine lesions of the gastrointestinal tract Stefano Serra
    18. The endocrine pancreas Stefano Serra, Frediano Inzani and Guido Rindi
    19. Liver in endocrine disease Oyedele A. Adeyi and Sandra E. Fischer
    20. Pulmonary, thymic and mediastinal neuroendocrine lesions Mauro Papotti, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Giulio Rossi, and Marco Volante
    21. The kidney in endocrine disease Clariss Cassol and Carmen Avila-Casado
    22. Endocrine aspects of the male genitourinary system Michelle Downes
    23. Endocrine lesions in the mammary gland Tadao Nakazawa and Tetsuo Kondo
    24. The placenta N. J. Sebire and A. R. Bamber
    25. The gynecologic tract – neuroendocrine tumors and ovarian tumors with endocrine association Marjan Rouzbahman and Blaise Clarke
    26. Skin manifestations in endocrine diseases Karen A. Naert, Nadya Al-Faraidy, Ayman Al-Habeeb, Danny Ghazarian, Cuyan Demirkesen and Can Baykal
    27. Cardiovascular system in endocrine disease Pooja Singhal and Jagdish Butany
    28. Soft tissue in endocrine disease Brendan Dickson
    29. Bone in endocrine disease Brendan Dickson, David Goltzman and Richard Kremer
    30. The approach to metastatic endocrine tumors of unknown primary site Sara Hafezi-Bakthiari and Ozgur Mete
    Index.

  • 1,71600lei 1580.00 lei

    The International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus has been a successful, well-respected medical textbook for almost 20 years, over 3 editions. Encyclopaedic and international in scope, the textbook covers all aspects of diabetes ensuring a truly multidisciplinary and global approach. Sections covered include epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, management and complications of diabetes and public health issues worldwide. It incorporates a vast amount of new data regarding the scientific understanding and clinical management of this disease, with each new edition always reflecting the substantial advances in the field. Whereas other diabetes textbooks are primarily clinical with less focus on the basic science behind diabetes, ITDM's primary philosophy has always been to comprehensively cover the basic science of metabolism, linking this closely to the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of the disease. Edited by four world-famous diabetes specialists, the book is divided into 13 sections, each section edited by a section editor of major international prominence. As well as covering all aspects of diabetes, from epidemiology and pathophysiology to the management of the condition and the complications that arise, this fourth edition also includes two new sections on NAFLD, NASH and non-traditional associations with diabetes, and clinical trial evidence in diabetes. This fourth edition of an internationally recognised textbook will once again provide all those involved in diabetes research and development, as well as diabetes specialists with the most comprehensive scientific reference book on diabetes available.

  • Principles of Diabetes Mellitus
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,92700lei 1700.00 lei

    • Revises and expands on classic earlier editions, providing a comprehensive text on diabetes mellitus
    • Covers all major topics including glucose metabolism, diagnosis and epidemiology, genetics, management and prevention
    • Provides a global perspective on diabetes mellitus, diabetic syndromes and related disorders
    • Delivers expertise in diabetes research and treatment, edited by a leading figure in the field

    About this Reference Work

    The third edition of this important work is a timely update to the comprehensive textbook first published in 2002 and reissued in a second edition in 2010. The past few years have witnessed major developments in our understanding of diabetes and in therapeutic approaches to this disease and its numerous complications. Thus, all chapters have been significantly revised and updated with current evidence and best practices, and four brand new chapters are included, discussing the potential role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of diabetes, peculiarities of diabetes in the elderly, oral manifestations of diabetes, and the current state of bariatric surgery.

    Written by an international group of experts and carefully edited by a leading authority on the subject, Principles of Diabetes Mellitus, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for researchers and physicians of all specialties, as well as medical students and investigators of all aspects of diabetes, who deal with an illness that has reached epidemic proportions.

Scroll