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  • 265.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    This second edition of a bestseller, Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice focuses on the role of the federal government in determining nutrition policy and influencing practice. Beginning with an overview of public health principles, the book examines the application of nutritional policy to dietary guidance.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1: Public Health and Nutrition

    Chapter 2: Preventing Disease or Promoting Health?

    Chapter 3: Nutritional Epidemiology

    Chapter 4: Diet-Related Chronic Disease : Disparities and Programs to Reduce Them

    Chapter 5: Weight Control : Challenges and Solutions

    Chapter 6: Special Populations

    Chapter 7: Cultural Competency

    Chapter 8: Food and Nutrition Policies

    Chapter 9: Food and Nutrition Guidance

    Chapter 10: Food and Nutrition Assessment of the Community

    Chapter 11: Promoting Food Security

    Chapter 12: Social Marketing and Other Mass Communication Techniques

    Chapter 13: Food Safety and Defense

    Chapter 14: Grants to Support Initiatives in Public Health Nutrition

    Back Cover

     

  • 265.00 lei

     

    Book Description:

    While medical professionals continue to practice traditional allopathic medicine, the public has turned toward nutritional and integrative medical therapies, especially for addressing the proliferation of chronic diseases. Written by leaders in the academic and scientific world, Nutrition and Integrative Medicine: A Primer for Clinicians presents various modalities to help restore health. This book provides users with a guide to evaluating and recommending nutritional and integrative therapies.

    The book offers insights on the microbiome of the human body, examines the relationship of human health to the microbiome of the food we ingest, and introduces the concept of "food as information." It provides enlightenment on anti-aging and healing modalities, mind–body medicine, and an investigation of psychological trauma as related to disease causation. Integrative therapies, including water, light, and sound therapy, are explored, and information on healing chronic disease through nutrition, the tooth–body connection, the role of toxins in disease causation, and electromagnetic field hypersensitivity, as well as its management, is presented.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Nutritional and Functional Medicine. The Role of the Microbiome on Human Health. Nutritional Approaches to Chronic Illness. Othomolecular Parenteral Nutrition Therapy. Toxicology: Exploring the Concept of Exogenous and Endogenous Toxins. Environmental Toxins and Chronic Illness: Clinical Management Using Both Traditional and Allostatic Load-Based Approaches. Neuroprotection, Aging, and Gut-Brain Axis: Translating Traditional Wisdom from the Mediterranean Diet into Evidence-Based Clinical Applications. The Dental Connection to Health: Dental and Gingival Health and Its Relation to Chronic Illness. The The Crucial Role of Craniofacial Growth on Airway, Sleep, and Temporomandibular Joint. The Role of the Clinical Laboratory in Nutritional Assessment. Integrative Medicine. Revisioning Cellular Bioenergetics: Food as Information and the Light-Driven Body. The Scientific Basis of Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicine. Ayurvedic Medicine: An Integrative Approach. An Introduction to Ayurveda: Marma Therapy. Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture. Yoga and Healing: Yoga Asanas, Breath, Mudras, and Their Relation to Human Anatomy and Subtle Anatomy. Mind-Body Medicine. Meditation, Neurobiological Changes, Genes, and Health: A New Paradigm for the Healthcare System. The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life, and Health. Sound Healing, Theory and Practice. Healing with Light. The Role of Light and Electromagnetic Fields in Maintaining Vascular Health. Electromagnetic Hygiene. Identifying Pharmaceutical-Grade Essential Oils and Using Them Safely and Effectively in Integrative Medicine. On the Sophistican of Herbal Medicines. Psychological Trauma: Integrating Somatic and Psychological Methods to Treatment. Anti-Aging and Regenerative Medicine. Overcoming Chronic and Degenerative Diseases with Energy Medicine. Non-Invasive Early Diagnostic Methods of Various Cancers (Part I) and Safe, Effective, Individualized Treatrment of Cancer (Part II). Low Doses Big Effects: Application to Pediatrics. Nutritional and Alternative Medicine: Legal and Ethical Considerations.

     

  • 265.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    Both nutrition deficiency and overnutrition can have a significant effect on the risk of infection. Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection focuses on the influence of diet on the immune system and how altering one’s diet helps prevent and treat infections and chronic diseases. This book reviews basic immunology and discusses changes in immune function throughout the life course. It features comprehensive chapters on obesity and the role of immune cells in adipose tissue; undernutrition and malnutrition; infant immune maturation; pre- and probiotics; mechanisms of immune regulation by various vitamins and minerals; nutrition and the aging immune system; nutrition interactions with environmental stress; and immunity in the global health arena.

    Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection describes the various roles of nutrients and other food constituents on immune function, host defense, and resistance to infection. It describes the impact of infection on nutritional status through a translational approach. Chapters bring together molecular, cellular, and experimental studies alongside human trials so that readers can assess both the evidence for the effects of the food component being discussed and the mechanisms underlying those effects. The impact of specific conditions including obesity, anorexia nervosa, and HIV infection is also considered.

    Chapter authors are experts in nutrition, immunity, and infection from all around the globe, including Europe, Australia, Brazil, India, and the United States. This book is a valuable resource for nutrition scientists, food scientists, dietitians, health practitioners, and students interested in nutrition and immunity.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Innate immunity – an overview. Cell-mediated immunity – an overview. The gut-associated lymphoid system. The role of the immune system in nutrition-related lifestyle diseases. Obesity, immunity, and infection. Role of immune cells in adipose tissue. Influence of infection and inflammation on nutrient status. Undernutrition, infection, and poor growth in infants and children. The thymus as a window on malnutrition. Immunity in anorexia. Breast milk and infant immune maturation. Interactions between probiotic bacteria and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Prebiotics, probiotics, and response to vaccination. Prebiotics, immunity, and infection in infants and children. Mechanisms of immune regulation by vitamin A. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection in children. Vitamin C and infectious disease. Vitamin D and antimicrobial immunity. Vitamin D and control of autoimmunity. Vitamin E and T cell function. Iron, immunity, and infection. Selenium and the immune response. Zinc regulation of the immune response. Short chain fatty acids, G-protein coupled receptors and immune cells. Omega-3 fatty acids and T cell responses. Novel immunoregulatory mediators produced from omega-3 fatty acids. Arginine and cell-mediated immunity. Nitric oxide and the immune system. Glutamine and the immune system. Glutathione, immunity, and infection. Nucleotides and the immune system. Gangliosides and immune maturation. Plant phenolics and immunity. Immunomodulatory effects of beta-glucans from fungi. AHCC and immune responses. Immunoenhancing formulas for hospitalized patients. Nutrition and the aging immune system. Nutrition interaction with environmental stress and immunity. AHCC and autoimmune Sjogren’s disease. Nutrition and immunity in the global health arena.

     

  • 32200lei 265.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION:

     

    Nutrition, Health and Disease

    In this newly revised third edition of Nutrition, Health and Disease, prominent researcher and Professor of Human Nutrition Simon Langley-Evans delivers an easy-to-read and student-friendly textbook on the changing demands for nutrients made by the body throughout the human lifespan.

    Thorough introductions to lifespan nutrition, maternal nutrition prior to conception, pregnancy, and the relationship between fetal nutrition and disease later in life

    Practical discussions of lactation and infant feeding, nutrition during childhood, nutrition during adolescence, and nutrition in the adult years

    Detailed examination of contemporary evidence of the relationship between diet, body weight, and the major nutrition-related diseases: cancer, heart disease and diabetes

    Exploration of vegetarian, vegan, and other alternative diets, as well as dieting for weight loss in adults, gender and nutrition, macro- and micronutrients, and a background on nutritional epidemiology

    Access to an updated student companion website with additional resources

    Perfect for nutrition and dietetics students, as well as newly qualified nutrition and dietetics professionals, this foundational textbook will also earn a place on the bookshelves of other healthcare students and professionals who seek a one-stop reference on the impact that nutrition has on health and disease.

     

    TABLE OF CONTENTS:

     

    Preface ix

    Acknowledgements x

    Abbreviations xi

    Glossary of terms used in this book xii

    About the companion website xxiii

    1 Introduction to lifespan nutrition 1

    1.1 The lifespan approach to nutrition 1

    1.2 The concept of balance 2

    1.2.1 A supply and demand model 2

    1.2.2 Overnutrition 3

    1.2.3 Undernutrition 4

    1.2.3.1 Increased demand 4

    1.2.3.2 The metabolic response to trauma 4

    1.2.3.3 Compromised supply and deficiency  6

    1.2.3.4 Malnutrition 7

    1.2.4 Classical balance studies 11

    1.2.5 Overall nutritional status 12

    1.3 The individual response to nutrition 12

    1.3.1 Stage of the lifespan 13

    1.3.2 Genetics 14

    1.4 Personalized nutrition 17

    1.5 Assessment of nutritional status 19

    1.5.1 Anthropometric measures 19

    1.5.2 Estimating dietary intakes 20

    1.5.2.1 Indirect measures 20

    1.5.2.2 Direct measures 21

    1.5.3 Biomarkers of nutritional status 24

    1.5.4 Clinical examination 25

    1.6 Nutritional epidemiology: understanding diet–disease relationships 26

    1.6.1 The importance of the evidence base 26

    1.6.2 Nutritional epidemiology 26

    1.6.3 Cause and effect 27

    1.6.4 Bias and confounding 27

    1.6.5 Quantifying the relationship between diet and disease 28

    1.6.6 Study designs in nutritional epidemiology 29

    1.6.6.1 Ecological studies 31

    1.6.6.2 Crosssectional studies 32

    1.6.6.3 Case–control studies 33

    1.6.6.4 Cohort studies 33

    1.6.6.5 Randomized controlled trials 33

    1.6.6.6 Systematic review and metaanalysis 34

    1.6.6.7 Scoping reviews 34

    1.7 Dietary reference values 35

    1.7.1 The UK dietary reference values system 36

    1.7.2 Dietary reference values in other countries 39

    2 Before life begins 45

    2.1 Introduction 45

    2.2 Nutrition and female fertility 46

    2.2.1 Determinants of fertility and infertility 46

    2.2.1.1 The endocrine control of female reproduction 47

    2.2.1.2 Disordered reproductive cycling 48

    2.2.1.3 Polycystic ovary syndrome 48

    2.2.2 Importance of body fat 50

    2.2.3 Role of leptin 51

    2.2.4 Antioxidant nutrients 53

    2.2.5 Caffeine and alcohol 55

    2.3 Nutrition and male fertility 56

    2.3.1 Determinants of fertility and infertility 56

    2.3.2 Obesity 60

    2.3.3 Alcohol 61

    2.3.4 Zinc 61

    2.3.5 Antioxidant nutrients 62

    2.3.6 Selenium 63

    2.3.7 Phytoestrogens and environmental oestrogens 63

    2.3.7.1 Phthalates 64

    2.3.7.2 Phytoestrogens 64

    2.3.7.3 Pesticides 65

    2.4 Preparation for pregnancy 66

    2.4.1 Why prepare for pregnancy? 66

    2.4.2 Maternal weight management 66

    2.4.3 Vitamin A and liver 66

    2.4.4 Folic acid and neural tube defects 69

    2.4.4.1 Supplementation with folic acid 71

    2.4.4.2 Fortification with folic acid 71

    3 Pregnancy 79

    3.1 Introduction 79

    3.2 Physiological demands of pregnancy 81

    3.2.1 Maternal weight gain and body composition changes 81

    3.2.2 Blood volume expansion and cardiovascular changes 82

    3.2.3 Renal changes 83

    3.2.4 Respiratory changes 83

    3.2.5 Gastrointestinal changes 84

    3.2.6 Metabolic adaptations 84

    3.3 Nutrient requirements in pregnancy 85

    3.3.1 Energy protein and lipids 85

    3.3.2 Micronutrients 87

    3.3.2.1 Iron 87

    3.3.2.2 Calcium and other minerals 89

    3.3.2.3 Vitamin D 90

    3.4 Diet in relation to pregnancy outcomes 91

    3.4.1 Miscarriage and stillbirth 91

    3.4.2 Premature labour 92

    3.4.2.1 Prepregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain 92

    3.4.2.2 Alcohol and caffeine consumption 94

    3.4.2.3 Oral health 96

    3.4.3 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 97

    3.4.3.1 The aetiology of preeclampsia 98

    3.4.3.2 Nutritionrelated factors and preeclampsia 99

    3.4.4 Abnormal labour 101

    3.5 Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy 102

    3.5.1 Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy as a normal physiological process 102

    3.5.2 Hyperemesis gravidarum 104

    3.6 Cravings and aversions 106

    3.6.1 Pica 107

    3.7 Gastrointestinal disturbances in pregnancy 108

    3.8 Highrisk pregnancies 108

    3.8.1 Gestational diabetes 108

    3.8.2 Adolescent and older mothers 110

    3.8.3 Multiple pregnancies 111

    3.8.4 Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 113

    4 Fetal nutrition and disease in later life 123

    4.1 Introduction 123

    4.2 The developmental origins of adult disease 123

    4.2.1 The concept of programming 123

    4.2.2 Fetal programming and human disease 125

    4.2.2.1 Fetal growth 125

    4.2.2.2 Nutrition and the constraint of growth 126

    4.2.2.3 Fetal growth health and disease 127

    4.3 Evidence linking maternal nutrition to disease in later life 129

    4.3.1 Epidemiology 129

    4.3.1.1 Association of disease with birth anthropometry 129

    4.3.1.2 Maternal nutrition and later disease 131

    4.3.1.3 Maternal obesity and later disease 132

    4.3.2 Criticisms of the programming hypothesis 133

    4.3.3 Experimental studies 134

    4.3.3.1 Global undernutrition 136

    4.3.3.2 Micronutrients 136

    4.3.3.3 Macronutrients 137

    4.4 Mechanistic basis of fetal programming 138

    4.4.1 Thrifty phenotypes and genotypes 138

    4.4.2 Mismatched environments 139

    4.4.3 Tissue remodelling 139

    4.4.4 Endocrine imbalance 141

    4.4.5 Nutrient–gene interactions 144

    4.4.5.1 Polymorphisms in humans 144

    4.4.5.2 Gene expression in animals 145

    4.4.6 Epigenetic regulation 145

    4.5 Implications of the developmental origins hypothesis 148

    4.5.1 Public health interventions 148

    4.5.2 Transgenerational transmission of disease risk 149

    5 Lactation and infant feeding 157

    5.1 Introduction 157

    5.2 The physiology of lactation 157

    5.2.1 Anatomy of the breast 157

    5.2.1.1 The nipple and areola 157

    5.2.1.2 The lactiferous ducts 158

    5.2.1.3 The lactiferous sinuses 158

    5.2.1.4 The alveolar cells 158

    5.2.1.5 The rooting reflex 158

    5.2.2 Synthesis of milk 158

    5.2.2.1 Foremilk and hindmilk 159

    5.2.2.2 Time of day 159

    5.2.2.3 Course of lactation 160

    5.2.2.4 Synthesis of carbohydrates 160

    5.2.2.5 Origins of milk fats 160

    5.2.2.6 Milk proteins 161

    5.2.3 Endocrine control of lactation 162

    5.2.3.1 The breast during pregnancy 162

    5.2.3.2 Established lactation 162

    5.2.3.3 The breast after weaning 163

    5.2.4 Maintenance of lactation 164

    5.2.5 Nutritional demands of lactation 164

    5.3 The advantages of breastfeeding 165

    5.3.1 Advantages for the mother 165

    5.3.1.1 Convenience and cost 165

    5.3.1.2 Bond with infant 166

    5.3.1.3 Recovery from pregnancy 166

    5.3.1.4 Longterm health 167

    5.3.2 Advantages for the infant 168

    5.3.2.1 Immunoprotection 168

    5.3.2.2 Sudden infant death 169

    5.3.2.3 Cognitive development 169

    5.3.2.4 Obesity 171

    5.3.2.5 Atopy 171

    5.3.2.6 Milk contaminants 172

    5.3.3 Recommendation to breastfeed for six months 173

    5.4 Trends in breastfeeding behaviour 174

    5.4.1 Reasons why women do not breastfeed 176

    5.4.1.1 Cultural factors 176

    5.4.1.2 Technique infection and stress 177

    5.4.2 Promoting breastfeeding 178

    5.5 Situations in which breastfeeding is not advised 179

    5.6 Alternatives to breastfeeding 181

    5.6.1 Cow’s milk formulas 182

    5.6.1.1 Milk stages and followon milk 183

    5.6.2 Preterm formulas 184

    5.6.3 Soy formulas 185

    5.6.4 Hydrolysed protein and amino acidbased formulas 185

    5.6.5 Other formulas 185

    6 Nutrition and childhood 191

    6.1 Introduction 191

    6.2 Infancy (birth to five) 192

    6.2.1 The key developmental milestones 192

    6.2.2 Nutrient requirements 193

    6.2.2.1 Macronutrients and energy 193

    6.2.2.2 Micronutrients 196

    6.2.3 Nutrient intakes and infants 197

    6.2.4 Transition to an adult pattern of food intake 198

    6.2.4.1 Complementary feeding 198

    6.2.4.2 Nutritionrelated problems 201

    6.2.4.3 Barriers to healthy nutrition 206

    6.3 Childhood (5–13) 212

    6.3.1 Nutrient requirements of the older child 212

    6.3.2 School meals and the promotion of healthy eating 213

    6.3.3 The importance of breakfast 214

    6.4 Obesity in children 215

    6.4.1 The rising prevalence of obesity 215

    6.4.2 The causes of obesity in childhood 217

    6.4.2.1 Physical activity 217

    6.4.2.2 Food intake 218

    6.4.2.3 Genetic disorders 221

    6.4.3 The consequences of childhood obesity 222

    6.4.3.1 Immediate health consequences 222

    6.4.3.2 Tracking of obesity: consequences for the future 222

    6.4.4 Treatment of childhood obesity 224

    6.4.5 Prevention of childhood obesity 226

    7 Nutrition and adolescence 237

    7.1 Introduction 237

    7.2 Physical development 237

    7.2.1 Growth rate 237

    7.2.2 Body composition 238

    7.2.3 Puberty and sexual maturation 239

    7.2.4 Bone growth 241

    7.3 Psychosocial development 244

    7.4 Nutritional requirements in adolescence 245

    7.4.1 Macronutrients and energy 245

    7.4.2 Micronutrients 246

    7.5 Nutritional intakes in adolescence 247

    7.5.1 Factors that influence food choice 248

    7.5.2 Food consumed out of the home 249

    7.5.3 Meal skipping and snacking 250

    7.6 Potential problems with nutrition 251

    7.6.1 Dieting and weight control 251

    7.6.2 The teenage vegetarian 253

    7.6.3 Sport and physical activity 254

    7.6.4 Eating disorders 255

    7.6.4.1 Anorexia nervosa 256

    7.6.4.2 Bulimia nervosa 257

    7.6.5 The pregnant teenager 258

    7.6.6 The transgender teenager 260

    7.6.7 Alcohol 262

    7.6.8 Tobacco smoking 264

    7.6.9 Drug abuse 266

    8 The adult years 274

    8.1 Introduction 274

    8.2 Changing needs for nutrients 274

    8.3 Guidelines for healthy nutrition 276

    8.4 Disease states associated with unhealthy nutrition and lifestyle 279

    8.4.1 Obesity 279

    8.4.1.1 Classification of overweight and obesity 279

    8.4.1.2 Prevalence and trends in obesity 280

    8.4.1.3 Causes of obesity in adulthood 281

    8.4.1.4 Treatment of obesity 281

    8.4.2 Type 2 diabetes 284

    8.4.3 The metabolic syndrome 287

    8.4.4 Cardiovascular disease 288

    8.4.4.1 What is cardiovascular disease? 288

    8.4.4.2 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease 290

    8.4.4.3 Nutritionrelated factors and risk of cardiovascular disease 291

    8.4.5 Cancer 302

    8.4.5.1 What is cancer? 302

    8.4.5.2 Diet is a modifiable determinant of cancer risk 303

    8.4.5.3 Nutritional epidemiology and cancer 305

    8.4.5.4 Dietary factors that may promote cancer 309

    8.4.5.5 Dietary factors that may reduce cancer risk 316

    9 Nutrition ageing and older adults 330

    9.1 Introduction 330

    9.2 The ageing population 330

    9.3 The ageing process 331

    9.3.1 Impact on physiological systems 331

    9.3.2 Mechanisms of cellular senescence 332

    9.3.2.1 Oxidative senescence 332

    9.3.2.2 The role of p53 activation 334

    9.3.2.3 Telomere shortening 334

    9.3.2.4 The Ink4a/ARF axis 335

    9.3.3 Nutritional modulation of the ageing process 336

    9.3.3.1 Caloric restriction and lifespan 336

    9.3.3.2 Fetal programming of lifespan 338

    9.3.3.3 Supplementary antioxidants 338

    9.4 Nutrient requirements of the elderly 339

    9.4.1 Macronutrients and energy 339

    9.4.2 Micronutrients 339

    9.4.3 Specific guidelines for the elderly 339

    9.5 Barriers to healthy nutrition in the elderly 340

    9.5.1 Malnutrition and the elderly 340

    9.5.2 Poverty 341

    9.5.3 Social isolation 342

    9.5.4 Education 342

    9.5.5 Physical changes 343

    9.5.6 Combating malnutrition in the elderly 343

    9.6 Common nutritionrelated health problems 345

    9.6.1 Bone disorders 345

    9.6.1.1 Bone mineralization and remodelling 345

    9.6.1.2 Osteoporosis pathology and prevalence 346

    9.6.1.3 Risk factors for osteoporosis 347

    9.6.1.4 Dietary interventions for osteoporosis prevention 347

    9.6.1.5 Paget’s disease of bone 350

    9.6.2 Immunity and infection 350

    9.6.3 Digestive tract disorders 354

    9.6.3.1 Mouth and oesophagus 354

    9.6.3.2 Stomach 354

    9.6.3.3 Small intestine 354

    9.6.3.4 Large intestine 354

    9.6.4 Anaemia 355

    9.6.4.1 Iron deficiency anaemia 357

    9.6.4.2 Vitamin B12 deficiency 357

    9.6.4.3 Folate deficiency 358

    9.6.4.4 Cognitive impairment and anaemia 359

    Appendix An introduction to the nutrients 368

    Index 379

     

  • Nutrition and Sensation
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    265.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Nutrition and Sensation explores how sensations can impact nutrition. It unravels the hidden sensory universe acting to control our appetite and nutritional desires. The sensory influence on food choice is ubiquitous. Whether it is the color of soda, the viscosity of maple syrup, or the aroma of chocolate, the sensory experience fuels consumption.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1: Tasting History

    Chapter 2: Chemosensory Disorders : Emerging Roles in Food Selection, Nutrient Inadequacies, and Dig

    Chapter 3: Retronasal Olfaction

    Chapter 4: Taste and Food Choice

    Chapter 5: Psychophysical Measurement of Human Oral Experience

    Chapter 6: Color Correspondences in Chemosensation : The Case of Food and Drinks

    Chapter 7: Effect of Visual Cues on Sensory and Hedonic Evaluation of Food

    Chapter 8: Chemesthesis, Thermogenesis, and Nutrition

    Chapter 9: The Look and Feel of Food

    Chapter 10: Auditory System and Nutrition

    Chapter 11: Sensory-Specific Satiety and Nutrition

    Chapter 12: Chemosensory Influences on Eating and Drinking, and Their Cognitive Mediation

    Chapter 13: Review of Chemosensation for Weight Loss

    Chapter 14: Chemosensation to Enhance Nutritional Intake in Can

     

  • 265.00 lei

     

     

    Description:

     

    Nutrition plays a key role in prevention of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet influences a broad spectrum of cardiometabolic risk factors, notably a cluster including excess adiposity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism and high blood pressure. In the face of the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes, maintaining cardiometabolic health through adoption of a healthy lifestyle is a top public health priority. In this book, Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health, international experts present state-of-the-art scholarly reviews of dietary and lifestyle effects on metabolic systems associated with cardiovascular health and disease. It covers a broad range of topics including biological and behavioral processes regulating food intake; lifestyle and surgical approaches to weight loss; nutritional considerations for optimal cardiometabolic health across the lifespan; the relationship of macronutrients, whole foods and dietary patterns to diabetes and cardiovascular disease; and diet as a modulator of gene expression, epigenetics and the gut microbiome and the relationship of these traits to disorders of metabolism. This book provides its readers with an authoritative view of the present state of knowledge of dietary effects on cardiometabolic health and will be of interest to nutrition and healthcare professionals alike.  

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    SECTION I Energy Balance, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 1 Regulation of Food Intake: The Gut–Brain Axis

    Introduction

    Central Nervous System Regulation of Food Intake

    Brainstem Regulation

    Hypothalamus

    Arcuate Nucleus

    Paraventricular Nucleus

    Lateral Hypothalamus

    Dorsal Medial Nucleus and Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

    Neurotransmitters and Homeostatic Control of Food Intake

    Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Peptide

    Proopiomelanocortin and Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript

    Gastrointestinal Signals That Regulate Food Intake

    Gut Hormones

    Ghrelin

    Cholecystokinin

    Pancreatic Polypeptide

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Peptide YY

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    Peptide YY

    Oxyntomodulin

    GIP

    Amylin

    Mechanical Mechanisms

    The Ileal-Brake Reflex

    The Role of Mechanoreception in Appetite Control

    Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Gut Hormones

    Diet and the Gut–Brain Axis: Are All Macronutrients Equal?

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 2 Overeating Behavior and Cardiometabolic Health: Mechanisms and Treatments

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Types of Overeating

    Mindless Overeating

    Portion Size

    Proximity and Visibility

    Ambient Factors

    Palatability

    Categorization Cues and Health Halo Effects

    Distracted Eating

    Social Influences

    Stress-Induced Overeating

    Neurobiological Mechanisms Linking Stress and Overeating

    Studies of Stress-Induced Overeating in Humans

    Stress-Induced Overeating and Cardiometabolic Health

    Compulsive Overeating

    Neurobiological Mechanisms Underlying Compulsive Overeating

    Compulsive Overeating and Cardiometabolic Health

    Behavioral Interventions for Overeating

    Environmental Approaches

    Institutional-Level Environmental Interventions

    Individual-Level Environmental Interventions

    Environmental Interventions and Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches

    Cognitive Restructuring

    Self-Monitoring

    Goal Setting and Goal Striving

    Stimulus Control

    Problem Solving

    Cognitive-Behavioral Protocols for Binge Eating

    Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions and Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    Independent and Combination Mindfulness Approaches

    Independent Mindfulness Approaches

    Combination Mindfulness Approaches

    Mindfulness Approaches and Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 3 Energy Balance and Regulation of Body Weight: Are All Calories Equal?

    Introduction

    Energy Balance as a Conceptual Framework

    Regulation of Macronutrient Metabolism: Is a Calorie a Calorie?

    Models of Obesity That Implicate Individual Macronutrients

    The Carbohydrate–Insulin Model

    The Protein Leverage Model

    The Dietary Fat Model

    Body Weight Regulation

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 4 Diets for Weight Loss

    Introduction

    Reducing Body Weight Is a Function of Reducing Calorie Intake

    Key Factors That Influence Weight Loss

    Reduced-Calorie Regimens

    Does the Macronutrient Composition of Diets Influence Weight Loss?

    Low-Fat versus Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Higher-Protein Diets

    Low–Glycemic Index Diets

    The Mediterranean Diet

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5 Weight Loss by Surgical Intervention: Nutritional Considerations and Influence on Health

    Introduction

    Bariatric Surgeries

    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch

    Biliopancreatic Diversion

    Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Eating Behavior, Protein Consumption Post-Surgery, and Resistance Exercise

    Dietary Compliance Post-Surgery

    Initial Consultation

    Preoperative Screening and Predictors of Postoperative Outcomes

    Postoperative Screening

    Pre- and Post-Interventions

    Vitamins and Minerals

    Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Calcium

    Iron

    Zinc

    Vitamin K

    Vitamin A

    Vitamin B12

    Folate

    Vitamin B6

    Thiamine

    Conclusion

    Future Research

    References

    Chapter 6 Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health

    Introduction

    Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health

    Physical Activity and Abdominal Obesity

    Aerobic Exercise and Abdominal Obesity

    Resistance Exercise and Abdominal Obesity

    Physical Activity and Insulin Resistance

    Aerobic Exercise and Insulin Resistance

    Resistance Exercise and Insulin Resistance

    Physical Activity and Dyslipidemia

    Aerobic Exercise and Dyslipidemia

    Resistance Exercise and Dyslipidemia

    Physical Activity and Hypertension

    Aerobic Exercise and Hypertension

    Resistance Exercise and Hypertension

    Influence of Age, Sex, and Ethnicity on PA-Induced CVD Reduction

    Efficacy and Effectiveness

    High-Intensity Interval Training and Cardiometabolic Health

    Sedentary Time as an Independent Risk Factor for Chronic Disease

    Sedentary Behavior and Health Risk

    Examination of Epidemiological Evidence

    Examination of Intervention Studies

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 7 Diet as a Potential Modulator of Body Fat Distribution

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Macronutrients and Their Relevance for Body Fat Distribution

    Lipids

    Types of Fatty Acids

    Medium-Chain Triglycerides vs. Long-Chain Triglycerides

    n-3 Fatty Acids

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Carbohydrates

    Percentage of Energy Intake as Carbohydrates

    Glycemic Index/Load

    Fructose and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Protein

    Percentage of Energy Intake as Protein

    Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Dietary Patterns

    Food Item Subgroups

    Mediterranean Diet

    Other Nutrients or Food Items

    Alcohol

    Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin D

    Soy and Isoflavones

    Dietary Fiber and Whole Grains

    Vitamins A and C

    Probiotics and the Gut Microbiota

    Infant Feeding Practices

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 8 Nutritional Considerations for Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    Abbreviations

    Definition of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Prevalence and Trends of Childhood Obesity

    Critical Periods for the Onset of Childhood Obesity

    Adiposity Rebound

    Causes of Childhood Obesity

    Treatment of Child and Adolescent Obesity

    Weight Management Goals in Children and Adolescents

    Dietary Modification

    Semi-Structured Diet Regimens

    Meal Replacements

    Macronutrient Composition

    Fruits and Vegetables

    Sweetened Beverages

    Physical and Sedentary Activity

    Screen Time

    Medications for Obesity Treatment

    Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery

    Surgical Criteria

    Cardiometabolic Comorbidities in Childhood Obesity

    Hypertension

    Cardiovascular Risk

    Dyslipidemia of Obesity

    Metabolic Syndrome

    Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Dietary Intervention and Physical Activity

    Pharmacotherapy and Surgery

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 9 Aging and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Calorie Restriction

    Aging and Cardiovascular Disease

    Calorie Restriction and Human Aging

    Proposed Mechanisms by Which CR May Affect Human Aging and CVD

    Extension of Life Span due to Slowing of the Rate of Aging

    Extension of Life Span due to Prevention or Slowing of Age-Related Disease Onset

    Evidence for the Antiaging Effects of CR in Humans

    An Unintended Study of CR from the Biosphere 2 Experiment

    Self-Administered CR in the Calorie Restriction Optimal Nutrition Society

    Short-Duration Interventions with Calorie Restriction

    Longer-Duration Interventions with Calorie Restriction

    CALERIE 1

    CALERIE 2

    Alternative Strategies for CR

    Timed Eating Paradigms

    Alternate-Day Fasting

    CR Mimetics

    Conclusion

    References

    SECTION II Dietary Fats and Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 10 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids: Roles in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Introduction

    Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Effects on Lipids

    Effects on Inflammatory Markers

    Linoleic Acid Metabolites

    Associations with CHD Events in Prospective Observational Studies

    Randomized Trials

    Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Effects on Lipids

    Effect on Inflammatory Markers

    Associations with CHD Events in Prospective Observational Studies

    Randomized Trials

    Assessing Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 11 Evolving Role of Saturated Fatty Acids

    Primer on SFA Biochemistry and Physiology

    Evolving History of Studies of SFA Effects on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and CVD Risk

    Metabolic Studies Evaluating Diet and Lipid Profiles

    Diet and CVD Studies

    Refined CVD Risk Assessment

    SFAs in Context

    Replacement Nutrient

    Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and the Obesity and Diabetes Epidemics

    Food Sources of SFAs and Dietary Patterns

    SFA Effects on Other Cardiometabolic Health Risk Factors

    Variability in Response of LDL-C to Saturated Fat

    Applying New Knowledge to Dietary Guidelines

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12 Effects of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    TFA and Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease

    Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Mechanistic Studies

    LDL Particle Size

    LDL Oxidation

    Lipoprotein(a)

    Glucose Homeostasis

    Blood Pressure

    Hemostatic Function

    Vascular Function

    Inflammation

    TFA and Cardiovascular Disease

    Intakes and Recommendations

    Conclusion

    References

    SECTION III Dietary Carbohydrates and Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 13 Epidemiologic and Mechanistic Studies of Sucrose and Fructose in Beverages and Their Relation to Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk

    Introduction

    Effects Attributable to the Energy in Beverages

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Studies and Randomized Clinical Trials

    Mechanisms for Weight Gain Associated with Soft Drinks

    Cardiometabolic Effects Attributable to the Sucrose (Sugar) and Fructose in Beverages

    Epidemiology

    Mechanisms for the Effects of Sucrose and Fructose

    Schematic Model of the Relation of Sugar, Caffeine, and Fructose to Cardiometabolic Disorders

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    References

    Chapter 14 Effects and Mechanisms of Fructose-Containing Sugars in the Pathophysiology of Metabolic Syndrome

    Introduction

    Description of Metabolic Syndrome

    Affirmed Concepts

    MetS Risk Factors

    Formally Defined Diagnostic Criteria

    Other Risk Factors That Are Not Formally Recognized

    Residual Risk Factors

    Lifestyle Risk Factors

    Added Sugars

    Consumption Levels of Added Sugars

    Sources of Added Sugars

    Plausible Mechanisms by Which Consumption of Fructose-Containing Sugar May Promote the Development of MetS.

    Unregulated Hepatic Uptake and Metabolism of Fructose

    DNL, Hepatic Lipids, and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Very Low–Density Lipoprotein Production and Secretion

    Dyslipidemia

    Intramyocellular Lipid Accumulation and Whole-Body Insulin Resistance

    Hyperuricemia

    Visceral Adipose Accumulation

    Inflammation

    Fructose Overload versus the Established Paradigm

    Dietary Sugar Consumption as a Modifiable Risk Factor for MetS: Scientific Evidence

    Observational Studies

    Dietary Intervention Studies

    Effects of Sugar Consumption on the Formally Defined Components of MetS

    Effects of Sugar Consumption on Components of MetS That Are Not Formally Defined: Liver Lipid Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and other Biomarkers of MetS

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    Conflicts of Interest

    References

    Chapter 15 Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction in the Management of NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome

    Introduction

    Scope of Disease

    Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation

    Risk Factors and Etiology

    Epidemiology

    NAFLD in Children

    Treatment

    Effect of Carbohydrate Restriction on NAFLD

    Low-Carbohydrate Diets in NAFLD

    Carbohydrate Quality

    Recommendations

    Other Dietary Treatments

    Antioxidants

    Probiotics and Prebiotics

    Pharmaceutical Approaches to the Management of NAFLD

    Insulin-Sensitizing Agents

    Bile Acid Analogs

    Pentoxifylline

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 16 Dietary Starches and Grains: Effects on Cardiometabolic Risk

    Introduction

    Carbohydrate Quantity

    Lipid and Lipoprotein Risk Factors

    CVD Risk

    Glycemic Control

    Diabetes Risk

    Glycemic Index

    Lipid and Lipoprotein Risk Factors

    Inflammation

    CVD Outcomes

    Glucose Homeostasis and Glycemic Control

    Diabetes Risk

    Whole Grains

    Lipid and Lipoprotein Risk Factors

    CVD Risk

    Glycemic Control

    Diabetes Risk

    Conclusion

    References

    SECTION IV Dietary Protein and Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 17 Interaction of Dietary Protein and Energy Balance

    Introduction

    Protein Intake in Negative Energy Balance

    Protein Intake in Neutral Energy Balance

    Mechanisms behind Protein-Induced Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Appetite

    Energy Intake

    Energy Expenditure

    Body Composition

    Protein Intake and Protein Turnover

    Protein Intake in Positive Energy Balance

    Reward Homeostasis Related to Dietary Protein

    Protein Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Adverse Effects of Protein Diets

    Summary

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 18 A Protein-Centric Perspective for Skeletal Muscle Metabolism and Cardiometabolic Health

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Protein, Weight Loss, and Muscle Mass

    Developing an Amino Acid Perspective about Cardiometabolic Health

    Optimizing Meal Pattern of Protein for Body Composition and Sarcopenia

    Leucine Defining a Meal Threshold for Dietary Protein

    Impact of Protein versus Carbohydrates on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Glycemic Regulations

    Blood Lipids

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 19 Protein Sources, CVD, Type 2 Diabetes, and Total Mortality

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Scope of Review

    Red and Processed Meat

    Epidemiological Studies

    Total Mortality/CVD Mortality/CVD Events

    Diabetes

    Characteristics of Red Meat Eaters

    Possible Mechanisms of a Harmful Effect of Red Meat

    Red Meat and CVD/Diabetes Risk Factors

    Dietary Interventions and Biomarkers of CVD and Diabetes Risk

    Dairy

    Epidemiological Studies

    Total Mortality/CVD Mortality/CVD Events

    Type 2 Diabetes

    Dairy and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Dietary Interventions and Biomarkers of CVD and Diabetes

    Longer-Term Feeding Studies

    Acute Feeding Studies

    Poultry

    Eggs

    Fish

    Epidemiological Studies of Fish Consumption and CVD and Diabetes

    Diabetes

    Dietary Interventions

    Soy Intake, Heart Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Dietary Patterns Containing Soy

    Isoflavonoid Excretion

    Interventions with Soy on Cardiovascular and Diabetes Risk Markers

    Nontraditional Risk Factors

    Acute Studies with Soy

    Conclusion

    References

    SECTION V Dietary Food Groups, Patterns, and Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 20 Consumption of Foods, Food Groups, and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Introduction

    Beverages

    Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Coffee

    Alcohol

    Foods

    Fruits and Vegetables

    Dairy (Cheese, Milk, Yogurt)

    Eggs

    Meats

    Fish

    Grains and Fiber

    Nuts and Legumes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 21 Dietary Patterns and Cardiometabolic Disease

    Introduction

    Dietary Patterns Methodology

    Major Study Designs

    Mediterranean Diet

    Other Commonly Used A Priori Dietary Patterns

    Dash Diet

    Healthy Eating Index

    Alternate Healthy Eating Index

    Cardiovascular Disease

    CVD Risk Factors

    Type 2 Diabetes

    Body Fatness and Body Mass Index

    Blood Pressure, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation

    Other Popular Diets

    A Posteriori Patterns

    Cardiovascular Disease

    CVD Risk Factors

    Type 2 Diabetes

    Body Fatness and Body Mass Index

    Blood Pressure, Blood Lipids, and Inflammation

    Implications and Directions for Future Research

    References

    Chapter 22 The Mediterranean Diet to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Introduction

    The Mediterranean Diet Pattern: History, Epidemiology, and Randomized Trials

    The Mediterranean Diet in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 23 The DASH Diet

    Development of the DASH Diet and Validation in the DASH-Sodium Study

    The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Trial

    The DASH-Sodium Trial

    Subsequent Studies with the DASH Diet Concept: PREMIER and Weight Loss Maintenance

    PREMIER Clinical Trial

    Other Trials Using the DASH-Type Diet

    DASH Diet Compared to a High-Fat DASH Diet

    DASH-Type Diet with Alternative Protein Sources

    The Omni-Heart (Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease) Study

    Effect of the DASH Diet on Cardiometabolic Health

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Conflicts of Interest

    References

    Chapter 24 Nut Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Risk and Mortality

    Introduction

    Early Epidemiological Associations

    More Recent Epidemiological Studies

    Nut Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Nut Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome Risk

    Clinical Trials on Nut Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease

    CVD Events

    Major CVD Risk Factors

    Other CVD Risk Factors

    Lipoprotein Particles

    Lipoprotein Function

    Oxidation and Inflammation

    Vascular Health

    Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Response

    Body Weight

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 25 Dairy Product Consumption, Dairy Fat, and Cardiometabolic Health

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Cardiometabolic Risk

    Dairy and Plasma Lipid Levels

    Dairy and Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation

    Dairy and Glucose–Insulin Homeostasis

    Dairy, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Dairy Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 26 Paleolithic Diets

    Introduction

    Nutrition during Human Evolution

    Carbohydrate-Rich Foods

    Other Plant Foods of the Paleolithic Diet

    Meat

    Fish and Shellfish

    Insects and Larvae

    Alcohol

    Foods with No or Minimal Contribution in Paleolithic Diets

    Paleolithic Diets and Absence of Grains

    Paleolithic Diets and Absence of Dairy

    Nutritional Characteristics of Paleolithic Diets

    Contemporary Hunter–Gatherers and other Non-Western Groups

    The Kitava Study

    Effects of Urbanization

    Controlled Trials of “Paleolithic Diets”

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 27 Fasting Intermittently or Altering Meal Frequency: Effects on Plasma Lipids

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Plasma Lipids

    Mechanisms for Modulation of Plasma Lipids due to Intermittent Fasting

    Effects of High Meal Frequency on Plasma Lipids

    Mechanisms for Modulation of Plasma Lipids due to High Meal Frequency

    Summary and Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    Conflicts of Interest

    References

    SECTION VI Other Nutritional Influences of Cardiometabolic Health

    Chapter 28 Early-Life Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Later Cardiometabolic Health

    Background

    Evidence from Epidemiology and Clinical Cohorts

    Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    Evidence from Animal Models

    Cardiometabolic Outcomes

    Maternal Undernutrition

    Maternal Overweight/Obesity

    Inflammation and Programming

    Transgenerational Effects

    Paternal Effects

    Strategies for Intervention

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 29 Gene–Diet Interactions

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Genetics of CVD and CVD Risk Factors

    Gene–Diet Interactions and CVD Risk

    Gene–Diet Interactions and Energy Balance

    Gene–Diet Interactions and Glucose-Related Risk Factors

    Gene–Diet Interactions and Lipid Metabolism

    CVD Risk Has Rhythm

    Translation of Knowledge

    References

    Chapter 30 Gut Microbiome: Its Relationship to Health and Its Modulation by Diet

    Introduction

    Gut Microbiome

    Inflammation and the Microbiome

    The Gut as a Metabolically Active Tissue

    Microbiota and Their Metabolites Can Affect CVD Risk

    Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Functional Studies of the Microbiome and Cardio-metabolic Health: Study Designs to Understand and Test Mechanisms

    Gnotobiotics to Test Microbiota

    Human Fecal Transplants

    Effects of Diet on Microbiota

    Specific Effects of Diet and Potential Interaction with Cardiometabolic Health

    Fiber

    Polyphenols

    Pre-/Probiotics

    Food Additives

    Interactions between Host Genetics and Microbiota

    Host Genetics and Microbial Composition

    Altered Microbiota across Life Span

    Newborns and Early Childhood

    Maternal Diet

    Microbiota and Elderly Populations

    Summary

    Glossary

    References

    Chapter 31 Alcohol: Associations with Blood Lipids, Insulin Sensitivity, Diabetes, Clotting, CVD, and Total Mortality

    Introduction

    Blood Lipids

    Insulin Sensitivity

    Research on Alcohol and Morbidity and Mortality

    Diabetes

    Clotting

    Cardiovascular Disease

    Coronary Heart Disease

    All-Cause Mortality

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 32 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Obesogens, and the Obesity Epidemic

    Abbreviations

    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) and Human Health

    The Obesity Epidemic

    Obesogens, Adipogenesis, and Obesity

    In Vitro Exposure to Obesogens and Adipogenesis

    In Vivo Exposure to Obesogens during Adulthood and Obesity

    Developmental Origins of Obesity

    Energy Balance during Development

    Obesogens and the Developmental Origins of Obesity

    Obesogens and the Transgenerational Transmission of Obesity

    Obesogens and Cardiovascular Disease

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    References

     

  • 265.00 lei

     

    Book Description:

     

    Handbook of Nutrition and Diet in Palliative Care, Second Edition, is a comprehensive guide, providing exhaustive information on nutrition and diet in terminal and palliative care. It covers physical, cultural and ethical aspects, bridging the intellectual divide in being suitable for novices and experts alike. Following in the tradition of its predecessor, chapters contain practical methods, techniques, and guidelines along with a section on applications to other areas of palliative care. Each chapter features key facts highlighting important areas, summary points, and ethical issues.




    FEATURES:



    • Use of cannabinoids in palliative nutrition care

    • Pain control in palliative care

    • Communications in palliative/end-of-life care: aspects of bad news

    • Anorexia in cancer: appetite, physiology, and beyond

    • Palliative care in severe and enduring eating disorders

    • Linking food supplementation and palliative care in HIV

    • Eating-related distress in terminally ill cancer patients and their family members

    • Palliative care of gastroparesis

    • Preoperative nutrition assessment and optimization in the cancer patient

    • Childhood leukemia, malnutrition, and mortality as components of palliative care

    • End-of-life decisions in persons with neurodevelopmental disorders

    • Resources: listing web sites, journals, books and organizations

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Setting the Scene. The Need for a Specialized Interest in Food and Nutrition in Palliative Care. What do we Mean by Palliative Care? The World’s Major Religions’ View on End-of Life Issues. Why Surgeons are Ambivalent about Palliative Treatments. Sedation in Palliative Care and its Impact on Nutrition. Quality of Life Aspects of Diet and Nutrition in Dying Children. Nutrition and Quality of Life in Adults Receiving Palliative Care. Refractory Cancer Cachexia. Assisting Healthcare Facilities. Palliative Care Communications. Pain Control in Palliative Care. Cultural Aspects. Nutrition and Hydration: Japanese Perspectives. Nutrition Support in Palliative Care: Chinese Perspectives. Indian Perspectives. Cultural Aspects of Foregoing Tube Feeding.  General Aspects. Stents in the GI Tract in Palliative Care. Artificial Nutrition. Support for Hydration at End of Life. Palliative Treatment of Dysphagia. Fatigue in Hospice Cancer patients. Constipation. Taste Alteration. Olfactory in Hospice Patients. Withholding Nutritional Support in European Countries. Cancer. Cachexia Related Suffering. GI Side Effects in Tumor Therapy. Upper GI symptoms. Palliative Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer. Total Parenteral Nutrition. Vitamin Deficiency. Appetite and Nausea. Palliative Gastrojejunostomy. Non-Cancer Conditions. Nutritional Support in the Vegetative State. Appetite Regulation in Renal Failure. Nutrition in End Stage Liver Disease. The Motor Disease. Nutritional Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Pharmacological Aspects. Cannabinoids. Steroids. Stimulants in CF. Nutrition and Warfarin Interaction. Case Studies and Resources. Malnutrition in Esophageal Cancer. Nutrition in Advanced Dementia. Pain Control in Palliative Care. Research and Resources.

     

  • 265.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Nutritional management is an integral part of the management for virtually all gastrointestinal diseases. Nutritional Care of the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease fills a current void in nutritional education by providing a reference for diagnosing and managing common nutritional issues related to gastrointestinal disease. 

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1. Nutritional Assessment

    2. Macronutrient Digestion and Absorption

    3. Malabsorption

    4. Food Allergy and Food Intolerance

    5. Prebiotics and Dietary Fiber

    6. Role of the Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics in Health and Disease

    7. Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    8. Nutritional Considerations in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    9. Nutrition and Celiac Disease

    10. Nutrition in IBS

    11. Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    12. Nutritional Management of Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    13. Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition

    14. Parenteral Nutrition Indications, Access, Formula, Monitoring, and Complications

    15. Medical and Endoscopic Therapy of Obesity

    16. Surgical Management of Obesity and Associated Complications

    17. Nutrition Counseling and Nutrition Tidbits

     

  • 280.00 lei

    Features

    • Presents a comprehensive and up-to-date review of nutrition, lifestyle factors, and blood pressure
    • Provides practical advice to promote behavioral changes in nutrition and lifestyle for blood pressure control
    • Discusses nutrients that influence blood pressure, including carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fiber, sodium, vitamins and minerals
    • Addresses key subgroup populations and situations that require special consideration, including the children and adolescents, pregnant women and those with diabetes
    • Covers lifestyle factors contributing to high blood pressure, such as weight, alcohol, and exercise
    • Offers a comprehensive and updated review of nutrition, lifestyle, and blood pressure in one volume, without being too technical

    Summary

    Even though enormous advancements have been made in identifying evidence-based lifestyle strategies for hypertension prevention and management, little progress has been made in implementing these proven strategies. Nutrition, Lifestyle Factors, and Blood Pressure compiles practical, science-based information for health care providers to provide effective lifestyle interventions for blood pressure care.

    Divided into three sections, the book features:

       

    • Evidence-based blood pressure control and relevant considerations for real-life situations
    • Special considerations in blood pressure control and lifestyle modification among children and adolescents, during pregnancy, and among those with diabetes
    • Practical tools that health care providers can put into practice in particular settings

    An excellent supplement to existing resources, Nutrition, Lifestyle Factors, and Blood Pressure shortens the gap between current understanding of the science about lifestyle factors and blood pressure and the actual implementation of the science

  • Public Health Nutrition, 2nd Edition
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    295.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION:

    In this second edition of the bestselling title from the acclaimed Nutrition Society Textbook series, Public Health Nutrition has been extensively revised to ensure that it reflects the latest evidence-based knowledge and research.  Ground-breaking and comprehensive in both its scope and approach, Public Health Nutrition has been fully updated by an expert editorial team to cover the most recent changes in the field. It now offers a structured overview of the subject’s core concepts and considers public health nutrition tools and the application of intervention strategies.

    Divided into five key sections, Public Health Nutrition contains a wealth of information, including:

    ·         Public health nutrition concepts and assessment tools, and their application in light of the latest evidence.

    ·         Case studies to illustrate how best to apply the theory and evidence to policy and practice.

    ·         An examination of nutrition throughout the lifecycle, and the relationship between diet and disease, including in relation to obesity, diabetes, cancer, as well as mental health.

    ·         The impact of environmental factors on public health.

    ·         Public health strategies, policies and approaches.

    With a clear and concise structure, Public Health Nutrition is an essential purchase for students of nutrition, dietetics and other healthcare areas, as well as an invaluable practical guide for health professionals working within public health. 

    A supporting companion website featuring multiple-choice, short answer, and essay style questions is available at www.wiley.com/go/buttriss/publichealth



    TABLE OF CONTENTS:

    Contributors ix

    Q1 Series Foreword xiii

    Preface xv

    Q2 About the companion website xvii

    Part One Public Health Nutrition Tools 
    1

    1 Introduction to Public Health Nutrition 3
    Martin Wiseman

    2 Concepts and Definitions Used in Public Health Nutrition 9
    Eric Brunner and Ailsa Welch

    3 Assessment of Dietary Habits 18
    Marga Ocke and Emma Foster

    4 Assessment of Nutritional Status in Public Health Nutrition Settings 29
    H David McCarthy

    5 Food Composition 36
    Mark Roe, Jenny Plumb, Ruth Charrondierre and Paul Finglas

    6  Dietary Reference Values 47
    Peter J Aggett

    7 Assessment of Physical Activity 56
    Ulf Ekelund

    Part Two Current State of Evidence 69

    8 Poor Dietary Patterns 71
    Judith L Buttriss and Anna Nugent

    9 Minerals and Vitamins of Current Concern 88

    Iron 88
    Peter J Aggett

    Iodine 96
    Margaret Rayman and Sarah Bath

    Vitamin A 102
    Liz Johnson and Emily Mohan

    10 Nutrition Pre-conception and during Pregnancy 111
    Sara Stanner

    11 Nutrition and Infant/Child Development 137
    Alison M Lennox

    12 Nutrition and Teenagers/Young Adults 159
    Elisabeth Weichselbaum

    13 Nutrition in Older Adults 175
    Ashley T LaBrier, Clare Corish, and Johanna Dwyer

    Part Three Diet and Disease 193

    14 Obesity: Maternal 195
    Debbie M Smith, Tracey Mills, and Christine Furber

    15 Obesity: Childhood 205
    Laura Stewart, Jenny Gillespie, and Taryn Young

    16 Cardiovascular Disease: Sodium and Blood Pressure 214
    Linda M Oude Griep and Paul Elliott

    17 Carbohydrates and Metabolic Health 220
    Judith L Buttriss

    18 Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Fat Quality 235
    Tom Sanders

    19 Diet and Cancer 242
    Farah Naja and Lara Nasreddine

    20 Bone Health 284
    Louise R Wilson, Andrea L Darling, and Susan A Lanham-New

    21 Dental Health 298
    Anja Heilmann and Richard G Watt

    22 Mental Health and Cognitive Function 310

    Iron 310
    Paul Sharp

    Caffeine 313
    Peter Rogers

    B Vitamins 317
    Helene McNulty

    Physical Activity 320
    Ken Fox

    Part Four Environmental Factors 325

    23 Obesogenic Environments 327
    Amelia Lake, Tim Townshend, and Tom Burgoine

    24 The Wider Environment and its Effect on Dietary Behaviour 339
    Bridget Benelam and Judith L Buttriss

    Part Five Public Health Nutrition Strategies and Approaches 357

    25 Global and National Public Health Nutrition Approaches 359
    Francesco Branca and Cassandra Ellis

    26 Developing Strategies in the Community 374
    Janet E Cade, Charlotte EL Evans, and Jayne Hutchinson

    27 Dietary Change and Evidence on How to Achieve This 387
    Janice L Thompson

    28 Evaluation of Public Health Nutrition Interventions and Policies 399
    Ailsa Welch and Richard PG Hayhoe

    29 Considerations for Evaluation of Public Health Nutrition Interventions in Diverse Communities 406
    Basma Ellahi

    Index 413

     

  • 305.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION:

     

    Now in its third edition, the best-selling Introduction to Human Nutrition continues to foster an integrated, broad knowledge of the discipline and presents the fundamental principles of nutrition science in an accessible way. With up-to-date coverage of a range of topics from food composition and dietary reference standards to phytochemicals and contemporary challenges of global food safety, this comprehensive text encourages students to think critically about the many factors and influences of human nutrition and health outcomes.

    Offers a global, multidisciplinary perspective on food and nutrition

    Covers nutrition and metabolism of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and vitamins and minerals

    Explores new developments in functional foods, supplements and food fortification, and future challenges for nutrition research and practice

    Explains the digestion, absorption, circulatory transport, and cellular uptake of nutrients

    Demonstrates the structure and characteristics of nutrients, and the relationship with disease prevention

    A primary text in nutritional science classes worldwide, Introduction to Human Nutrition is a vital resource for students in areas of nutrition, dietetics, and related subjects that involve principles of nutrition science.

     

     

    TABLE OF CONTENTS:

     

    Contributors vii

    Preface ix

    Series Foreword xi

    About the Companion Website xii

    1 Introduction to Human Nutrition: A Global Perspective on Food and Nutrition 1
    Susan A. Lanham-New, Marcela Moraes Mendes, and Hester H. Vorster

    2 Measuring Dietary Intake 13
    Una E. MacIntyre and Friedeburg AM. Wenhold

    3 Food Composition 56
    Hettie C. Schönfeldt and Beluah Pretorius

    4 Dietary Reference Standards 74
    Kate M. Younger

    5 Body Composition 85
    Anja Bosy
    Westphal, Paul Deurenberg, and Manfred James Müller

    6 Energy Metabolism 113
    Gareth A. Wallis

    7 Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids 131
    D. Joe Millward

    8 Digestion and Metabolism of Carbohydrates 161
    John C. Mathers

    9 Nutrition and Metabolism of Lipids 177
    Bruce A. Griffin and Stephen C. Cunnane

    10 The Vitamins 218
    David A. Bender

    11 Minerals and Trace Elements 280
    JJ. Strain, Alison J. Yeates, and Kevin D. Cashman

    12 Phytochemicals 339
    Gary Williamson

    13 Physical Activity: Concepts, Assessment Methods and Public Health Considerations 352
    Angela Carlin, Marie H. Murphy, and Alison M. Gallagher

    14 Nutrition Research Methodology 367
    J. Alfredo Martínez, Estefania Toledo, and Miguel A. Martinez
    Gonzalez

    15 Food Safety: A Public Health Issue of Growing Importance 388
    Catherine M. Burgess, Cristina Arroyo, Declan J. Bolton, Martin Danaher, Lisa O’Connor, Patrick J. O’Mahony, and Christina Tlustos

    16 Food and Nutrition: Policy and Regulatory Issues 418
    Aideen McKevitt, James Gallagher, and Cassandra H. Ellis

    17 Food and NutritionRelated Diseases: The Global Challenge 439
    Thomas R. Hill and Georg Lietz

    Introduction to Human Nutrition, Editor Biographies 453

    Index 456

     

  • 330.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Revised and updated by experts in both nephrology and clinical nutrition, this seventh edition of Handbook of Nutrition and the Kidney provides practical and clinically relevant information for addressing the nutritional needs of patients with acute and chronic kidney disease. Concise yet in-depth, the book is packed with tables and charts in every chapter, and outlines detailed and daily nutritional requirements, including proteins, vitamins, minerals, lipids, other fatty acids, and more.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1 Nutritional Requirements of Healthy Adults

    2 Nutrition Screening and Assessment in Kidney Disease

    3 Epidemiology of Protein-Energy Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease

    4 Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease on Metabolism and Hormonal Function

    5 Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D in Kidney Disease

    6 Management of Lipid Abnormalities in the Patient with Kidney Disease

    7 Role of Nutrition in Cardiovascular and Kidney Diseases

    8 Requirements for Protein, Calories, and Fat in the Predialysis Patient

    9 Nutritional Considerations in Patients with Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    10 Nephrotic Syndrome: Nutritional Consequences and Dietary Management

    11 Nutritional Intervention in Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease

    12 Nutritional Requirements in Hemodialysis Patients

    13 Nutritional Considerations for Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    14 Nutritional Management of Kidney Transplant Patients

    15 Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Kidney Disease: Practical Applications

    16 Trace Elements and Vitamins

    17 Dietary Salt Intake for Patients with Hypertension or Kidney Disease

    18 Nutritional Aspects of Kidney Stones

    19 Practical Aspects of Dealing with the Gut Microbiome in Patients with Kidney Disease

    20 Obesity in Kidney Disease

    21 Exercise and Physical Function in Kidney Disease

    22 The Renal Dietitian in the Clinic—Medical Nutrition Therapy

    23 Nutritional Support in Acute Kidney Injury

    24 Nutrition in Pediatric Kidney Disease

    25 Sample Menus for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Index

     

  • Nutrition in the Childbearing Years
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    36000lei 340.00 lei

    In a field saturated with complex and conflicting information, this exciting new book covers information about nutrition before, during and after pregnancy in a clear and user friendly style. The author addresses all the major aspects of the subject, moving from fertility and preparing the body for pregnancy, through to nutrient metabolism, diet and pregnancy outcome, weight gain, special needs, and postpartum changes and nutrition.

    This guide's evidence based approach will appeal to nutritionists and dietitians, and to many other health professionals who work with women in their childbearing years, including midwives, nurses and family practioners. Each chapter includes a useful set of appendices covering dietary requirements, nutritional composition of key foods and weight gain guidelines, as well as application in practice sections and a summary of key points.

  • Nutrition Essentials for Nursing Practice
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    38400lei 340.00 lei

     

    Nutrition Essentials for Nursing Practice, 9th Edition gives nursing students the understanding of nutrition theory and application to ensure effective client care across the life cycle and the health-illness continuum. Incorporating nutrition throughout the nursing care process, Susan Dudek’s concise yet thorough text equips tomorrow’s nurses with the latest evidence-based practices and recommendations to facilitate nutrition on the front lines of nursing practice, from assessment and nursing diagnoses to implementation and evaluation. 
     
    The most up-to-date resource of its kind, this revised edition includes the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025 and makes need-to-know information more accessible than ever with a student-friendly format, improved organization, engaging case studies, and adaptable content optimized for use in standalone courses, online, or a fully integrated curriculum.  

  • 353.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Consumers look to health professionals for guidance on how to integrate complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies into their lifestyles, yet most health care professionals are trained only in conventional practices. Integrating Therapeutic and Complementary Nutrition provides the scientific foundation necessary to understand CAM nutrition

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Integrative Nutrition

    Chapter 2. Ayurveda: The Mother of Traditional Medicine

    Chapter 3. Pregnancy and Lactation

    Chapter 4. Infant and Child Health

    Chapter 5. Adolescence

    Chapter 6. Women’s Health

    Chapter 7. Men’s Health

    Chapter 8. Skeletal System and Joint Health

    Chapter 9. Cardiovascular Disease

    Chapter 10. Nervous System

    Chapter 11. Upper Gastrointestinal System

    Chapter 12. Promoting Small and Large Bowel Health

    Chapter 13. Liver Disease

    Chapter 14. Nutrition and the Pancreas

    Chapter 15. Immune System

    Chapter 16. Renal Nutrition

    Chapter 17. Respiratory Health

    Chapter 18. Ear Health

    Chapter 19. Skin Health

    Appendices

    Index

     

     

     

     

     

  • Optimizing Women's Health through Nutrition
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    353.00 lei

     

    Description:

    It is no surprise that women and men experience biological and physiological differences fundamentally and throughout the lifecycle. What is surprising is that faced with such a self-evident truth, there should be so little consideration to date of how these differences affect susceptibility to disease and metabolic response to dietary treatment.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Section I: Introduction

    Chapter 1. Need to Optimize the Health of Women

    Chapter 2. Sex-Specific Biology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Section II: Normal Nutrition

    Chapter 3. Adolescence

    Chapter 4. Premenopause

    Chapter 5. Pregnancy and Lactation

    Chapter 6. Menopause and Midlife

    Section III: Nutrition in Chronic Disease and Various Conditions

    Chapter 7. Obesity and Weight Management

    Chapter 8. The Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Chapter 9. Cardiovascular Disease

    Chapter 10. Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    Chapter 11. Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis

    Chapter 12. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Chapter 13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Chapter 14. Eye Health

    Chapter 15. Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Forms of Dementia

    Chapter 16. Depression and Psychiatric Disorders

    Chapter 17. Eating Disorders

    Chapter 18. Oral Health

    Section IV: Conclusion

    Chapter 19. Conclusion: What We Know, and Where Do We Go from Here

    Index

    Back cover

     

     

     

  • Introduction to Clinical Nutrition
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    40300lei 360.00 lei

     

    Book Description:

     

    Dietary factors have been implicated in at least four of the ten leading causes of death in the U.S. (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke). Nevertheless, physicians frequently receive inadequate training in nutrition to properly counsel their patients. Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third Edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various diseases.

    Since the publication of the second edition of this book, new discoveries have revolutionized the field of clinical nutrition. This is true especially with respect to gene-nutrient interaction, epigenetic pathways that contribute to the activation and inactivation of gene expression, the relationship of nutrients to telomere length and health, and personalized nutrition. Highlighting these advances, new and revised topics include:

    Fiber, antioxidants, nutraceuticals, alternative medicine, and epidemiology

    DNA, gene–nutrient interaction, epigenetics, and telomeres

    Nutritional aspects of kidney disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    Personalized nutrition and personalized medicine

    Vegetarianism, the Mediterranean diet, and other popular dietary practices

    Obesity and cholesterol

    Designed as a textbook for students in conventional medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, dietetics, nursing, pharmacy, and public health, the book focuses on the critical biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrients. It includes clinical case studies to clarify topics at the end of most chapters and references to facilitate further study.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Part I Biology and Biochemistry
    Introduction: Fundamentals of Nutrition
    Digestion of Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins
    Requirements for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins
    Role of Essential Fatty Acids
    Eicosanoids
    Inorganic Elements (Minerals)
    Vitamins—An Overview
    Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    Water-Soluble Vitamins I
    Water-Soluble Vitamins II
    Vitamin-Like Substances
    Part II Special Nutritional Needs
    Nutritional Aspects of Pregnancy and Lactation
    Nutrition and Development
    Nutrition and Aging
    Part III Nutrition and Specific Disorders
    Nutritional Assessment
    Obesity and Eating Disorders
    Cholesterol and Dyslipidemia
    Osteoporosis
    Nutritional Aspects of Diabetes
    Nutritional Aspects of Kidney Disease
    Nutritional Aspects of Genetic Disease
    Nutritional and Metabolic Effects of Alcohol
    Nutritional Epidemiology
    Part IV Special Topics
    Dietary Fiber
    Antioxidants and Health
    Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods and Additives
    Vegetarianism and Other Popular Nutritional Practices
    Nutritional Aspects of Biotransformation
    Nutraceuticals
    Alternative Medicine: Dietary Supplements
    Gene-Nutrient Interaction—Molecular Genetics, Epigenetics, and Telomeres
    Personalized Nutrition and Personalized Medicine
    Index

     

     

  • Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism
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    370.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism equips readers with an understanding of the scientific basis of what we call a healthy diet. Now in its sixth edition, this highly recognized textbook provides clear explanations of how nutrients are metabolized and gives the principles of biochemistry needed for comprehending the science of nutrition. This full-color textbook explores the need for food and the uses to which food is put in the body, as well as the interactions between health and diet. Outlining the scientific basis behind nutritional requirements and recommendations, this new edition has been extensively revised to reflect current knowledge. Features: Lists key objectives at the beginning, and summary points at the end of each chapter. Accompanying online resources include interactive tutorial exercises based on interpretation of clinical and research data. Covers topics including: Chemical reactions and catalysis by enzymes; the role of ATP; digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins; issues associated with being overweight; problems of malnutrition; diet and health; and vitamin and mineral requirements and functions. Updated sections focus on the interaction of the gut microbiome and epigenetics with our metabolic responses to diet. Provides a foundation of scientific knowledge for the interpretation and evaluation of future advances in nutrition and health sciences. Following its predecessors, this sixth edition is relevant to any student or practitioner interested in how diet influences our health, including in the fields of nutrition, dietetics, medicine and public health.

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Preface

    Authors

    Additional Resources on the Website: Metabolism Online – The Virtual Tutorial

    chapter one Why Eat?

    Objectives

    1.1 The Need for Water

    1.2 The Need for Energy

    1.2.1 Units of Energy

    1.3 Metabolic Fuels

    1.3.1 The Need for Carbohydrate and Fat

    1.3.2 The Need for Protein

    1.3.3 The Need for Micronutrients: Minerals and Vitamins

    1.4 Hunger and Appetite

    1.4.1 Hunger and Satiety: Short-Term Control of Feeding

    1.4.1.1 Nutrient Sensing in the Hypothalamus

    1.4.1.2 Ghrelin: The Appetite-Stimulating Hormone

    1.4.2 Long-Term Control of Food Intake and Energy Expenditure: The Hormone Leptin

    1.4.3 Appetite

    1.4.3.1 Taste and Flavor

    1.4.4 Why Do People Eat What They Do?

    1.4.4.1 The Availability and Cost of Food

    1.4.4.2 Religion, Habit and Tradition

    1.4.4.3 Organic Foods

    1.4.4.4 Luxury Status of Scarce and Expensive Foods

    1.4.4.5 Social Functions of Food

    1.4.4.6 Food Allergy and Intolerance

    1.4.5 Eating Disorders

    1.4.5.1 Anorexia Nervosa

    1.4.5.2 Bulimia Nervosa

    1.4.5.3 Binge Eating Disorder

    1.4.5.4 Other Eating Disorders

    Key Points

    chapter two Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

    Objectives

    2.1 Chemical Reactions: Breaking and Making Covalent Bonds

    2.1.1 Equilibrium

    2.1.2 Catalysis

    2.2 Enzymes

    2.2.1 Specificity of Enzymes

    2.2.2 Stages in an Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction

    2.2.3 Units of Enzyme Activity

    2.3 Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

    2.3.1 The Effect of pH

    2.3.2 The Effect of Temperature

    2.3.3 The Effect of Substrate Concentration

    2.3.3.1 Experimental Determination of Km and Vmax

    2.3.3.2 Enzymes with Two Substrates

    2.3.3.3 Cooperative (Allosteric) Enzymes

    2.3.4 Inhibition of Enzyme Activity

    2.3.4.1 Irreversible Inhibitors

    2.3.4.2 Competitive Reversible Inhibitors

    2.3.4.3 Noncompetitive Reversible Inhibitors

    2.3.4.4 Uncompetitive Reversible Inhibitors

    2.4 Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups

    2.4.1 Coenzymes and Metal Ions in Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

    2.4.1.1 Metal Ions

    2.4.1.2 Riboflavin and Flavoproteins

    2.4.1.3 The Nicotinamide Nucleotide Coenzymes: NAD and NADP

    2.5 The Classification and Naming of Enzymes

    2.6 Metabolic Pathways

    2.6.1 Linear and Branched Pathways

    2.6.2 Spiral or Looped Reaction Sequences

    2.6.3 Cyclic Pathways

    2.7 Enzymes in Clinical Chemistry and Medicine

    2.7.1 Measurement of Metabolites in Blood, Urine and Tissue Samples

    2.7.2 Measurement of Enzymes in Blood Samples

    2.7.3 Assessment of Vitamin Nutritional Status

    Key Points

    chapter three The Role of ATP in Metabolism

    Objectives

    3.1 Adenine Nucleotides

    3.2 Functions of ATP

    3.2.1 The Role of ATP in Endothermic Reactions

    3.2.2 Transport of Materials across Cell Membranes

    3.2.2.1 Protein Binding for Concentrative Uptake

    3.2.2.2 Metabolic Trapping

    3.2.2.3 Active Transport

    3.2.2.4 P-Type Transporters

    3.2.2.5 ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters

    3.2.2.6 Sodium Pump

    3.2.3 The Role of ATP in Muscle Contraction

    3.2.3.1 Creatine Phosphate in Muscle

    3.3 Phosphorylation of ADP to ATP

    3.3.1 Oxidative Phosphorylation: ATP Synthesis Linked to the Oxidation of Metabolic Fuels

    3.3.1.1 The Mitochondrion

    3.3.1.2 The Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

    3.3.1.3 Phosphorylation of ADP Linked to Electron Transport

    3.3.1.4 Coupling of Electron Transport, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Fuel Oxidation

    3.3.1.5 Uncouplers

    3.3.1.6 Respiratory Poisons

    Key Points

    chapter four Digestion and Absorption

    Objectives

    4.1 The Gastrointestinal Tract

    4.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

    4.2.1 Classification of Carbohydrates

    4.2.1.1 Glycemic Index

    4.2.1.2 Monosaccharides

    4.2.1.3 Sugar Alcohols

    4.2.1.4 Disaccharides

    4.2.1.5 Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars

    4.2.1.6 Polysaccharides: Starches and Glycogen

    4.2.1.7 Dietary Fiber

    4.2.2 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

    4.2.2.1 Starch Digestion

    4.2.2.2 Digestion of Disaccharides

    4.2.2.3 Absorption of Monosaccharides

    4.3 Digestion and Absorption of Fats

    4.3.1 Classification of Dietary Lipids

    4.3.1.1 Fatty Acids

    4.3.1.2 Phospholipids

    4.3.1.3 Cholesterol and the Steroids

    4.3.2 Digestion and Absorption of Triacylglycerols

    4.3.2.1 Bile Salts

    4.3.2.2 Lipid Absorption and Chylomicron Formation

    4.4 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins

    4.4.1 Amino Acids

    4.4.2 Protein Structure and Denaturation of Proteins

    4.4.2.1 Secondary Structure of Proteins

    4.4.2.2 Tertiary and Quaternary Structures of Proteins

    4.4.2.3 Denaturation of Proteins

    4.4.3 Protein Digestion

    4.4.3.1 Activation of Zymogens of Proteolytic Enzymes

    4.4.3.2 Absorption of the Products of Protein Digestion

    4.5 Absorption of Vitamins and Minerals

    4.5.1 Absorption of Lipid-Soluble Vitamins and Cholesterol

    4.5.2 Absorption of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    4.5.2.1 Absorption of Vitamin B12

    4.5.3 Absorption of Minerals

    4.5.3.1 Iron Absorption

    Key Points

    chapter five Energy Nutrition: The Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Fats

    Objectives

    5.1 Estimation of Energy Expenditure

    5.1.1 Indirect Calorimetry and the Respiratory Quotient (RQ)

    5.1.2 Long-Term Measurement of Energy Expenditure: The Dual Isotopically Labeled Water Method

    5.1.3 Calculation of Energy Expenditure

    5.1.3.1 Basal Metabolic Rate

    5.1.3.2 Energy Costs of Physical Activity

    5.1.3.3 Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    5.2 Energy Balance and Changes in Body Weight

    5.3 Metabolic Fuels in the Fed and Fasting States

    5.3.1 The Fed State

    5.3.2 The Fasting State

    5.4 Energy-Yielding Metabolism

    5.4.1 Glycolysis: The (Anerobic) Metabolism of Glucose

    5.4.1.1 Transfer of NADH Formed during Glycolysis into the Mitochondria

    5.4.1.2 Reduction of Pyruvate to Lactate: Anaerobic Glycolysis

    5.4.2 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An Alternative to Glycolysis

    5.4.2.1 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Red Blood Cells: Favism

    5.4.3 Metabolism of Pyruvate

    5.4.3.1 Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA

    5.4.4 Oxidation of Acetyl CoA: The Citric Acid Cycle

    5.4.4.1 The Citric Acid Cycle as Pathway for Metabolic Interconversion

    5.4.4.2 Complete Oxidation of Four- and Five-Carbon Compounds

    5.5 Metabolism of Fats

    5.5.1 Carnitine and the Transport of Fatty Acids into the Mitochondrion

    5.5.2 ß-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    5.5.3 Ketone Bodies

    5.6 Tissue Reserves of Metabolic Fuels

    5.6.1 Synthesis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols

    5.6.1.1 Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    5.6.1.2 Synthesis of Triacylglycerol

    5.6.2 Plasma Lipoproteins

    5.6.2.1 Chylomicrons

    5.6.2.2 Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Intermediate-Density Lipoproteins and Low-Density Lipoproteins

    5.6.2.3 High-Density Lipoproteins

    5.6.3 Glycogen

    5.6.3.1 Glycogen Utilization

    5.7 Gluconeogenesis: The Synthesis of Glucose from Noncarbohydrate Precursors

    Key Points

    chapter six Diet and Health: Nutrition and Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

    Objectives

    6.1 Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (the “Diseases of Affluence”)

    6.2 Types of Evidence Linking Diet and Chronic Diseases

    6.2.1 Secular Changes in Diet and Disease Incidence

    6.2.2 International Correlations between Diet and Disease Incidence

    6.2.3 Studies of Migrants

    6.2.4 Case-Control Studies

    6.2.5 Prospective Studies

    6.3 Guidelines for a Prudent Diet

    6.3.1 Energy Intake

    6.3.2 Fat Intake

    6.3.2.1 The Type of Fat in the Diet

    6.3.3 Carbohydrate Intake

    6.3.3.1 Sugars in the Diet

    6.3.3.2 Undigested Carbohydrates (Dietary Fiber and Non-starch Polysaccharides)

    6.3.4 The Gut Microbiome, Diet and Disease

    6.3.5 Salt

    6.3.6 Alcohol

    6.4 Nutritional Genomics: Interactions between Diet and Genes

    6.4.1 Epigenetic Programming of the Genome

    6.4.1.1 Epigenetic Mechanisms

    6.4.1.2 Nutritional Epigenetics

    6.4.1.3 In Utero and Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance

    6.5 Free Radicals, Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Nutrients

    6.5.1 Tissue Damage by Oxygen Radicals

    6.5.2 Sources of Oxygen Radicals

    6.5.2.1 Reoxidation of Reduced Flavins

    6.5.2.2 The Macrophage Respiratory Burst

    6.5.2.3 Formation of Nitric Oxide

    6.5.2.4 Nonenzymic Formation of Radicals

    6.5.3 Antioxidant Nutrients and Non-Nutrients: Protection against Radical Damage

    6.5.3.1 Superoxide Dismutase, Peroxidases and Catalase

    6.5.3.2 Glutathione Peroxidase

    6.5.3.3 ß-Carotene and Other Carotenes

    6.5.3.4 Vitamin C: An Antioxidant and a Prooxidant

    6.5.3.5 Intervention Trials with Vitamin E

    6.5.3.6 The Antioxidant Paradox

    6.6 Homocysteine in Cardiovascular Disease

    6.6.1 Factors Affecting Plasma Homocysteine

    6.6.1.1 Polymorphisms of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase

    6.6.1.2 Intervention Trials with Folate and VitaminsB6 and B12

    6.7 Other Potentially Protective Compounds in Foods

    6.7.1 Inhibition of Cholesterol Absorption or Synthesis

    6.7.2 Inhibition of Carcinogen Activation and Increased Conjugation of Activated Metabolites

    6.7.2.1 Allyl Sulfur Compounds

    6.7.2.2 Glucosinolates

    6.7.2.3 Flavonoids

    6.7.3 Phytoestrogens

    6.7.4 Miscellaneous Actions of Phytochemicals

    Key Points

    chapter seven Overweight and Obesity

    Objectives

    7.1 Desirable Body Weight

    7.1.1 Body Mass Index (BMI)

    7.1.2 Estimation of Body Fat

    7.1.2.1 Determination of Body Density

    7.1.2.2 Determination of Total Body Water or Potassium

    7.1.2.3 Imaging Techniques

    7.1.2.4 Measurement of Whole Body Electrical Conductivity and Impedance

    7.1.2.5 Measurement of Skinfold Thickness

    7.2 Problems of Overweight and Obesity

    7.2.1 Social Problems of Obesity

    7.2.2 Health Risks of Obesity

    7.2.2.1 The Distribution of Excess Adipose Tissue

    7.2.3 Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

    7.2.3.1 Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinism

    7.2.3.2 Adiponectin

    7.2.3.3 Resistin

    7.2.3.4 Chemerin

    7.2.3.5 Macrophage Infiltration of Adipose Tissue

    7.2.3.6 Excessive Synthesis of Cortisol

    7.3 Causes and Treatment of Obesity

    7.3.1 Energy Expenditure

    7.3.2 Availability of Food

    7.3.3 Control of Appetite

    7.3.4 How Obese People Can be Helped to Lose Weight

    7.3.4.1 Starvation

    7.3.4.2 Very Low Energy Diets

    7.3.4.3 Conventional Diets

    7.3.4.4 Very Low Carbohydrate (Ketogenic) Diets

    7.3.4.5 Low Glycemic Index Diets

    7.3.4.6 High-Fiber Diets

    7.3.4.7 Alternating Food Restriction and Free Consumption

    7.3.4.8 “Diets” That Probably Won’t Work

    7.3.4.9 Slimming Patches

    7.3.4.10 Sugar Substitutes

    7.3.4.11 Fat Substitutes

    7.3.4.12 Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity

    7.3.4.13 Surgical Treatment of Obesity

    7.3.4.14 Help and Support

    Key Points

    chapter eight Protein-Energy Malnutrition: Problems of Undernutrition

    Objectives

    8.1 Problems of Deficiency

    8.2 Protein-Energy malnutrition

    8.2.1 Detection of Malnutrition in Adults

    8.3 Marasmus

    8.3.1 Causes of Marasmus and Vulnerable Groups of the Population

    8.3.1.1 Malabsorption

    8.3.1.2 Food Intolerance and Allergy

    8.4 Cachexia

    8.4.1 Hypermetabolism in Cachexia

    8.4.2 Increased Protein Catabolism in Cachexia

    8.5 Kwashiorkor

    8.5.1 Factors in the Etiology of Kwashiorkor

    8.5.2 Rehabilitation of Malnourished Children

    Key Points

    chapter nine Protein Nutrition and Metabolism

    Objectives

    9.1 Nitrogen Balance and Protein Requirements

    9.1.1 Dynamic Equilibrium

    9.1.1.1 Mechanisms Involved in Tissue Protein Catabolism

    9.1.2 Protein Requirements

    9.1.2.1 Protein Requirements for Physical Activity and Body Building

    9.1.2.2 Protein Requirements of Children

    9.1.2.3 Protein Losses in Trauma and Infection: Requirements for Convalescence

    9.1.3 Essential Amino Acids

    9.1.3.1 Protein Quality and Complementation

    9.1.3.2 Unavailable Amino Acids and Protein Digestibility

    9.2 Protein Synthesis

    9.2.1 The Structure and Information Content of DNA

    9.2.1.1 DNA Replication

    9.2.1.2 The Genetic Code

    9.2.2 Ribonucleic Acid

    9.2.2.1 Transcription to Form Messenger RNA

    9.2.3 Translation of mRNA: The Process of Protein Synthesis

    9.2.3.1 Transfer RNA

    9.2.3.2 Protein Synthesis on the Ribosome

    9.2.3.3 The Energy Cost of Protein Synthesis

    9.2.3.4 Posttranslational Modification of Proteins

    9.3 Metabolism of Amino Acids

    9.3.1 Metabolism of the Amino Nitrogen

    9.3.1.1 Deamination

    9.3.1.2 Transamination

    9.3.1.3 Metabolism of Ammonia

    9.3.1.4 Synthesis of Urea

    9.3.1.5 Incorporation of Nitrogen in Biosynthesis

    9.3.2 Metabolism of Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons

    Key Points

    chapter ten The Integration and Control of Metabolism

    Objectives

    10.1 Patterns of Metabolic Regulation

    10.2 Intracellular Regulation of Enzyme Activity

    10.2.1 Allosteric Modification of the Activity of Regulatory Enzymes

    10.2.2 Control of Glycolysis: The Allosteric Regulation of Phosphofructokinase

    10.2.2.1 Feedback Control of Phosphofructokinase

    10.2.2.2 Feed-Forward Control of Phosphofructokinase

    10.2.2.3 Substrate Cycling

    10.3 Responses to Fast-Acting Hormones by Covalent Modification of Enzyme Proteins

    10.3.1 Membrane Receptors and G-Proteins

    10.3.2 Cyclic AMP and Cyclic GMP as Second Messengers

    10.3.2.1 Amplification of the Hormone Signal

    10.3.2.2 Desensitization of the Adrenaline Receptor

    10.3.3 Inositol Trisphosphate and Diacylglycerol as Second Messengers

    10.3.3.1 Amplification of the Hormone Signal

    10.3.4 The Insulin Receptor

    10.4 Responses to Slow-Acting Signals by Changes in Enzyme Synthesis

    10.4.1 Slow-Acting Hormones

    10.4.1.1 Amplification of the Hormone Signal

    10.4.2 Dietary Control of Enzyme Expression

    10.5 Hormonal Control in the Fed and Fasting States

    10.5.1 Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    10.5.2 Control of Lipid Metabolism in the Liver

    10.6 Selection of Fuels for Muscle Activity

    10.6.1 The Effect of Work Intensity on Muscle Fuel Selection

    10.6.2 Muscle Fuel Utilization in the Fed and Fasting States

    10.6.2.1 Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism in Muscle

    10.7 Diabetes Mellitus: A Failure of Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration

    10.7.1 Adverse Effects of Poor Glycemic Control

    Key Points

    chapter eleven Micronutrients: The Vitamins and Minerals

    Objectives

    11.1 Determination of Requirements and Reference Intakes

    11.1.1 Dietary Reference Values

    11.1.1.1 Supplements and Safe Levels of Intake

    11.1.2 The Vitamins

    11.2 Vitamin A

    11.2.1 Vitamers and International Units

    11.2.2 Metabolism and Storage of Vitamin A and Provitamin A Carotenoids

    11.2.2.1 Carotene Dioxygenase

    11.2.2.2 Plasma Retinol-Binding Protein

    11.2.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin A and Carotenes

    11.2.3.1 Vitamin A in Vision

    11.2.3.2 Retinoic Acid and the Regulation of Gene Expression

    11.2.3.3 The Antioxidant Function of Carotenes

    11.2.4 Vitamin A Deficiency: Night Blindness and Xerophthalmia

    11.2.5 Vitamin A Requirements and Reference Intakes

    11.2.5.1 Assessment of Vitamin A Status

    11.2.6 Toxicity of Vitamin A

    11.2.6.1 Teratogenicity of Vitamin A

    11.2.7 Interactions of Vitamin A with Drugs and Other Nutrients

    11.3 Vitamin D

    11.3.1 Vitamers and International Units

    11.3.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Vitamin D

    11.3.2.1 Synthesis of Vitamin D in the Skin

    11.3.2.2 Metabolism of Cholecalciferol

    11.3.2.3 Regulation of Vitamin D Metabolism

    11.3.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin D

    11.3.4 Vitamin D Deficiency: Rickets and Osteomalacia

    11.3.5 Vitamin D Requirements and Reference Intakes

    11.3.6 Vitamin D Toxicity

    11.3.7 Interactions with Drugs and Other Nutrients

    11.4 Vitamin E

    11.4.1 Vitamers and Units of Activity

    11.4.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Vitamin E

    11.4.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin E

    11.4.3.1 Non-antioxidant Actions of Vitamin E

    11.4.4 Vitamin E Deficiency

    11.4.5 Vitamin E Requirements

    11.4.5.1 Indices of Vitamin E Status

    11.4.5.2 Higher Levels of Intake

    11.4.6 Interactions with Other Nutrients

    11.5 Vitamin K

    11.5.1 Vitamers

    11.5.2 Dietary Sources, Bacterial Synthesis and Metabolism of Vitamin K

    11.5.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin K

    11.5.4 Vitamin K Deficiency and Requirements

    11.5.5 Toxicity and Drug Interactions

    11.6 Thiamin (Vitamin B1)

    11.6.1 Absorption and Metabolism of Thiamin

    11.6.2 Metabolic Functions of Thiamin

    11.6.3 Thiamin Deficiency

    11.6.3.1 Dry Beriberi

    11.6.3.2 Wet Beriberi

    11.6.3.3 Acute Pernicious (Fulminating) Beriberi: Shoshin Beriberi

    11.6.3.4 Wernicke–Korsakoff Syndrome

    11.6.4 Thiamin Requirements

    11.6.5 Assessment of Thiamin Status

    11.7 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    11.7.1 Absorption and Metabolism of Riboflavin

    11.7.1.1 Riboflavin Balance

    11.7.2 Metabolic Functions of the Flavin Coenzymes

    11.7.2.1 Flavins and Oxidative Stress

    11.7.3 Riboflavin Deficiency

    11.7.3.1 Resistance to Malaria in Riboflavin Deficiency

    11.7.4 Riboflavin Requirements

    11.7.5 Assessment of Riboflavin Nutritional Status

    11.7.6 Interactions with Drugs and Other Nutrients

    11.8 Niacin

    11.8.1 Vitamers and Niacin Equivalents

    11.8.1.1 Unavailable Niacin in Cereals

    11.8.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Niacin

    11.8.2.1 Catabolism of NAD(P)

    11.8.2.2 Urinary Excretion of Niacin and Metabolites

    11.8.3 Metabolic Functions of Niacin

    11.8.4 Pellagra: A Disease of Tryptophan and Niacin Deficiency

    11.8.4.1 Additional Factors in the Etiology of Pellagra

    11.8.5 Niacin Requirements

    11.8.6 Assessment of Niacin Status

    11.8.7 Niacin Toxicity

    11.9 Vitamin B6

    11.9.1 Vitamers

    11.9.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Vitamin B6

    11.9.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin B6

    11.9.4 Vitamin B6 Deficiency

    11.9.5 Vitamin B6 Requirements

    11.9.5.1 Requirements of Infants

    11.9.6 Assessment of Vitamin B6 Status

    11.9.6.1 Coenzyme Saturation of Transaminases

    11.9.6.2 The Tryptophan Load Test

    11.9.6.3 The Methionine Load Test

    11.9.7 Non-nutritional Uses of Vitamin B6

    11.9.8 Vitamin B6 Toxicity

    11.10 Vitamin B12

    11.10.1 Structure and Vitamers

    11.10.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Vitamin B12

    11.10.2.1 Enterohepatic Circulation of Vitamin B12

    11.10.3 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin B12

    11.10.4 Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Pernicious Anemia

    11.10.4.1 Drug-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    11.10.5 Vitamin B12 Requirements

    11.10.6 Assessment of Vitamin B12 Status

    11.10.6.1 The Schilling Test for Vitamin B12 Absorption

    11.10.6.2 Methylmalonic Aciduria

    11.11 Folic Acid and the Folates

    11.11.1 Vitamers and Dietary Equivalence

    11.11.2 Absorption and Metabolism of Folate

    11.11.2.1 Tissue Uptake of Folate

    11.11.2.2 Folate Excretion

    11.11.3 Metabolic Functions of Folate

    11.11.3.1 Thymidylate Synthetase and Dihydrofolate Reductase

    11.11.3.2 Methionine Synthetase and the Methyl-Folate Trap

    11.11.3.3 Methylene-Tetrahydrofolate Reductase and Hyperhomocysteinemia

    11.11.3.4 Folate in Pregnancy

    11.11.3.5 Folate and Cancer

    11.11.4 Folate Deficiency: Megaloblastic Anemia

    11.11.5 Folate Requirements

    11.11.6 Assessment of Folate Status

    11.11.6.1 Histidine Metabolism: The Formiminoglutamate (FIGLU) Test

    11.11.6.2 The dUMP Suppression Test

    11.11.7 Drug–Nutrient Interactions of Folate

    11.11.8 Folate Toxicity

    11.12 Biotin

    11.12.1 Absorption and Metabolism of Biotin

    11.12.2 Metabolic Functions of Biotin

    11.12.3 Biotin Deficiency and Requirements

    11.12.3.1 Glucose Metabolism in Biotin Deficiency

    11.12.3.2 Lipid Metabolism in Biotin Deficiency

    11.12.4 Safe and Adequate Levels of Intake

    11.13 Pantothenic Acid

    11.13.1 Absorption, Metabolism and Metabolic Functions of Pantothenic Acid

    11.13.1.1 Coenzyme A and Acyl Carrier Protein

    11.13.2 Pantothenic Acid Deficiency and Safe and Adequate Levels of Intake

    11.13.3 Nonnutritional Uses of Pantothenic Acid

    11.14 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    11.14.1 Absorption and Metabolism of Vitamin C

    11.14.2 Metabolic Functions of Vitamin C

    11.14.2.1 Copper-Containing Hydroxylases

    11.14.2.2 Oxoglutarate-Linked Iron-Containing Hydroxylases

    11.14.2.3 Prooxidant and Antioxidant Roles of Ascorbate

    11.14.3 Vitamin C Deficiency: Scurvy

    11.14.3.1 Anemia in Scurvy

    11.14.4 Vitamin C Requirements

    11.14.5 Assessment of Vitamin C Status

    11.14.6 Possible Benefits of High Intakes of Vitamin C

    11.14.6.1 Iron Absorption

    11.14.6.2 Inhibition of Nitrosamine Formation

    11.14.6.3 Pharmacological Uses of Vitamin C

    11.14.7 Toxicity of Vitamin C

    11.15 Marginal Compounds

    11.15.1 Carnitine

    11.15.2 Choline

    11.15.3 Inositol

    11.15.4 Taurine

    11.15.5 Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q, “Vitamin Q”)

    11.16 Minerals

    11.16.1 Calcium

    11.16.1.1 Calcium Homeostasis

    11.16.1.2 Osteoporosis

    11.16.2 Minerals That Function as Prosthetic Groups in Enzymes

    11.16.2.1 Cobalt

    11.16.2.2 Copper

    11.16.2.3 Iron

    11.16.2.4 Molybdenum

    11.16.2.5 Selenium

    11.16.2.6 Zinc

    11.16.3 Minerals That Have a Regulatory Role (in Neurotransmission, as Enzyme Activators or in Hormones)

    11.16.3.1 Calcium

    11.16.3.2 Chromium

    11.16.3.3 Iodine

    11.16.3.4 Magnesium

    11.16.3.5 Manganese

    11.16.3.6 Sodium and Potassium

    11.16.4 Minerals Known to Be Essential, but Whose Function Is not Known

    11.16.4.1 Silicon

    11.16.4.2 Vanadium

    11.16.4.3 Nickel and Tin

    11.16.5 Minerals That Have Effects in the Body, but Whose Essentiality Is Not Established

    11.16.5.1 Fluoride

    11.16.5.2 Lithium

    11.16.5.3 Other Minerals

    11.17 Nutritional Anemias

    Key Points

    Index

    Read Less

     

  • 40300lei 380.00 lei

    Emphasizing a team approach that includes the practicing podiatrist, endocrinologist, diabetologist, vascular surgeon, orthopedist, and infectious disease specialist, The High Risk Diabetic Foot provides a thorough and detailed resource on the management of complex diabetic foot problems. This comprehensive text is an essential tool that will enable physicians to reduce infections and amputations through careful examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Key features in The High Risk Diabetic Foot include: A full section devoted to the prevention of amputation High-quality images for accurate diagnosis Chapters organized by epidemiology, classification and staging, diagnosis, special studies, and medical and surgical management Summary tables and flow charts for quick reference A discussion of the co-morbidities associated with diabetic foot pathology, including sensory neuropathy, painful neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, food wounds, and more Identification of the level of medical evidence associated with treatment recommendations

  • 400.00 lei

     

    Book Description:

     

    Completely revised and updated, Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Patient: A Guide to Practice, Second Edition presents an unbiased, evidence-based examination of critical nutrition across the life cycle. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, each chapter has been carefully designed to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and a detailed exploration of the practical application of this information. With chapters written by experts, you get the most pertinent and current knowledge available, bolstered by tables, figures, and case studies that make the information accessible.



    New Coverage in the Second Edition:

     

    Gut microbiota support

    Short bowel syndrome

    Chronic critically ill phenomenon

    Professional nutrition practice guidelines and protocols

    Ethical considerations

    Quality and performance improvement



    Many challenges remain when providing optimal nutrition to all patients under all conditions at all times. Divided into eight sections, the book covers metabolic issues, nutrients for critically ill patients, delivery of nutrition therapy, nutrition therapy throughout the life cycle, special interest groups, specific organ system failure, general systemic failures, and professional issues in the field. It keeps you informed and aware of the continuous accrual of knowledge needed to craft and provide optimal nutrition therapy for the critically ill patient.

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

     

    METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN THE CRITICALLY ILL: COMPARISON OF NONSTRESSED AND STRESSED STATES

    Organic Response to Stress
    Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia

    Carbohydrate Metabolism: A Comparison of Stress and Nonstress States

    Mary Marian and Susan Roberts

    Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism: Stress versus Nonstress States

    Gail A. Cresci

    Lipid Metabolism: Stress versus Nonstress States

    Dan L. Waitzberg, Raquel S. Torrinhas, and Letícia De Nardi

    NUTRIENTS FOR THE CRITICALLY ILL


    Nutrition Assessment and Monitoring

    Kavitha Krishnan and Michael D. Taylor

    Energy Expenditure in the Critically Ill Patient

    David Frankenfield

    Macronutrient Requirements: Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat

    Michael D. Taylor, Kavitha Krishnan, Jill Barsa, and Kendra Glassman Perkey

    Micronutrient and Antioxidant Therapy in Adult Critically Ill Patients

    Krishnan Sriram

    Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Requirements in the Critically Ill Patient

    Maria R. Lucarelli, Lindsay Pell Ryder, Mary Beth Shirk, and Jay M. Mirtallo

    Gut Microbiome in the Critically Ill

    Gail A. Cresci

    DELIVERY OF NUTRITION THERAPY IN THE CRITICALLY ILL


    Parenteral versus Enteral Nutrition

    Gail A. Cresci

    Vascular Access in the Critically Ill Patient

    Lindsay M. Dowhan, Jesse Gutnick, and Ezra Steiger

    Enteral Feeding Access in the Critically Ill Patient

    Beth Taylor and John E. Mazuski

    Parenteral Formulations

    Michael Christensen

    Enteral Formulations

    Ainsley M. Malone

    Complications of Parenteral Nutrition

    Mandy L. Corrigan

    Enteral Feeding Challenges

    Carol Rees Parrish, Joe Krenitsky, and Kendra Glassman Perkey

    Drug-Nutrient Interactions

    Rex O. Brown and Roland N. Dickerson

    NUTRITION THERAPY THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE


    Nutrition Support during Pregnancy

    Christina J. Valentine, Joy Lehman, and Carol L. Wagner

    Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Neonate

    Jatinder Bhatia and Cynthia Mundy

    Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Pediatric Patient

    Jodi Wolff, Gerri Keller, and Deborah A Carpenter

    Geriatrics

    Ronni Chernoff

    NUTRITION THERAPY FOR SPECIAL INTERESTS GROUPS


    Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

    Michael D. Taylor and Kavitha Krishnan

    Nutrition Support for Burns and Wound Healing

    Theresa Mayes and Michele M. Gottschlich

    Solid Organ Transplantation

    Jeanette Hasse and Srinath Chinnakotla

    SPECIFIC ORGAN SYSTEM FAILURE


    Nutrition in the Critically Ill Patient with Intestinal Failure

    Cassandra Pogatschnik, Neha Parekh, and Ezra Steiger

    Nutrition Support for Pulmonary Failure

    Alfredo A. Matos, William Manzanares, and VÍctor Sánchez Nava

    Renal Failure

    Tom Stone McNees

    Nutrition for the Critically Ill Patient with Hepatic Failure

    Mazen Albeldawi, Peggy Hipskind, and Dian J. Chiang

    Nutrition for the Critically Ill Cardiac Patient

    A. Christine Hummell

    Nutrition Support in Neurocritical Care

    Arlene Escuro and Mary Rath

    Nutritional Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    R.F. Meier

    GENERAL SYSTEMIC FAILURES


    Nutrition Support in the General Surgery ICU Patient

    Amy Berry and Kenneth A. Kudsk

    Nutritional Support during Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis

    Mark H. Oltermann and Mary E. Leicht

    Nutrition Therapy in Patients with Cancer and Immunodeficiency

    Vanessa Fuchs-Tarlovsky and Elizabeth Isenring

    Nutrition Support in the Chronically Critically Ill Patient

    Rifka C. Schulman and Jeffrey I. Mechanick

    Nutrition Therapy for the Obese Critically Ill Patient

    Britta Brown and Katherine Hall

    PROFESSIONAL ISSUES


    Ethical Considerations in the Critically Ill Patient

    Denise Baird Schwartz

    Instituting Professional Nutrition Practice Guidelines and Protocols: In the Intensive Care Unit

    Malissa Warren, Robert Martindale, and Mary S. McCarthy

    Quality and Performance Improvement in the Intensive Care Unit

    Mary Krystofiak Russell

     

  • Williams' Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    41500lei 400.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Stay up to date on all the latest in nutrition care with Williams' Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy, 16th Edition. This market-leading text provides concise, need-to-know coverage of hot topics, emerging trends, and cutting-edge research to ensure you are equipped to make informed decisions on patient nutrition in the clinical space. And with its conversational writing style, vivid illustrations, and wide array of reader-friendly features, you can easily understand how the concepts in the book can be applied in clinical practice. The text is broken out into four parts: an introduction to the basic principles of nutrition science, human growth and development needs, community nutrition, and clinical nutrition. Next Generation NCLEX® case studies and question types are also included in the text and on the companion Evolve website.




    Features:


    • Case studies with accompanying questions for analysis in the clinical care chapters focus your attention on related patient care problems.
    • Cultural Considerations boxes discuss how a patient's culture can affect nutritional concepts in practice.
    • Clinical Applications and For Further Focus boxes highlight timely topics and analyze concepts and trends in depth.
    • Bulleted chapter summaries review highlights from the chapter and help you see how the chapter contributes to the book's "big picture."
    • Diet therapy guidelines include recommendations, restrictions, and sample diets for major clinical conditions.
    • Drug-Nutrient Interactions boxes highlight important safety information and cover topics such as nutritional supplements for athletics, drugs interfering with vitamin absorption, and over-the-counter weight loss aids.
    • Key terms and definitions clarify terminology and concepts critical to your understanding and application of the material.



    New To This Edition:

    • NEW! Next Generation NCLEX® case studies and question types are included in the text and on the companion Evolve website.
    • NEW! Easy-to-follow writing style utilizes a more lively and direct conversation tone to make material easier to understand.
    • NEW! Updated references reflect the studies and statistics published in the most current scientific literature.
    • NEW! Incorporation of the new Nutrition Care Process model grounds you in the systematic approach to providing high-quality nutrition care with regard to nutrition assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation.
    • NEW! Coverage of the new Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans ensures you are versed in the latest recommendations.



    Table Of Contents:


    PART 1: Introduction to Basic Principles of Nutrition Science
    1. Food, Nutrition, and Health
    2. Carbohydrates
    3. Fats
    4. Proteins
    5. Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism
    6. Energy Balance
    7. Vitamins
    8. Minerals
    9. Water and Electrolyte Balance

    PART 2: Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle
    10. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation
    11. Nutrition During Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
    12. Nutrition for Adults: The Early, Middle, and Later Years

    PART 3: Community Nutrition and Health Care
    13. Community Food Supply and Health
    14. Food Habits and Cultural Patterns
    15. Weight Management
    16. Nutrition and Physical Fitness

    PART 4: Clinical Nutrition
    17. Nutritional Care
    18. Gastrointestinal and Accessory Organ Problems
    19. Coronary Heart Disease and Hypertension
    20. Diabetes Mellitus
    21. Kidney Disease
    22. Surgery and Nutritional Support
    23. Nutritional Support in Cancer and AIDS

    Appendixes
    Glossary

       

  • 46500lei 420.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Nutrition, defined by Merriam-Webster, is the process of eating the right kind of food so you can grow properly and be healthy. However, making the right food and nutrition choices and finding the best and most accurate nutrition information can be a challenge, especially when a disease or injury is present. There are a wide range of ways that nutrition can be healing, from a simple broth that provides fluids and electrolytes to therapeutic nutrition for diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, or osteoporosis. Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDN) have expertise in disease management and translation of nutrition requirements to foods to consume. However, nutrition care often does not receive the attention in the out-patient setting that is needed to achieve nutrition goals. The purpose of this book is to provide pertinent and concise nutrition care information for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists and other professionals working with individuals outside of the hospital including nurses, pharmacists, and physicians. This book covers screening, assessing, and treating malnutrition; out-patient nutrition care in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, osteoporosis; and home enteral and parenteral nutrition. In each chapter the reader will learn more about the disease process as well as the management of the disease or therapy. As the number of patients receiving home care nutrition support increases, proper assessment and management of this therapy is crucial, and clinicians need to practice at an advanced level. This book presents advanced and readily applicable information on proper nutrition care of individuals in the outpatient setting and those receiving home nutrition support.

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1.    SECTION I Outpatient Nutrition Care

    2.    Chapter 1 Nutrition Screening, Assessment, and Monitoring

    3.    Chapter 2 Nutritional Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    4.    Chapter 3 GI Disease Nutrition Management: Short-Bowel Syndrome, Gastroparesis, and Celiac Disease

    5.    Chapter 4 GI Disease Nutrition Management: Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    6.    Chapter 5 GI Disease Nutrition Management: Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    7.    Chapter 6 Nutrition Management in Oncology: Assessment, Gastroenterology, Breast, Esophageal Head and Neck, Gynecologic, Lung, Prostate, and Palliative Care

    8.    Chapter 7 Nutritional Management of Osteoporosis

    9.    SECTION II Home Nutrition Support

    10.  Chapter 8 Home Enteral Nutrition

    11.  Chapter 9 Home Parenteral Nutrition

    12.  Chapter 10 Parenteral Nutrition Access

    13.  Chapter 11 Parenteral Nutrition Solutions

    14.  Chapter 12 Home Parenteral Nutrition Reimbursement

    15.  Chapter 13 Nutrition Services in the Outpatient Setting: The RDN Private Practice

    16.  SECTION III Summary

    17.  Chapter 14 Nutrition, Diet, and Health: For Further Consideration

    18.  Index

     

  • 430.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Nutrition and Sensation explores how sensations can impact nutrition. It unravels the hidden sensory universe acting to control our appetite and nutritional desires. The sensory influence on food choice is ubiquitous. Whether it is the color of soda, the viscosity of maple syrup, or the aroma of chocolate, the sensory experience fuels consumption.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1: Tasting History

    Chapter 2: Chemosensory Disorders : Emerging Roles in Food Selection, Nutrient Inadequacies, and Dig

    Chapter 3: Retronasal Olfaction

    Chapter 4: Taste and Food Choice

    Chapter 5: Psychophysical Measurement of Human Oral Experience

    Chapter 6: Color Correspondences in Chemosensation : The Case of Food and Drinks

    Chapter 7: Effect of Visual Cues on Sensory and Hedonic Evaluation of Food

    Chapter 8: Chemesthesis, Thermogenesis, and Nutrition

    Chapter 9: The Look and Feel of Food

    Chapter 10: Auditory System and Nutrition

    Chapter 11: Sensory-Specific Satiety and Nutrition

    Chapter 12: Chemosensory Influences on Eating and Drinking, and Their Cognitive Mediation

    Chapter 13: Review of Chemosensation for Weight Loss

    Chapter 14: Chemosensation to Enhance Nutritional Intake in Can

     

     

     

     

  • 457.00 lei

     

     

    Description:

    Awarded first place in the 2019 AJN Book of the Year Awards in the Adult Primary Care category. Learn the latest nutrition and diet therapies for treating common diseases. Williams' Essentials of Nutrition & Diet Therapy, 12th Edition offers a solid foundation in the fundamental knowledge and skills you need to provide effective patient care. It addresses nutrition across the lifespan and includes the 2015 Dietary Goals for Americans as well as MyPlate for Older Adults. This exceptionally reader-friendly text features evidence-based information, real-world case scenarios, colorful illustrations, boxes, and tables to help you learn how to apply essential nutrition concepts and therapies in clinical practice.



    Features:


    Strong community focus is threaded throughout with robust coverage of health promotion, cultural competence, patient safety, lifespan, and public health issues.

    Focus on Culture boxes introduce you to cultural competence and the special nutritional needs, health problems, and appropriate interventions applicable to different cultural, ethnic, racial and age groups.

    Focus on Food Safety boxes alert you to food safety issues related to a particular nutrient, age group, or medical condition.

    Health Promotion section devoted solely to health promotion and wellness stresses healthy lifestyle choices and prevention as the best "medicine."

    Diet-Medication Interactions boxes provide diet-warnings related to specific prescription drugs.

    Evidence-Based Practice boxes summarize current research findings.

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) boxes offer uses, contraindications, and advantages/disadvantages of common types of herbs and supplements and potential interactions with prescription or over-the-counter medications.

    Perspective in Practice boxes supply you with practice elements for nutrition education.

    Key terms identified in the text and defined on the page help reinforce critical concepts.




    New To This Edition:


    NEW! Includes the 2015 Dietary Goals for Americans which covers the latest guidelines and medications.

    NEW! MyPlate for Older Adults developed by the Tufts University Human Research Center on Aging and the AARP Foundation replaces former Food Guide Pyramid.

    NEW! Newly-approved Nutrition Labeling Guidelines incorporated into text along with the latest medications, research findings, and clinical treatment therapies.

    NEW! New and refreshed case studies illustrate key concepts in authentic, "real-life" scenarios that reinforce learning and promote nutritional applications.

    NEW! Expanded coverage of health promotion includes strategies for implementation.

    NEW! New coverage of text messages for nutrition and health information includes what to watch out for when visiting health-related web sites.




    Table Of Contents:


    PART 1: INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN NUTRITION
    1.  Nutrition and Health
    2.  Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism
    3. Carbohydrates
    4. Lipids
    5. Proteins
    6. Vitamins
    7. Minerals and Water
    8. Energy Balance

    PART 2:  COMMUNITY NUTRITION AND THE LIFE CYCLE
    9. Food Selection and Food Safety
    10. Community Nutrition: Promoting Healthy Eating
    11. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation
    12. Nutrition for Normal Growth and Development
    13. Nutrition for Adults: Early, Middle, and Later Years 
    14.  Nutrition and Physical Fitness
    15. The Complexity of Obesity: Beyond Energy Balance

    PART 3: INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL NUTRITION
    16. Nutrition Assessment and Nutrition Therapy in Patient Care
    17. Metabolic Stress
    18. Drug-Nutrient Interactions
    19. Nutrition Support: Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
    20. Gastrointestinal Diseases
    21. Diseases of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Lungs
    22. Diabetes Mellitus
    23. Renal Disease
    24. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    25. Cancer

    Appendixes
    A. Body Mass Index: Obesity Values
    B. Food Sources of Oxalates
    C. Calculation Aids and Conversion Tables
    D. Federal Food Assistance Programs

       

     

  • 490.00 lei

     

    Features:


    Provides a gentle introduction to the subject by first addressing nutritional information and then building in molecular aspects, clearly establishing fundamental information for the reader

    Facilitates reader comprehension by including succinct summary points in each chapter

    Contains a glossary of definitions that allows readers to easily reference terms

    Provides both a deep and broad understanding of the subject by containing overviews as well as detail-focused chapters.




    Table Of Contents:


    List of Contributors

    Preface

    Section I: General and Introductory Aspects

    Chapter 1. Bioactive Peptides Derived From Food Proteins

    Abstract

    1.1 Physiological Effects of Food-Derived Peptides

    1.2 In Vivo Evidence of Food-Derived Peptide Effects

    1.3 Bioactive Peptides Released During Digestion

    1.4 Peptide Bioavailability

    1.5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 2. Protein Intake Throughout Life and Current Dietary Recommendations

    Abstract

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Current Estimates for Protein and Amino Acid Requirements Throughout Life

    2.3 Theoretical and Practical Limitations and Uncertainties

    2.4 Evidence for Defining Requirements Based on Meals Rather Than an Average Daily Intake in Older People

    2.5 Toward Other Criteria to Define Requirements, Using Health-Related Parameters?

    2.6 Current Dietary Intake of Protein and Amino Acids

    2.7 Conclusion and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 3. Cellular Mechanisms of Protein Degradation Among Tissues

    Abstract

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Proteolytic Systems

    3.3 Skeletal Muscle Proteolysis

    3.4 Proteolysis in Viscera

    3.5 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 4. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Among Tissues

    Abstract

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Cellular and Molecular Regulation of Hypertrophy

    4.3 Myogenesis: The Development and Regeneration of Muscle

    4.4 Applied Implications of Protein Synthesis In Vivo

    4.5 Conclusions and Summary of Key Points

    Disclosures

    References

    Chapter 5. Role of Amino Acid Transporters in Protein Metabolism

    Abstract

    5.1 Amino Acid Transporters: Structure and Molecular Function

    5.2 AA Transporters and Cellular Function

    5.3 AA Transporters in Whole-Body Nutrition

    5.4 AA Transporters in Mammalian Embryonic Development and Growth

    5.5 AA Transporters and the Immune Response

    5.6 AA and Peptide Transporters as Therapeutic Targets

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Section II: Cellular Aspects of Protein and Amino Acids Metabolism in Anabolic and Catabolic Situations

    Chapter 6. Amino Acids and Exercise: Molecular and Cellular Aspects

    Abstract

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Regulation of the Size of Human Muscle Mass

    6.3 Exercise Mode

    6.4 Protein Type

    6.5 Dose Response of MPS to Protein Ingestion Following Resistance Exercise

    6.6 Timing and Distribution

    6.7 The Influence of the Aging Process

    6.8 The Role of the Essential and Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    6.9 The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)

    6.10 Resistance Exercise, Amino Acids, and mTORC1

    6.11 Future Directions

    6.12 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 7. Protein Metabolism in the Elderly: Molecular and Cellular Aspects

    Abstract

    7.1 Aging and Sarcopenia

    7.2 Protein Metabolism in the Aging Body

    7.3 Age-Related Changes in Nutrient Sensitivity

    7.4 Regulation of mTOR Signaling in Aging

    7.5 The Role of Physical Activity During Aging

    7.6 Aging and Changes in Endocrine Function

    7.7 Molecular Dysregulation of Protein Metabolism During Aging

    References

    Chapter 8. Specificity of Amino Acids and Protein Metabolism in Obesity

    Abstract

    8.1 Introduction: Fat-Free Mass in Obesity

    8.2 Insulin Resistance and Protein Metabolism

    8.3 Lipotoxicity and Muscle Protein Metabolism

    8.4 Role of Adipose and Muscular Cytokines in the Cross-Talk Between Muscle and Adipose Tissue

    8.5 Sarcopenic Obesity and Metabolic Impairments

    8.6 BCAA Levels and Metabolism in Obesity

    8.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. Feeding Modulation of Amino Acid Utilization: Role of Insulin and Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle

    Abstract

    9.1 Overview of the Metabolic Role of Skeletal Muscle and as an Amino Acid Repository

    9.2 Impact of Splanchnic Extraction and Source of Dietary Amino Acid on Bioavailability and Muscle Protein Synthesis

    9.3 Influence of Amino Acid, Macronutrient Composition, and Caloric Load on Muscle Protein Synthesis

    9.4 Effects of Dose and Delivery Profile of Amino Acid on the Feeding-Induced Stimulation of Muscle Protein Synthesis

    9.5 Influence of Microvascular Responses to Feeding in Relation to Muscle Protein Synthesis

    9.6 The Role of Insulin in Regulating Muscle Protein Turnover

    9.7 The Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Protein Breakdown by Amino Acid and Insulin

    9.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 10. Protein Metabolism and Requirement in Intensive Care Units and Septic Patients

    Abstract

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Protein Metabolism in the Critically Ill Patient

    10.3 Protein Requirement of Critically Ill Patients: Mechanistic Studies

    10.4 Protein Requirements of Critically Ill Patients: Outcome-Based Studies

    10.5 Application in Clinical Practice

    10.6 Protein–Energy Ratio

    10.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 11. Muscle Protein Kinetics in Cancer Cachexia

    Abstract

    11.1 Introduction: Muscle Wasting as the Main Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    11.2 Control of Skeletal Mass in Healthy Conditions

    11.3 Anabolic Signals

    11.4 Inflammation and Muscle Protein Degradation

    11.5 Cross-Talk Between Anabolic and Catabolic Mediators

    11.6 Therapeutic Approaches to Influence Protein Kinetics

    11.7 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 12. Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Pulmonary Diseases and Nutritional Abnormalities: A Special Focus on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Abstract

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Epidemiology and Definition of Nutritional Abnormalities in Chronic Respiratory Patients

    12.3 Diagnosis of Nutritional Abnormalities in Patients

    12.4 Etiologic Factors and Biological Mechanisms Involved in the Nutritional Abnormalities of Patients With Chronic Respiratory Conditions: COPD as the Paradigm

    12.5 Protein Metabolism, Muscles, and Exercise in Humans

    12.6 Potential Therapeutic Targets of Nutritional Abnormalities in Chronic Respiratory Patients

    12.7 Other Chronic Respiratory Conditions

    12.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 13. Amino Acids, Protein, and the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Abstract

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Gastrointestinal Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Health

    13.3 The First-Pass Effect of a Bolus Meal

    13.4 Gastrointestinal Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Stress Conditions

    13.5 The Production of a Substrate Mix to Support Host Response in Stress

    13.6 Protein Metabolism in Stress Starvation

    13.7 Substrate Metabolism in Stress Starvation to Spare Protein

    13.8 The Role of Individual Amino Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    13.9 The Role of the Intestine in Bile Salt and Amino Acid Metabolism

    13.10 Role of the Intestine in Amino Acid Metabolism in Liver Failure

    References

    Chapter 14. Regulation of Macroautophagy by Nutrients and Metabolites

    Abstract

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Overview of the Autophagic Pathway

    14.3 The Nutrient Code of Autophagy

    14.4 Metabolites and Autophagy

    14.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section III: Cellular and Molecular Actions of Amino Acids in non Protein Metabolism

    Chapter 15. Dietary Protein and Colonic Microbiota: Molecular Aspects

    Abstract

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 16. Control of Food Intake by Dietary Amino Acids and Proteins: Molecular and Cellular Aspects

    Abstract

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 The Effect of Protein Intake and Overall Energy Intake on Body Weight and Body Composition

    16.3 Detection of Protein and Amino Acids During Digestion and Control of Food Intake by Feedback Signaling

    16.4 Protein-Induced Reduction in Eating and Central Neuronal Pathways

    16.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Dietary Protein and Hepatic Glucose Production

    Abstract

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Amino Acids as Glucose Precursors and Effect of Protein Intake

    17.3 Insulin and Glucagon Mediated Effects of Amino Acids and Proteins on Glucose Production

    17.4 Protein Meal and Hepatic Glucose Production

    17.5 High Protein Diet and Hepatic Glucose Production

    17.6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. Impact of Dietary Proteins on Energy Balance, Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Homeostasis: From Proteins to Peptides to Amino Acids

    Abstract

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 19. Sulfur Amino Acids Metabolism From Protein Synthesis to Glutathione

    Abstract

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Functions of the SAAs

    19.3 Physiological Aspects of SAA Metabolism

    19.4 Nutritional Aspects of SAA Metabolism

    19.5 SAA Requirement

    19.6 Glutathione

    19.7 Conclusions

    References

    Section IV: Dietary Amino Acid and Protein on Gene Expression

    Chapter 20. Adaptation to Amino Acid Availability: Role of GCN2 in the Regulation of Physiological Functions and in Pathological Disorders

    Abstract

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 The GCN2-EIF2α Pathway

    20.3 Control of Physiological Functions by GCN2

    20.4 Involvement of GCN2 in Pathology

    20.5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 21. Amino Acid-Related Diseases

    Abstract

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Disorder of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism (Phenylketonuria, Hyperphenylalaninemia, Tyrosinemia Type 1)

    21.3 Urea Cycle Disorders/Hyperammonemias

    21.4 Disorders of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism (Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Isovaleric Acidemia, Propionic Acidemia, Methylmalonic Acidemia)

    21.5 Classical Homocystinuria (HCU)

    21.6 Miscellaneous

    References

    Chapter 22. Genes in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Impact of Feeding: Molecular and Cellular Aspects

    Abstract

    22.1 Cellular Events Involved in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling

    22.2 Molecular Pathways Involved in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling

    22.3 Effects of Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Remodeling

    References

    Chapter 23. Brain Amino Acid Sensing: The Use of a Rodent Model of Protein-Malnutrition, Lysine Deficiency

    Abstract

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Brain Essential AA Sensing: The Case of the Rodent Model of Lysine Deficiency

    23.3 Brain Functional Changes Elicited by Intragastric Stimulation by Nutrients, Glucose, Glutamate, and Sodium Chloride

    23.4 Glutamate Signaling in the Gut Triggers Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Aids in the Prevention of Obesity

    23.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

       

     

  • 55100lei 500.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    Intended for any healthcare professional working with surgical patients, including medical students, residents, surgeons and internists, nurses, dieticians, pharmacists, and physical therapists, The Practical Handbook of Perioperative Metabolic and Nutritional Care focuses on topics from the history of surgery and metabolism, to organic response to stress. Based on clinical processes, the author explores screening, assessment, and the impact of nutritional status on outcomes, in addition to investigating nutritional requirements, including macronutrients and micronutrients. Chapters examine wound healing as well as metabolic and nutritional surgical preconditioning, including coverage of preoperative counseling, preoperative nutrition, and preoperative fasting. Physical exercise is addressed, as well as nutritional therapy in the form of oral supplements, and enteral and parenteral approaches. Additional topics explored include nutrition therapy complications and immunomodulatory nutrients, pro, pre and symbiotics, postoperative oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, enteral access, vascular access, fluid therapy, and more. With up-to-date information, practical and cost-effective data, this resource is critical for translating theory to practice.

    Focuses on preoperative metabolic and nutritional preparation for surgery

    Explores processes for intra and postoperatively assessing metabolic and nutritional state to ensure patient progress

    Contains content based on clinical process

     

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Introduction

    1. History of surgery, metabolism, and nutrition therapy

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    The history of surgery

    The history of metabolism and nutrition

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    2. Organic response to stress

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Principles

    Stress definition

    The ebb and flow phases

    Glucose, lactate, protein, and lipid metabolism

    Fluid and electrolyte response

    The endocrine response

    The inflammatory response

    The immunologic response

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    3. Nutritional status and requirements

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Nutritional status

    Nutritional screening

    Nutritional assessment

    Impact on outcomes

    Nutritional requirements

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    4. Wound healing

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Wound types

    Tissue organization, disease states, and the wound

    Wound healing phases

    Wound contraction

    Special wound healing characteristics in different tissues

    Factors impacting wound healing

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    5. Metabolic and nutritional surgical preconditioning

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Metabolic and surgical preconditioning

    Preoperative parenteral nutrition therapy

    Preoperative enteral nutrition

    Preoperative fasting

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    6. Bowel preparation

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Principles behind bowel preparation and its evolution in clinical practice

    Antibiotic use

    Advantages and disadvantages

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    7. Rational for the use of antibiotics

    Objectives

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    The human microbiota

    Surgical site infections

    Rational for antibiotic use

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    8. Postoperative nutrition therapy

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Oral diet

    Enteral nutrition

    Parenteral nutrition

    Nutrition care after hospital discharge

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    9. Nutrition therapy complications

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Metabolic complications related to all the nutrition therapy regimens

    Oral nutrition complications

    Enteral nutrition complications

    Parenteral nutrition complications

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    10. Immunonutrition

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Definition

    Rationale

    Immunonutrients

    Clinical use

    Conclusions

    11. Pro-, pre-, and symbiotics

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics

    The operation and the disrupted microbiota

    Probiotics and surgical complications

    Conclusions

    12. Exercise therapy

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Preoperative interventions

    Postoperative interventions

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    13. Catheters

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Introduction

    Vascular catheters

    Enteral catheters

    Conclusions

    Recommended material

    14. Fluid and electrolyte therapy

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Normal fluid and electrolyte physiology

    Adverse events related to fluid and electrolyte imbalances

    Goals of fluid replacement

    Postoperative fluid, glucose, and electrolyte prescription

    Daily fluid balance

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    15. Acute pain management

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Definition

    Pain anatomy and physiology

    Pain assessment

    Pain control and effectivity

    Implementation of pain strategies

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    16. Antiemetic agents and motility stimulant medications

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Definition of postoperative dysmotility and its consequences

    The patient at high risk of postoperative dysmotility

    Strategies to prevent postoperative dysmotility

    The antiemetic and motility stimulant medications

    Motility stimulant medications (prokinetics)

    Conclusions

    17. Other multimodal strategies

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Preoperative counseling

    Tubes, drains, and catheters

    Premedication, short-acting anesthetics, and epidural analgesia

    Normothermia

    Thromboembolism prophylaxis

    Minimal incisions and video procedures

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    18. Music in the perioperative period

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Concept of music

    The difference of music therapy and music in the perioperative period

    The benefits of music

    Music for the surgical team

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    19. The special patient

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Children

    Elderly

    Pregnant

    Obese

    Diabetic

    Disabled

    Polypharmacy

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    20. Interdisciplinary teams

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Rationale

    How to start

    Challenges to face

    Cost-effectiveness

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    21. Quality, safety, and performance improvement

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Quality, safety, and performance

    The evolution of quality

    How to improve quality in surgery

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    22. Clinical and economic impact of protocols

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Definition

    Rationale

    Clinical impact

    Cost-effectiveness

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    23. Knowledge translation

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Knowledge translation concept

    Knowledge translation in surgery

    To implement knowledge translation

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    24. Patient empowerment

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Patient empowerment

    Importance of empowering the surgical patient

    Methods to help patient empowering

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    25. Ethical considerations

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    Historical perspective

    Principles

    Current challenges

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    26. Evidence-based Medicine in surgery

    Common questions routinely asked in everyday practice

    Response/Introduction

    The concept

    Critical appraisal

    Evidence-based Medicine

    Conclusions

    Recommended reading

    Index

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