pe pagina
  • 43400lei 390.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Co-authored by an interprofessional collaborative team of physicians and nurses, Merenstein & Gardner’s Handbook of Neonatal Intensive Care, 9th Edition is the leading resource for interprofessional, collaborative care of critically ill newborns. It offers comprehensive coverage with a unique interprofessional collaborative approach and a real-world perspective that make it a practical guide for both nurses and physicians. The new ninth edition features a wealth of expanded content on delivery-room care; new evidence-based care "bundles"; palliative care in the NICU; interprofessional collaborative care of parents with depression, grief, and complicated grief; and new pain assessment tools. Updated high-quality references have also been reintegrated into the book, making it easier for clinicians to locate research evidence and standards of care with minimal effort. These additions, along with updates throughout, ensure that clinicians are equipped with the very latest clinical care guidelines and practice recommendations - all in a practical quick-reference format for easy retrieval and review.

    Features:

    • UNIQUE! Core author team of two physicians and two nurses gives this internationally recognized reference a true interprofessional collaborative approach that is unmatched by any other resource.
    • Consistent organization within clinical chapters include Physiology/Pathophysiology, Etiology, Prevention, Data Collection (History, Signs and Symptoms, and Laboratory Data), Treatment/Intervention, Complications, and Parent Teaching sections.
    • UNIQUE! Color-highlighted point-of-care clinical content makes high-priority clinical content quick and easy to find.
    • UNIQUE! Parent Teaching boxes outline the relevant information to be shared with a patient’s caregivers.
    • Critical Findings boxes outline symptoms and diagnostic findings that require immediate attention to help the provider prioritize assessment data and steps in initial care.
    • Case studies demonstrate how to apply essential content to realistic clinical scenarios for application-based learning.

    New To This Edition:

    • NEW! Updated content throughout reflects the latest evidence-based practice, national and international guidelines, and current protocols for interprofessional collaborative practice in the NICU.
    • NEW! Up-to-date, high-quality references are now reintegrated into the text for quick retrieval, making it easier for clinicians to locate research evidence and standards of care with minimal effort.
    • NEW! Expanded content on delivery-room care includes the impact of staffing on quality of care, delayed cord clamping, resuscitation, and more.
    • NEW! Coverage of the new evidence-based care "bundles" keeps clinicians up to date on new guidelines that have demonstrated improved outcomes of very preterm infants.
    • NEW! Coverage of new pain assessment tools equips NICU providers with essential resources for maintaining patient comfort.
    • NEW! Expanded coverage of palliative care in the NICU provides the tools needed to ensure patient comfort.
    • NEW! Expanded coverage of interprofessional collaborative care of parents with depression, grief, and complicated grief prepares clinicians for this essential area of practice.

    Table of Contents:

    Unit One: Evidence-Based Practice
    1. Evidence-Based Clinical Practice

    Unit Two: Support of the Neonate
    2. Prenatal Environment: Effect on Neonatal Outcome
    3. Perinatal Transport and Levels of Care
    4. Care at Birth
    5. Immediate Newborn Care
    6. Heat Balance 
    7. Physiologic Monitoring
    8. Acid-Base Homeostasis and Oxygenation
    9. Diagnostic Imaging in the Neonate
    10. Pharmacology in Neonatal Care
    11. Drug Withdrawal in the Neonate
    12. Pain and Pain Relief 
    13. The Neonate and the Environment: Impact on Development

    Unit Three: Metabolic and Nutritional Care of the Neonate
    14. Fluid and Electrolyte Management
    15. Glucose Homeostasis
    16. Total Parenteral Nutrition
    17. Enteral Nutrition
    18. Breast Feeding the Neonate with Special Needs
    19. Skin and Skin Care

    Unit Four: Infection and Hematologic Diseases of the Neonate
    20. Newborn Hematology
    21. Jaundice
    22. Infection in the Neonate

    Unit Five: Common Systemic Diseases of the Neonate
    23. Respiratory Diseases
    24. Cardiovascular Diseases and Surgical Interventions
    25. Neonatal Nephrology
    26. Neurologic Disorders
    27. Genetic Disorders, Malformations, and Inborn Errors of Metabolism
    28. Neonatal Surgery

    Unit Six: Psychosocial Aspects of Neonatal Care
    29. Families in Crisis: Theoretical and Practical Considerations
    30. Grief and Perinatal Loss
    31. Discharge Planning and Follow-Up of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Infant
    32. Ethics, Values, and Palliative Care in Neonatal Intensive Care

    Index

     

     

  • Stereo Atlas of Vitreoretinal Diseases
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,10000lei 980.00 lei

     

    Practical stereo atlas on diagnosis and treatment

    Includes clinical cases with illustrations

    Written by experienced professionals who manage vitreoretinal diseases

     

    About this book

     

    This book introduces up-to-date knowledge of vitreal and retinal diseases with color fundus illustrations. The retinal layers of different lesions normally look like a single plane for junior doctors in Ophthalmology. With the help of the fundus camera, the stereo color images with different shooting angles are taken and the retina looks vivid and stereoscopic in the photograph.

     

    Although the technology of "deciphering" retina diseases is constantly advancing, the stereo fundus photography (SFP) is still indispensable, which can not only reveals the retina stereoscopically and comprehensively, but also has been the gold standard for certain diseases, such as glaucoma and retina angiomatous proliferation (RAP). Meanwhile, the equipment demands for SFP are not so high and can be easily promoted in the grass-roots hospitals. In this book, we carefully collected and organized more than 300 stereo color fundus images and angiography pictures of various vitreal and retinal diseases for readers to recognize the three dimensional features at first glance, such as retinal bleeding at different layers, optic disc change of glaucoma, macular diseases, tumors, RAP and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

     

    Table of contents (7 chapters)

     

    Basic Principles of Stereo Fundus Photography

    Pages 1-5

    Min, Hanyi (et al.)

    Retinal Diseases

    Pages 7-110

    Wang, Gensheng (et al.)

    Macular Diseases

    Pages 111-161

    Min, Hanyi (et al.)

    Vitreous Diseases

    Pages 163-190

    Ye, Qinying (et al.)

    Papillary Diseases

    Pages 191-254

    Cheng, Gangwei (et al.)

    Choroidal Diseases

    Pages 255-286

    Li, Donghui (et al.)

    Fundus Changes After Vitreoretinal Surgery

    Pages 287-303

    Min, Hanyi (et al.)

     

  • 82200lei 735.00 lei

     

    ·         Provides an understanding of the underpinnings of neurorehabilitation

    ·         Edited by respected figures in the field of neurorehabilitation

    ·         Presents clinical recommendations based on established evidence and clinical experience

    ·         Comes with online access to informative videos

    New to this Edition:

    ·         Fully updated to reflect important developments in the field.

    ·         Includes new chapters on vocational rehabilitation, self-management strategies in neurorehabilitation, and music supported therapy in neurorehabilitation.

    Description

     

    Neurorehabilitation is an expanding field with an increasing clinical impact due to an ageing population. During the last 20 years, neurorehabilitation has developed from a discipline with little scientific background, separated from other medical centers, to a medical entity largely based on the principles of 'evidenced based medicine' with strong ties to basic research and clinical neurology. Today neurorehabilitation is still a work in progress and treatment standards are not yet established for all aspects of the field. There are very few books that address contemporary neurorehabilitation from this perspective.

    This new edition of the Oxford Textbook of Neurorehabilitation provides an understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of the subject as well as a clear perspective on how (and why) to approach treatment decisions on an individualized basis. The book has been thoroughly updated to reflect novel important developments in the field and includes new chapters on vocational rehabilitation, self-management strategies in neurorehabilitation, and music supported therapy in neurorehabilitation. This indispensable book will be of great interest to rehabilitation physicians, neurologists, and allied health care professionals who look after patients requiring neurorehabilitation.

     

    Table of Contents

    SECTION I: General aspects of neurorehabilitation
    1:The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health, 
    Diane Playford
    2:A teamwork approach to neurological rehabilitation, 
    Derick Wade
    3:The economic benefits of rehabilitation for neurological conditions, 
    Rory J. O Connor
    4:Predicting activities after stroke, 
    Gert Kwakkel and Boudewijn Kollen
    5:Designing a clinical trial for neurorehabilitation, 
    Bruce Dobkin and Clarisa Martinez
    6:The influence of age on neurorehabilitation, 
    Markus Wirz and Louise Rutz-LaPitz
    7:The applicability of motor learning to neurorehabilitation, 
    John W. Krakauer
    SECTION II: Physiological consequences of CNS damage
    8:Spinal neuronal dysfunction after deprivation of supraspinal input, 
    Michèle Hubli and Volker Dietz
    9:Secondary changes after damage of the central nervous system: Significance of spastic muscle tone in rehabilitation, 
    Volker Dietz and Thomas Sinkjær
    10:Autonomous nervous system dysfunction, 
    Tom E. Nightingale, Ulrich Mehnert, Thomas M. Kessler, and Andrei Krassioukov
    11:Functional recovery in CNS disease: Impact of animal models, 
    Steffen Franz, Andreas Hug, and Norbert Weidner
    SECTION III: Neuroplasticity and repair
    12:Animal models of damage, repair, and plasticity in the brain, 
    Andreas R. Luft
    13:Animal models of damage, repair and plasticity in the spinal cord, 
    Patrick Freund, V. Reggie Edgerton, Roland R. Roy, Daniel C. Lu, and Yury Gerasimenko
    14:Stem cell application in neurorehabilitation, 
    Sebastian Jessberger, Armin Curt, and Roger A. Barker
    15:The role of neuroimaging in understanding the impact of neuroplasticity after CNS damage, 
    Nick S. Ward
    16:Enhancement of neuroplasticity by cortical stimulation, 
    Orlando B. C. Swayne and John C. Rothwell
    17:Enhancement of neuroplasticity by drug therapy, 
    Ulf Ziemann
    SECTION IV: Clinical concepts
    18:Rehabilitation of gait and balance after CNS damage, 
    Jacques Duysens, Geert Verheyden, Firas Massaad, Pieter Meyns, Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, and Ilse Jonkers
    19:Neurorehabilitation approaches for disorders of the peripheral nervous system, 
    William Huynh, Michael Lee, and Matthew C. Kiernan
    20:Treatment of arm and hand dysfunction after CNS damage, 
    Nick S. Ward
    21:Acquired disorders of language and their treatment, 
    Alex Leff and Jenny Crinion
    22:Neuropsychological rehabilitation of higher cortical functions after brain damage, 
    Radek Ptak and Armin Schnider
    23:The clinical neurology of problems with oral feeding, 
    Tom Hughes and Tom Richards
    24:Management of bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction, 
    Ulrich Mehnert and Thomas Kessler
    25:The assessment and treatment of pain syndromes in neurorehabilitation, 
    Eva Widerström-Noga
    26:The impact of fatigue on neurorehabilitation, 
    Killian A. Welch and Mansur A. Kutlubaev
    27:Vocational Rehabilitation, 
    Andy Tyerman
    28:Self-management strategies in neurorehabilitation, 
    Fiona Jones and Sara Demain
    29:Neuropalliative rehabilitation: Managing neurological disability in the context of deteriorating illness, 
    Gail Eva, Jo Bayly, and Diane Playford
    30:Recognition and management of functional symptoms after traumatic brain injury, 
    Lucia Ricciardi, Alan J. Carson, and Mark J. Edwards
    SECTION V: Technical concepts
    31:Music supported therapy in neurorehabilitation, 
    Eckart Altenmüller and Lauren Stewart
    32:Application of orthoses and neurostimulation in neurorehabilitation, 
    Jacopo Carpaneto and Silvestro Micera
    33:Technology to enhance arm and hand function, 
    Arthur Prochazka
    34:Technology to enhance locomotor function, 
    Rüdiger Rupp, Daniel Schließmann, Christian Schuld, and Norbert Weidner
    35:Enhancing independent community access and participation: Services, technologies, and policies, 
    Émilie Raymond, Luc Noreau, Normand Boucher, Geoffrey Edwards, Patrick Fougeyrollas, Ernesto Morales, Francois Routhier, Claude Vincent, and G. Hubert Gascon
    36:Virtual reality for neurorehabilitation, 
    Mathias Bannwart and Robert Riener
    37:Promises and challenges of neurorehabilitation technology, 
    Arun Jayaraman, Sheila Burt, and William Z. Rymer

     

  • 99000lei 860.00 lei

     About this book

     

    This book offers practical guidance on all procedures that may be performed within the field of hip preservation surgery, arthroscopy, and endoscopy. European experts share their experiences on everything from basic injections to the most challenging hip procedures, offering step-by-step tutorials and highlighting important tips and tricks.

    Whereas most books on hip arthroscopy and hip preservation surgery concentrate on pathologies, surgical indications, and the basics of the treatment, here the focus is very much on the individual techniques and recognized variants. These techniques are clearly and precisely described with the aid of a wealth of photo and video illustrations.

    The coverage encompasses procedures applicable in the widest range of scenarios, including synovial pathologies, labral, chondral, and bony injuries, hip impingement, dysplasia and instability, snapping hips, gluteus medius and minimus tendonitis and tears, other tendinopathies, post-arthroplasty complications, and rehabilitation. The book is published in cooperation with ESSKA and will be an essential aid for orthopaedic surgeons at all levels of experience.

     

    Table of contents (28 chapters)

     

    Joint Lavage, Synovectomy, Biopsy, and Loose Body Removal

    Pages 3-15

    Tourabaly, Idriss (et al.)

    Painful Hip Arthroplasty Assessment: Removal of Cement or Loose Bodies

    Pages 17-32

    Marin-Peña, Oliver (et al.)

    Femoral Osteochondroplasty

    Pages 35-49

    Sadakah, M. A. (et al.)

    Acetabular Rim Trimming

    Pages 51-53

    Seppänen, Matti

    Open Femoral Osteochondroplasty and Rim Trimming

    Pages 55-66

    Aprato, Alessandro (et al.)

    Subspine Impingement Decompression

    Pages 67-75

    Bajwa, Ali (et al.)

    Endoscopic Deep Gluteal Syndrome Techniques: Ischiofemoral Impingement Decompression

    Pages 77-87

    Perez-Carro, Luis (et al.)

    Os Acetabuli: Removal or Fixation

    Pages 89-94

    Randelli, Filippo (et al.)

    Arthroscopic Core Decompression and Cell Therapy

    Pages 95-102

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis K. (et al.)

    Fracture Treatment

    Pages 103-109

    Zini, Raul (et al.)

    Open Periacetabular Osteotomy

    Pages 111-121

    Søballe, Kjeld

    Reverse Periacetabular Osteotomy

    Pages 123-137

    Wettstein, Michael

    Proximal Femoral Osteotomy

    Pages 139-153

    Laude, Frédéric

    Labral Debridement – Repair – Reattachment

    Pages 157-163

    Zurita, Nestor (et al.)

    Labral Reconstruction

    Pages 165-179

    Andrade, A. J.

    Ligamentum Teres Injuries and Treatment

    Pages 181-190

    Lindner, Dror (et al.)

    Capsular Plication and Repair

    Pages 191-195

    Lund, Bent

    Chondral Debridement–Abrasion: Microfracture

    Pages 199-208

    Tey Pons, Marc (et al.)

    Open Femoral Head Mosaicplasty

    Pages 209-216

    Viguelloux, Augustin (et al.)

    Endoscopic Trochanteric Bursectomy

    Pages 219-223

    Sarmento, André (et al.)

    Iliotibial Band Release and Gluteus Maximus Tendon Release (Polesello)

    Pages 225-227

    May, Olivier

    Gluteus Medius Repair – Endoscopic

    Pages 229-237

    Cardenas Nylander, Carlomagno

    Gluteus Medius and Minimus Tears Open Repair/Reconstruction

    Pages 239-252

    Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis (et al.)

    Open Adductor Tenotomy

    Pages 253-262

    Aletto, C. (et al.)

    Psoas Tenotomy

    Pages 263-269

    Andronic, Octavian (et al.)

    Proximal Hamstring Repair/Reinsertion: Open Surgery Technique

    Pages 271-277

    Lempainen, Lasse (et al.)

    Hamstring Repair/Reinsertion: Endoscopic Treatment Options

    Pages 279-282

    Bataillie, F. (et al.)

    Sciatic Nerve Release/Piriformis Tenotomy: Endoscopic Surgery

    Pages 285-297

    Perez-Carro, Luis (et al.)

     

  • 76400lei 700.00 lei

     

    DESCRIPTION

    Comprehensively describes bone augmentation techniques and their application to the different anatomical regions of the upper and lower jaws.

    Bone Augmentation by Anatomical Region is a unique, evidence-based guide focusing on each specific anatomical region – anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, anterior mandible, and posterior mandible – in order to emphasize the correct implemented procedures needed to successfully perform oral osseous reconstruction.

    Numerous ridge augmentation techniques are covered, including: horizontal and vertical guided bone regeneration, autologous block transplantation, interpositional bone grafting, allogeneic blocks, sandwich technique, split-expansion ridge technique, and sinus floor grafting.  Non-augmented approaches such as forced socket site extrusion and the installation of digitally printed implants are also presented and discussed.

    ·         Guides readers on tackling bone augmentation via anatomical region of the jaws and their related surrounding muscles, vascularization and innervation

    ·         Presents innovative augmentation techniques for the anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, anterior mandible, and posterior mandible

    ·         Includes clinical photographs in each section and a decision tree to help readers select the appropriate surgical modality

    Bone Augmentation by Anatomical Region is a specialist resource suitable for dentists who practice implant dentistry, oral surgeons, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, periodontists, and postgraduate dental students in the above-mentioned disciplines.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Contributors xi

    Preface xv

    Acknowledgement xvii

    About the Companion Website xix

    Introduction xxi

    Part I Basic Mechanisms 1

    1 The Anatomy of the Maxilla and the Mandible: Related Structures and Inserted Muscles 3
    Dmitri Lev and Zvi Artzi

    2 Biologic Conditions for Bone Growth and Maintenance: Managing the Oxidative Stress 17
    Joseph Choukroun, Elisa Choukroun, and Maximilien Parnot

    3 Biomaterials Selection – Cellular Interactions During Regenerative and Remodeling Phases 43
    Itzhak Binderman, Michal Halperin-Sternfeld, Erez Netanely, Snježana Pohl, Robert A. Horowitz, and Zvi Artzi

    4 Allogeneic Bone Grafts 61
    Michele Jacotti and Fabio Bernardello

    5 The Role of Osteopromotive Membranes in Guided Bone Regeneration 69
    Elena Calciolari, Aliye Akcalı, and Nikolaos Donos

    Part II The Anterior Maxilla 95

    6 Esthetic Considerations 97
    Goran I. Benic, Riccardo Kraus, Shaoxia Pan, and Christoph H.F. Hämmerle

    7 Soft Tissue Management in the Anterior Maxilla 117
    Daniel S. Thoma, Hyun-Chang Lim, and Christoph H.F. Hämmerle

    8 Treatment Alternatives for Soft Tissue Procedures in the Maxilla 131
    Carlos E. Nemcovsky

    9 Modifications of Anterior Maxillary Sandwich Osteotomy for Vertical Bone Augmentation 163
    Ole T. Jensen

    10 Autogenous Bone Block Transplantation in the Anterior Maxilla 169
    Federico Hernández-Alfaro and Gian Maria Ragucci

    11 Allogeneic Block Grafts in the Anterior Maxilla 181
    Michele Jacotti and Fabio Bernardello

    12 Confronting Severe Deficiencies in the Anterior Maxilla 195
    Zvi Artzi

    13 Management of Complications in Anterior Maxilla During Guided Bone Regeneration 235
    Isabella Rocchietta, Federico Moreno, and David Nisand

    Part III The Posterior Maxilla 255

    14 Sinus Augmentation: The Transcrestal Approach 257
    Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina, Giovanni Franceschetti, and Zvi Artzi

    15 Sinus Augmentation: The Lateral Approach 283
    Tiziano Testori, Riccardo Scaini, Matteo Deflorian, and Stephen S. Wallace
    16 Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation: The Lateral Approach in Unusual Cases 309
    Zvi Artzi

    Part IV The Anterior Mandible 329

    17 Re-establishment of Adequate Osseous Volume in an Atrophic Anterior Mandible 331
    Zvi Artzi

    18 Anterior Atrophic Mandible Restoration Using Cancellous Bone Block Allograft 379
    Gavriel Chaushu, Liat Chaushu, Karen Anavi Lev, Joseph Nissan, and Zvi Artzi

    Part V The Posterior Mandible 399

    19 Options for Restoring the Atrophic Posterior Mandible – Vertical and Horizontal Bone Augmentation 401
    Zvi Artzi

    20 Cortico-Cancellous Block (CCB) Transplantation in the Posterior Mandible 431
    Zvi Artzi

    21 Allogeneic Block Grafts in the Posterior Mandible 445
    Michele Jacotti and Fabio Bernardello

    Part VI Other Advancing Techniques 453

    22 Interpositional Bone Grafts: Sandwich Interposition in the Lateral Mandible and Le Fort I Interposition in the Maxilla 455
    Hendrik Terheyden

    23 Preprosthetic Orthognathic Surgery 471
    Dror M. Allon

    Part VII Additional Related Subjects 487

    24 Biofilms Around Dental Implants 489
    David Herrera, Patricia Bermejo, María del Carmen Sánchez, Elena Figuero, and Mariano Sanz

    25 Prevention and Management of Peri-Implant Diseases 505
    Sofia Aroca, Giovanni E. Salvi, Andrea Roccuzzo, Uri Renert, Anton Sculean, and Zvi Artzi

    Index 523

  • 78200lei 625.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Highly readable, well-illustrated, and easy to understand, Gabbe’s Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies is an ideal day-to-day reference or study tool for residents and clinicians. This 8th Edition of this bestselling text offers fast access to evidence-based, comprehensive information, now fully revised with substantial content updates, new and improved illustrations, and a new, international editorial team that continues the tradition of excellence established by Dr. Steven Gabbe.

     

    Key Features:

    Puts the latest knowledge in this complex specialty at your fingertips, allowing you to quickly access the information you need to treat patients, participate knowledgably on rounds, and perform well on exams.

     Contains at-a-glance features such as key points boxes, bolded text, chapter summaries and conclusions, key abbreviations boxes, and quick-reference tables, management and treatment algorithms, and bulleted lists throughout.

     Features detailed illustrations from cover to cover—many new and improved—including more than 100 ultrasound images that provide an important resource for normal and abnormal fetal anatomy.

     Covers key topics such as prevention of maternal mortality, diabetes in pregnancy, obesity in pregnancy, vaginal birth after cesarean section, and antepartum fetal evaluation.

    Provides access to 11 videos that enhance learning in areas such as cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery.

    Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices

  • 1,54300lei 1310.00 lei

     

    Written from a global perspective by experts in the field

    Demonstrates surgical procedures in a step by step manner with the aid of photographs and illustrations

    Describes alternate surgical approaches to highlight all options

     

    About this book

     

    This book provides a guide to the correction of maxillofacial trauma surgery. Chapters covering the initial considerations, assessment, and techniques required in post-traumatic surgery are included to give the reader an understanding of how and why a particular procedure takes place. The treatment of eye, nose, cheek, ear, jaw, and soft tissue deformities are also discussed.

    Atlas of Operative Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery: Post-Traumatic Deformity aims to give a framework to trainee and practising surgeons to help them manage trauma and allow them to assess and treat patients with facial deformities.

     

    Table of contents (52 chapters)

     

    Psychological Aspects of Posttraumatic DeformityPages 3-7

    Piff, Christine

    Complications in Craniofacial Trauma: An Overview of Some Common Problems

    Pages 9-40

    Alibhai, Mustansir (et al.)

    Hardware Removal in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    Pages 41-53

    Pabla, Ravinder (et al.)

    Posttraumatic Gustatory Dysfunction

    Pages 55-61

    Landis, Basile N. (et al.)

    Chronic Pain: An Overview of Causes and Management

    Pages 63-69

    Barry, Thomas (et al.)

    The Early Zygomatic Malunion

    Pages 71-90

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    Principles of Correction: An Overview of Secondary Correction of Posttraumatic Bony Deformities

    Pages 93-100

    Sawhney, Raja (et al.)

    Three-Dimensional Facial Imaging for the Diagnosis of Complex Soft Tissue Secondary to Craniofacial Trauma

    Pages 101-105

    Zou, Lifong (et al.)

    Computer-Assisted Treatment Planning in Complex Cases: Digital Technology

    Pages 107-123

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    Photography for Revision Surgery

    Pages 125-142

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    The Role of Computer-Aided Design and Three-Dimensional Printing in Posttraumatic Correction

    Pages 143-162

    Eggbeer, Dominic (et al.)

    Orthoptic Assessment and Intervention Postorbital Fracture Repair

    Pages 163-171

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    Surgical Materials in Secondary Reconstruction

    Pages 175-184

    Ujam, Atheer

    Topical Negative Wound Pressure Therapy: Its Uses in Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery

    Pages 185-191

    Edwards, Daren (et al.)

    An Overview of Augmentation of Soft Tissue Deformities Using Injectable Techniques (Fillers Versus Fat)

    Pages 193-207

    Komath, Deepak (et al.)

    Tissue Expansion for Craniofacial Defects

    Pages 209-235

    Kirkpatrick, Niall (et al.)

    Fat Grafting in Soft Tissue Augmentation

    Pages 237-250

    Clauser, Luigi C. (et al.)

    Augmenting Soft Tissues with Fat, Dermis and Dermal Fat Grafts

    Pages 251-268

    Perry, Michael (et al.)

    Cranioplasty

    Pages 271-301

    White, Christopher J. (et al.)

    Hair Loss and Transplantation

    Pages 303-318

    Matsa, Sainath (et al.)

    Eyebrow Reconstruction

    Pages 319-331

    Gandelman, Marcelo

    Secondary Management of the Orbit

    Pages 335-381

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    The Anophthalmic Orbit

    Pages 383-400

    Castela, Guilherme (et al.)

    The Role of the Ocularist in Reconstructing the Posttraumatic Anophthalmic Orbit

    Pages 401-410

    Flavell, Brett

    Eyelid Deformities

    Pages 411-450

    Sethi, Charanjit J. (et al.)

    Repositioning the Corners of the Eye

    Pages 451-473

    Perry, Michael (et al.)

    The Twisted/Crooked Nose

    Pages 477-486

    Raja, Hemal (et al.)

    Nasal Augmentation

    Pages 487-497

    Perry, Michael

    Augmentation of the Nasal Pyramid: ‘Saddle-Shaped’ and Lateral Deformities

    Pages 499-518

    Seah, Tian Ee (et al.)

    Deformities of the Nasal Septum

    Pages 519-540

    Boenisch, Miriam

    Nasal Tip Deformities

    Pages 541-570

    Messiha, Ashraf

    Total and Near-Total Nasal Reconstruction

    Pages 571-582

    Hill, Sean M. (et al.)

    Posttraumatic Rhinoplasty: Is There a Role for Internal Fixation?

    Pages 583-593

    Perry, Michael

    Nasomaxillary Osteotomy

    Pages 595-603

    Perry, Michael

    Deformities of the Zygoma

    Pages 607-644

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    Reconstruction of Zygomatic and Periorbital Deformity with Alloplastic Material

    Pages 645-666

    McLeod, Niall M. H. (et al.)

    Contemporary Management of Traumatic Parotid-Cutaneous Communications and Fistulae

    Pages 667-671

    Blythe, John (et al.)

    Surgical Reconstruction of the Ear (Pinna)

    Pages 675-694

    Richardson, David

    Ear Reconstruction with Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps and Porous Polyethylene

    Pages 695-709

    Derderian, Christopher A., MD

    Hearing Impairment and Tinnitus: Cochlear Implantation and Other Rehabilitative Solutions

    Pages 711-731

    Rao, Sampath Chandra Prasad (et al.)

    Management of Posttraumatic Facial Palsy

    Pages 733-744

    Tzafetta, Kallirroi (et al.)

    The Management of Posttraumatic Facial Skeletal Deformity Affecting the Occlusion: The Early Malunited Mandible

    Pages 747-751

    Boffano, Paolo (et al.)

    Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    Pages 753-777

    Dimitroulis, George

    Replacing Missing Teeth: Dental Implants

    Pages 779-799

    Tiong, Noah Teo Bo (et al.)

    Injuries to the Teeth: Long-Term Effects and Their Management

    Pages 801-813

    Gaind, Priya

    Scar Revision and Camouflage: An Overview

    Pages 817-838

    Perry, Michael (et al.)

    Scar Revision

    Pages 839-878

    Holmes, Simon (et al.)

    Nonsurgical Management of Traumatic Scars

    Pages 879-892

    Handley, Julian

    Nonsurgical Scar Management and Camouflage Techniques

    Pages 893-901

    Selim, Flordelyn

    Missile Injuries: An Overview of Correction

    Pages 905-916

    Kummoona, Raja

    Vascularised Composite Allotransplantation (Face Transplantation)

    Pages 917-928

    Sosin, Michael, MD (et al.)

    Facial Prostheses

    Pages 929-943

    Kaczkowski, Michael D.

     

     

  • 86900lei 710.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Successfully correlate electrodiagnostic findings and neuromuscular ultrasound with key clinical findings with Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders, 4th Edition. This popular text is the go-to resource for clinicians at all levels of experience who have an interest in neuromuscular medicine, including those studying for the AANEM board exam. An easy-to-read writing style, abundant case studies, and learning features online help you master the electrodiagnostic evaluation and improve safety and accuracy.


    Table Of Contents:

    Section I: Overview of Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography

    Chapter-1: Approach to Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography

    Chapter-2: Anatomy and Neurophysiology

    Section II: Fundamentals of Nerve Conduction Studies

    Chapter-3: Basic Nerve Conduction Studies

    Chapter-4: Late Responses

    Chapter-5: Blink Reflex

    Chapter-6: Repetitive Nerve Stimulation

    Section III: Sources of Error: Anomalies, Artifacts, Technical Factors and Statistics

    Chapter-7: Anomalous Innervations

    Chapter-8: Artifacts and Technical Factors

    Chapter-9: Basic Statistics for Electrodiagnostic Studies

    Section IV: Detailed Nerve Conduction Studies

    Chapter-10: Routine Upper Extremity, Facial, and Phrenic Nerve Conduction Techniques

    Chapter-11: Routine Lower Extremity Nerve Conduction Techniques

    Section V: Fundamentals of Electromyography

    Chapter-12: Basic Overview of Electromyography

    Chapter-13: Anatomy for Needle Electromyography

    Chapter-14: Basic Electromyography: Analysis of Spontaneous Activity

    Chapter-15: Basic Electromyography: Analysis of Motor Unit Action Potentials

    Section VI: Clinical-Electrophysiologic Correlations Part I: Common Mononeuropathies:

    Chapter-16: Clinical-Electrophysiologic Correlations: Overview and Common Patterns

    Chapter-17: Median Neuropathy at the Wrist

    Chapter-18: Proximal Median Neuropathy

    Chapter-19: Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow

    Chapter-20: Ulnar Neuropathy at the Wrist

    Chapter-21: Radial Neuropathy

    Chapter-22: Peroneal Neuropathy

    Chapter-23: Femoral Neuropathy

    Chapter-24: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    Chapter-25: Facial and Trigeminal Neuropathy

    Part II: Polyneuropathy

    Chapter-26: Polyneuropathy

    Part III: Motor Neuron Disease

    Chapter-27: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Its Variants

    Chapter-28: Atypical Motor Neuron Disorders

    Part IV: Radiculopathy, Plexopathies, and Proximal Neuropathies

    Chapter-29: Radiculopathy

    Chapter-30: Brachial Plexopathy

    Chapter-31: Proximal Neuropathies of the Shoulder and Arm

    Chapter-32: Lumbosacral Plexopathy

    Chapter-33: Sciatic Neuropathy

    Part V: Disorders of Neuromuscular Junction and Muscle

    Chapter-34: Neuromuscular Junction Disorders

    Chapter-35: Myopathy

    Chapter-36: Myotonic Muscle Disorders and Periodic Paralysis Syndromes

    Section VII: Electromyography in Special Clinical Settings

    Chapter-37: Approach to Electrodiagnostic Studies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Chapter-38: Approach to Pediatric Electromyography

    Section VIII: Electronics and Instrumentation

    Chapter-39: Basics of Electricity and Electronics for Electrodiagnostic Studies

    Chapter-40: Electrical Safety and Iatrogenic Complications of Electrodiagnostic Studies

     

     

  • 43700lei 380.00 lei

     

    About this book

     

    This book provides a comprehensive and practical overview of treatments for endovascular endoleaks, which represent the most frequent complications after endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR). Written by a highly experienced interventional radiologist, it explains in practical terms the management of endoleaks using various embolization materials and different types of stent graft.

    Highlighting a range of typical and challenging cases, the book familiarizes readers with the various treatment options currently available. As such, it offers an invaluable practical guide for experienced endovascular specialists and beginners who need to treat patients with EVAR.

     

    Table of contents (5 chapters)

     

    Endoleak Classifications

    Pages 1-4

    Duvnjak, Stevo

    Endoleak Type I

    Pages 5-125

    Duvnjak, Stevo

    Endoleak Type II

    Pages 127-210

    Duvnjak, Stevo

    Endoleak Type III

    Pages 211-241

    Duvnjak, Stevo

    Endoleak Types IV and V

    Pages 243-252

    Duvnjak, Stevo

     

  • 1,95500lei 1620.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Master the information you need to know for practice and prepare for certification or recertification with a succinct, comprehensive account of the entire spectrum of imaging modalities and their clinical applications. Throughout six outstanding editions, Grainger and Allison’s Diagnostic Radiology has stood alone as the single comprehensive reference on general diagnostic radiology. Now in two succinct volumes, the 7th Edition of this landmark text continues to provide complete coverage of all currently available imaging techniques and their clinical applications - the essential information you need to succeed in examinations and understand current best practices in radiological diagnosis.

     

    Key Features:

    Organizes content along an organ and systems basis, covering all diagnostic imaging techniques in an integrated, correlative fashion, with a focus on the topics that matter most to a trainee radiologist in the initial years of training.

    Contains more than 4,000 high-quality illustrations that enhance and clarify the text.

    Features an expanded section on cardiac imaging to reflect major developments in cardiac MRI, including 3D ultrasound, PET, and SPECT.

    Integrates functional and molecular imaging throughout each section, and includes the latest image-guided biopsy and ablation techniques.

    Provides an ideal resource for written, oral, and re-certifying board study as well as for a clinical practice refresher on topics that may have been forgotten.

    Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.


    Table Of Contents:

    Chest and Cardiovascular System

    Abdominal Imaging

    Musculoskeletal System

    Spine

    Neuroimaging

    Oncological Imaging

    Paediatric Imaging

    Interventional Radiology

     

     

  • Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    1,54600lei 1330.00 lei

     

    Through ten outstanding editions, Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text has been the go-to reference for the most comprehensive coverage of the thyroid, including anatomy, development, biochemistry, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of all thyroid disorders. Now in full color throughout, the 11th Edition of this award-winning text remains the clinician’s preferred source of authoritative information on the thyroid—an essential resource for all endocrinologists and thyroid surgeons.

    • Includes thorough updates and new content throughout the text, especially on thyroid cytopathology, thyroid imaging, and targeted therapy of thyroid cancer as well as a new full-color format.
    • Covers all aspects of the thyroid, including thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, thyroid function, and disorders such as thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and cancer.
    • Discusses surgical management of thyroid cancer, thyroid disruptors, thyroid hormone analogs, thyroid dysfunction’s effects on other organ systems, the aging thyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and thyroid disease in pregnancy.
    • Features insights from international experts, including new editor Dr. Peter Kopp of Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine.

    Enrich Your Ebook Reading Experience

    • Read directly on your preferred device(s), such as computer, tablet, or smartphone.
    • Easily convert to audiobook, powering your content with natural language text-to-speech.



    Table of Contents
    :

     

    Cover

    Title Page

    Copyright

    Dedication

    Contributors

    Preface to the Eleventh Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Contents

    Section I: The Normal Thyroid

    A. History, Development, Anatomy

    Chapter 1: The heritage of the thyroid: A brief history

    GOITER, CRETINISM, AND THE THYROID GLAND

    GOITER AND IODINE

    THYROTOXICOSIS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM AND THE RECOGNITION OF THYROID FUNCTION

    THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE AND THERAPY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SCREENING AND THERAPY OF CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DISCOVERY OF CURRENT CONCEPTS OF THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND ACTION

    AUTOIMMUNE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE AND HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    THYROID CANCER

    OUTLOOK

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2: Development and anatomy of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

    THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY AXIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANOGENESIS

    SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PITUITARY ORGANOGENESIS

    THE THYROID GLAND

    THYROID BUD FORMATION

    THYROID MIGRATION

    THYROID FOLLICULOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIATED THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    HISTOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

    THYROID TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    OTHER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS INVOLVED IN THYROID DEVELOPMENT

    IN VITRO GENERATION OF THYROID CELLS FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    MODELING THYROID BY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS OVEREXPRESSION

    MODELING THYROID BY CHEMICAL PATHWAYS MANIPULATIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    B. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion

    Chapter 3: Thyroid hormone synthesis: Thyroid iodide transport

    IDENTIFICATION BY FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF THE CDNA ENCODING RAT NIS

    THE NIS MOLECULE

    ISOLATION OF THE CDNA ENCODING HUMAN NIS (hNIS) AND ELUCIDATION OF THE GENOMIC ORGANIZATION OF hNIS

    NIS IN EXTRATHYROIDAL TISSUES

    NIS MECHANISM AND STOICHIOMETRY

    SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY OF NIS

    NIS TRANSPORTS THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT ClO4− WITH A 1 Na+:1 ClO4− STOICHIOMETRY

    IODIDE TRANSPORT DEFECT, A CONGENITAL CONDITION CAUSED BY MUTATIONS IN THE NIS (SLC5A5) GENE

    NIS KO MICE, A USEFUL MODEL FOR STUDYING MULTIPLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    REGULATION OF NIS TRANSCRIPTION

    REGULATION OF NIS IN THE THYROID BY TSH

    REGULATION OF NIS BY I−

    REGULATION OF NIS BY A K+ CHANNEL

    NIS IN THYROID CANCER

    I− EFFLUX

    NIS IN BREAST CANCER

    IMPACT OF NIS ON PUBLIC HEALTH

    NIS GENE TRANSFER

    CONCLUDING REMARKS AND AVENUES FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4: Thyroid hormone synthesis

    IODIDE UPTAKE INTO THE THYROID

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER

    REGULATION OF IODIDE UPTAKE AND SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER FUNCTION AND EXPRESSION

    MUTATIONS IN THE SODIUM/IODIDE SYMPORTER GENE

    IODIDE EFFLUX FROM THE THYROID

    PENDRED SYNDROME AND PENDRIN (PDS/SLC26A4)

    PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF PENDRIN

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF PENDRIN

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PENDRIN

    GOITER AND THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN PENDRED SYNDROME

    ANOCTAMIN

    SLC26A7

    THYROGLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE AND PROTEIN

    MUTATIONS IN THE THYROGLOBULIN GENE

    THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE GENE AND PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE

    MUTATIONS IN THYROID PEROXIDASE

    THE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE–GENERATING SYSTEM

    CLONING OF THE DUAL OXIDASE AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTOR GENES

    THE PROTEIN STRUCTURE OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF DUAL OXIDASES AND THE DUAL OXIDASE MATURATION FACTORS

    MECHANISM OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    REGULATION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ACTIVITY

    GENETIC DEFECTS IN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GENERATION

    IODINATION AND THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    OXIDATION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE TO COMPOUND I AND COMPOUND II

    OXIDATION OF IODIDE

    IODINATION AND COUPLING OF TYROSYL RESIDUES

    INHIBITION OF THYROID PEROXIDASE BY THIONAMIDE DRUGS

    CELLULAR UPTAKE AND PROTEOLYSIS OF THYROGLOBULIN

    SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES

    DEHALOGENATION OF MONOIODOTYROSINE AND DIIODOTYROSINE

    IODOTYROSINE (IYD/DEHAL1) DEIODINASE GENE AND PROTEIN

    DEHALOGENASE DEFICIENCY

    REFERENCES

    C. Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Binding and Metabolism

    Chapter 5: Thyroid hormone transport proteins

    EVOLUTIONARY CONSIDERATIONS

    FUNCTIONS OF THBPs

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    THYROID-BINDING GLOBULIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TBG IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN SERPINA7 GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TBG CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    TRANSTHYRETIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PHYSIOLOGIC REGULATION OF TTR IN HUMANS

    PATHOLOGY

    HUMAN TTR GENE SEQUENCE VARIANTS AFFECTING TTR CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    DYSTRANSTHYRETINEMIC HYPERTHYROXINEMIA

    ALBUMIN

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    HUMAN ALB GENE VARIANTS AFFECTING ALB CONCENTRATION OR FUNCTION

    p.Arg242His

    OTHER SEQUENCE VARIANTS AT Arg242

    p.Arg246Ile

    T3 VARIANTS OF FDH

    MINOR CARRIERS

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THBPs

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6: Intracellular pathways of iodothyronine metabolism/implications of deiodination for thyroid hormone action

    STRUCTURE OF THE DEIODINASES

    TOPOLOGY AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS OF DEIODINASES AND MECHANISM OF DEIODINATION

    SPECIFIC PROPERTIES OF THE DEIODINASES

    TYPE 1 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 2 DEIODINASE

    TYPE 3 DEIODINASE

    NONDEIODINATIVE METABOLISM OF IODOTHYRONINES

    PHYSIOLOGIC ROLES OF THE SELENODEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES AND THE REGULATION OF T3 PRODUCTION

    ADAPTATION TO HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INTRACELLULAR TRIIODOTHYRONINE HOMEOSTASIS

    DEIODINASES AND REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN SECRETION

    DEIODINASES AND THE BIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONE

    DEIODINASES AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    DEIODINASES AND THE SKELETON

    DEIODINASES AND METABOLISM

    DEVELOPMENTAL ROLES OF THE DEIODINASES

    MATERNAL–FETAL PHYSIOLOGY

    TRIIODOTHYRONINE MODULATION OF PLACENTAL THYROID HORMONE TRANSFER

    D3 EXPRESSION AND THE REQUIREMENT FOR THYROXINE IN NORMAL PREGNANCY

    THE DEIODINASES IN HUMAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    DEIODINASES IN CANCER

    HYPERTHYROIDISM AND OVEREXPRESSION OF DEIODINASES

    DEIODINASES IN THE ISCHEMIC HEART

    DEIODINASES IN LUNG INJURY

    CONCLUSION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    D. Thyroid Hormone Action

    Chapter 7: Intracellular actions by thyroid hormones

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH DIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 1)

    THYROID HORMONE RESPONSE ELEMENTS

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION BY TRs

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COREPRESSORS/BASAL REPRESSION

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR–INTERACTING COACTIVATORS/TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATION

    NEGATIVE REGULATION BY TRs

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF TR

    RESISTANCE TO TH

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR ISOFORM KNOCKOUT AND KNOCKIN MICE

    TRANSCRIPTIONAL CASCADES

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITH INDIRECT BINDING TO DNA (TYPE 2)

    TR-DEPENDENT SIGNALING OF TH WITHOUT DNA BINDING (TYPE 3)

    TR-INDEPENDENT TH SIGNALING (TYPE IV)

    TH ANALOGS, DISRUPTORS, AND METABOLITES

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8: Thyroid hormone structure–function relationships

    THYROID HORMONE STRUCTURE, METABOLISM, AND ACTIVITY

    TR ACTIVATION BY NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC AGONISTS

    DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTIVE TR SUBTYPE AGONISTS

    STRUCTURE–FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS AT TR MUTANTS—THE ISSUE OF TH RESISTANCE

    TR ANTAGONISM

    THYROID HORMONE INTERACTIONS WITH ALTERNATE RECEPTORS AND BINDING PROTEINS

    THYRONAMINES AND ANALOGS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    E. Factors That Control Thyroid Function

    Chapter 9: Chemistry and biosynthesis of thyrotropin

    CHEMISTRY

    GENES ENCODING THE SUBUNITS OF THYROTROPIN

    CHROMOSOME LOCALIZATION

    STRUCTURE OF THE COMMON α-SUBUNIT GENE

    STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE

    CENTRAL HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT GENE ABNORMALITIES

    PRETRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    NEGATIVE REGULATORS

    POSITIVE REGULATORS

    SUMMARY OF PRETRANSLATION REGULATION OF THE HUMAN COMMON α- AND TSH-β–SUBUNIT GENE EXPRESSION

    POSTTRANSLATIONAL PROCESSING OF THYROTROPIN

    IN VITRO TRANSLATION OF THYROTROPIN-β–SUBUNIT AND α-SUBUNIT MESSENGER RNA

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF THYROTROPIN IN INTACT CELLS

    PROCESSING OF HIGH-MANNOSE PRECURSOR OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    TERMINAL SULFATION AND SIALYLATION OF COMPLEX OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF THYROTROPIN GLYCOSYLATION

    BIOACTIVITY AND METABOLIC CLEARANCE OF THYROTROPIN

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONFORMATION OF THYROTROPIN

    RECOMBINANT HUMAN THYROTROPIN

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10: The thyrotropin receptor

    THE STRUCTURE OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR GENE

    RECOGNITION OF THE RECEPTOR BY THYROTROPIN

    PROPOSED MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION OF THE RECEPTOR BY TSH

    ACTIVATION BY THYROSTIMULIN

    ACTIVATION BY CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    ACTIVATION BY THYROTROPIN-RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES

    ACTIVATION BY LOW–MOLECULAR-WEIGHT DRUG-LIKE CHEMICALS

    DOWNREGULATION OF THE THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11: Aging and the thyroid

    CHANGES IN THYROID ANATOMY WITH AGE

    PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THYROID FUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION WITH AGE

    CHALLENGES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NODULAR DISEASE AND THYROID CANCER

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12: Effects of drugs on TSH secretion, thyroid hormones’ absorption, synthesis, metabolism, and action

    INTRODUCTION

    DRUGS THAT ALTER SERUM TSH LEVELS (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 1)

    DOPAMINE/DOPAMINE AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS

    SOMATOSTATIN AND SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGS

    REXINOIDS

    OTHER DRUGS THAT SUPPRESS TSH SECRETION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE THYROID HORMONE ABSORPTION

    BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS

    FERROUS SULFATE

    SUCRALFATE AND ALUMINUM-CONTAINING ANTACIDS

    CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PHOSPHATE BINDERS

    OTHER MEDICATIONS THAT MAY REDUCE T4 INTESTINAL ABSORPTION

    DRUGS THAT REDUCE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 2)

    THIONAMIDES (ANTITHYROID DRUGS)

    IONIC INHIBITORS (PERCHLORATE, THIOCYANATE; SEE Chapter 13 ON THYROID DISRUPTORS)

    LITHIUM

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE METABOLISM OF THYROID HORMONES (FIGS. 12-1, PANEL 3 AND 12-2)

    DRUGS THAT INDUCE CYP3a (PHENYTOIN, CARBAMAZEPINE, PHENOBARBITAL, RIFAMPIN, RITONAVIR, SERTRALINE)

    DRUGS THAT INHIBIT THE DEIODINATION OF T4 AND T3

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    PROPRANOLOL AND NADOLOL

    DRUGS THAT ALTER THE TRANSPORT OR ACTION OF THYROID HORMONES (FIG. 12-1, PANEL 3)

    NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (SALICYLATES, SALSALATE, FENCLOFENAC)

    FUROSEMIDE

    HEPARIN AND FATTY ACIDS

    ESTROGEN AND SELECTIVE ESTROGEN MODULATORS (SERM) (TAMOXIFEN, RALOXIFENE)

    ANDROGENS

    OTHER DRUGS ALTERING TBG LEVELS

    DRUGS ACTING AT MULTIPLE SITES TO ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    IODINATED RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST AGENTS

    PHENYTOIN

    AMIODARONE

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS

    CYTOKINES (INTERFERON, INTERLEUKIN, AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR)

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    DRUGS ALTERING THYROID FUNCTION THROUGH ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNITY

    IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION SYNDROME

    ANTI-CD52 ANTIBODY ALEMTUZUMAB

    CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13: Thyroid disruptors

    INTRODUCTION

    SUBSTANCES THAT INHIBIT THYROIDAL IODINE UPTAKE

    PERCHLORATE

    THIOCYANATE

    NITRATE

    COMPOUNDS WITH DIRECT ACTIONS ON THE THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR

    POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS

    BISPHENOL-A AND PHTHALATES

    TRICLOSAN

    COMPOUNDS THAT DISPLACE T4 FROM SERUM THYROID BINDING PROTEINS

    PCBs AND PBDEs

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT THYROPEROXIDASE ACTIVITY

    ISOFLAVONES

    COMPOUNDS THAT DECREASE T4 HALF-LIFE BY ACTIVATING HEPATIC ENZYMES

    ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES

    DIOXINS AND FURANS

    COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT DEIODINASE ACTIVITY

    OTHER EXPOSURES

    STYRENES

    PERFLUORINATED AND GEN X COMPOUNDS

    ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    SUNSCREENS

    LEAD

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14: Nonthyroidal illness syndrome

    INTRODUCTION

    DESCRIPTION OF NTIS

    CHANGES IN SERUM THYROID HORMONE AND THYROTROPIN CONCENTRATIONS

    CHANGES IN THYROID HORMONE KINETICS

    CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    PATHOGENESIS OF NTIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING FASTING

    CHANGES IN HPT AXIS DURING ILLNESS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM

    CHANGES IN SERUM IODOTHYRONINE–BINDING PROTEINS

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE TRANSPORT INTO TISSUES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE DEIODINASES

    CHANGES IN IODOTHYRONINE NUCLEAR RECEPTORS

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE OF NTIS

    PROGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF NTIS

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID DISEASE IN NTIS

    TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH NTIS

    SPECIFIC TYPES OF NTIS

    CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    LIVER DISEASE

    HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15: Iodine deficiency and excess, endemic cretinism

    INTRODUCTION

    THE ECOLOGY OF IODINE

    DIETARY SOURCES, ABSORPTION, AND METABOLISM OF IODINE

    GOITROGENS

    IODINE REQUIREMENTS

    ADULTHOOD

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD

    ASSESSMENT OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    URINARY IODINE CONCENTRATION

    BREAST MILK IODINE CONCENTRATION

    THYROID SIZE

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROID HORMONES

    THYROGLOBULIN

    EFFECTS OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    THYROIDAL ADAPTATION TO IODINE DEFICIENCY

    EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    CRETINISM

    THE BENEFITS OF CORRECTION OF IODINE DEFICIENCY

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN SEVERELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    IODINE INTERVENTIONS IN MILD TO MODERATELY DEFICIENT PREGNANT WOMEN

    INFANCY

    CHILDHOOD

    ADULTHOOD

    THYROID CANCER

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    SALT FORTIFICATION WITH IODINE

    IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

    EFFECTS OF EXCESS IODIDE

    PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO EXCESS IODIDE

    TOLERABLE UPPER LIMITS FOR IODINE INTAKE

    MONITORING OF IODINE EXCESS IN POPULATIONS

    SOURCES OF EXCESS IODIDE

    IODINE-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM OR GOITER IN THE ABSENCE OF APPARENT UNDERLYING THYROID DISEASE

    IODINE AND THYROIDITIS

    IODINE-INDUCED THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE-INDUCED THYROID DISEASE (SEE Chapter 11)

    REFERENCES

    Section II: Assessment of Thyroid Structure and Function

    Chapter 16: Physical examination of the thyroid gland

    HISTORY

    PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    INSPECTION

    PALPATION

    FACING THE PATIENT

    STANDING BEHIND THE PATIENT

    AUSCULTATION

    PALPATING LOBES AND EVALUATING THYROID SIZE

    THYROID NODULES

    HEMIAGENESIS

    CONSISTENCY

    PAIN/TENDERNESS

    LYMPHADENOPATHY

    DISTINGUISHING BENIGN FROM MALIGNANT DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17: Laboratory measurement of thyroid-related hormones, proteins, and autoantibodies in serum

    INTRODUCTION

    NOMENCLATURE FOR SENSITIVITY AND ASSESSMENT OF ASSAYS

    FUNCTIONAL VERSUS ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY OF ASSAYS

    THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE

    METHODS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM TSH MEASUREMENTS

    TSH ISOFORMS

    INDICATIONS FOR TRH TESTING

    TSH REFERENCE INTERVALS

    THE CLINICAL UTILITY OF TSH MEASUREMENT

    TSH AND THYROID FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN PREGNANCY (SEE Chapter 66)

    HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    THYROID HORMONE MEASUREMENTS

    SERUM TOTAL THYROID HORMONE (TT4 AND TT3) ASSAY METHODOLOGY

    CLINICAL UTILITY OF TT4 AND TT3 MEASUREMENTS

    TT4 AND TT3 REFERENCE INTERVALS

    SERUM FREE THYROID HORMONE TESTS (FT4 AND FT3)

    DIRECT FT4 AND FT3 METHODS

    INDIRECT FT4 AND FT3 ESTIMATE TESTS

    SERUM-FREE THYROXINE AND FREE TRIIODOTHYRONINE INDEXES

    THYROID HORMONE–BINDING PROTEINS

    FAMILIAL DYSALBUMINEMIC AND TRANSTHYRETIN-ASSOCIATED HYPERTHYROXINEMIAS

    SERUM THYROGLOBULIN (Tg)

    REQUIREMENTS FOR SERUM Tg METHODS

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CIRCULATING Tg CONCENTRATIONS

    ANALYTICAL AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATION

    THYROID-SPECIFIC AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTI–TSH RECEPTOR AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROID PEROXIDASE AUTOANTIBODIES

    ANTITHYROGLOBULIN AUTOANTIBODIES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID TEST OUTCOMES

    INTERFERENCES WITH THYROID MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGIES

    ASSAY INTERFERENCES

    AUTOMATION OF THYROID TESTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18: Nonisotopic thyroid imaging

    INTRODUCTION

    PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY

    ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES (1)

    CONDUCTING THE EXAMINATION

    CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    GOITER

    DIFFUSE NONNEOPLASTIC THYROID DISEASES

    NODULES AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES

    COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (22)

    THE NORMAL THYROID GLAND

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    INCIDENTALOMAS

    CT IN LARGE BENIGN GOITERS

    ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    CT AND PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS, LYMPHOMAS, AND METASTASIS

    CT AND FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    BASIC PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (41)

    NORMAL THYROID TISSUE

    DIFFUSE THYROID DISEASE

    THYROID INCIDENTALOMAS AND NODULE CHARACTERIZATION

    PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF THYROID CARCINOMAS: ASSESSING INVASION (48)

    FOLLOW-UP OF THYROID CARCINOMAS

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19: Thyroid radionuclide uptake and imaging studies

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    MODALITIES

    RADIOIODINE

    UPTAKE STUDIES

    PLANAR IMAGING: HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PLANAR IMAGING: THYROID CANCER

    TOMOGRAPHY

    DOSIMETRY

    FDG PET/CT IN THYROID CANCER

    FDG PET/CT IN INCIDENTAL THYROID DISEASE

    IMAGING OF MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 20: Cytopathology of the thyroid gland

    INTRODUCTION

    SPECIMEN PREPARATIONS

    THYROID FNA CLASSIFICATION

    NONDIAGNOSTIC OR UNSATISFACTORY (CATEGORY I)

    BENIGN (CATEGORY II)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS) (CATEGORY III)

    FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM OR SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR OR ONCOCYTIC (HüRTHLE-CELL) NEOPLASM (CATEGORY IV)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR MALIGNANCY (CATEGORY V)

    MALIGNANT (CATEGORY VI)

    CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY

    KEY CYTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF THYROID FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION DIAGNOSES

    DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS (11,15)

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS)

    SUSPICIOUS FOR FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM/FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM (INCLUDING TUMORS WITH ONCOCYTIC FEATURES)

    MALIGNANT LESIONS

    PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND ITS VARIANTS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    ROLE OF ANCILLARY STUDIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID TUMORS IN CYTOLOGIC SPECIMENS’ IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21: Histopathology of the thyroid gland

    NORMAL THYROID

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID LESIONS

    DEVELOPMENTAL VARIATIONS

    GOITER

    GRAVES DISEASE/DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER

    IATROGENIC AND RELATED HYPERPLASIAS

    AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    SILENT THYROIDITIS

    SPECIFIC INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    GRANULOMATOUS THYROIDITIS

    PALPATION THYROIDITIS

    AMIODARONE INJURY WITH THYROTOXICOSIS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (AKA RIEDEL STRUMA)

    COMBINED RIEDEL STRUMA AND FIBROSING HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    MISCELLANEOUS DISORDERS

    RADIATION EFFECTS

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    BLACK THYROID

    NEOPLASMS

    BENIGN NEOPLASMS

    ADENOMAS AND ADENOMATOUS NODULES

    MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA

    HÜRTHLE-CELL NEOPLASM/ONCOCYTIC FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

    PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF PAPILLARY AND FOLLICULAR CARCINOMA OF THYROID: CONTROVERSIES

    CLEAR CELL TUMORS

    HIGH-GRADE THYROID CARCINOMA

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA

    ANAPLASTIC CARCINOMA

    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA, MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA, AND INTRATHYROIDAL THYMOMA-LIKE NEOPLASMS

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    CALCITONIN NEGATIVE NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA OF THYROID

    LYMPHOMA

    SARCOMA

    CARCINOMA IN ECTOPIC THYROID TISSUE

    METASTATIC NEOPLASMS

    REFERENCES

    Section III: Thyroid Diseases: Thyrotoxicosis

    A. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 22: Pathogenesis of Graves disease

    INTRODUCTION

    AUTOIMMUNITY

    DEFINITION OF AN AUTOANTIGEN

    THE NATURE OF T CELLS

    ANTIBODY AND T-CELL INTERACTIONS WITH ANTIGEN

    SECOND SIGNALS

    CRITERIA FOR AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

    RESTRICTION VERSUS POLYCLONALITY

    THYROID IMMUNOLOGY

    INTRATHYROIDAL B CELLS

    AUTOANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN TSHR

    BIOACTIVITY OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    PREVALENCE OF TSHR ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TSHR ANTIBODIES

    TSHR FUNCTION IN GRAVES DISEASE

    LESSONS FROM MONOCLONAL TSHR ANTIBODIES WITH STIMULATING ACTIVITY

    OTHER THYROID ANTIBODIES IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL LYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATE

    FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INTRATHYROIDAL T CELLS

    T-CELL SELECTION

    APOPTOSIS IN GRAVES DISEASE

    THE INTRATHYROIDAL T-CELL RECEPTOR V GENE REPERTOIRE

    REGULATORY EFFECTS OF T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE

    THE Th17 CELLS

    IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    FAILURE OF IMMUNE CELL DELETION AND/OR SUPPRESSION

    SPECIFICITY CROSSOVER (MOLECULAR MIMICRY)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS

    EPIGENETIC CHANGES

    THYROID CELL EXPRESSION OF HLA MOLECULES

    ANIMAL MODELS OF GRAVES DISEASE

    KNOWN RISK FACTORS FOR PRECIPITATING GRAVES DISEASE (TABLE 22-5)

    SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES

    INFECTION

    THYROID AUTOANTIBODIES

    THYROID TISSUE DAMAGE

    STRESS

    SEX STEROIDS

    THE X CHROMOSOME

    THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    MATERNAL MICROCHIMERISM

    IODINE

    IRRADIATION

    OVERVIEW OF THE ETIOLOGY OF GRAVES DISEASE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 23: Thyrotropin-induced thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOLOGIC AND PATHOGENIC ASPECTS

    SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

    LABORATORY AND BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES

    SERUM THYROTROPIN AND THYROID HORMONE LEVELS

    PITUITARY GLYCOPROTEIN HORMONE α-SUBUNIT

    PARAMETERS OF PERIPHERAL THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

    IMAGING STUDIES AND LOCALIZATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

    CRITERIA OF CURE AND FOLLOW-UP

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 24: Toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    NATURAL HISTORY

    MORPHOLOGY

    ETIOLOGY

    LESSONS FROM EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    FROM HYPERPLASTIC GROWTH TO NODULAR TRANSFORMATION

    TRANSFORMATION TO HOT THYROID NODULES

    TREATMENT OF AUTONOMOUS THYROID NODULES (SEE CHAPTER 32)

    SURGERY

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    COST-EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID AUTONOMY

    FOLLOW-UP

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 25: Trophoblastic tumors

    INTRODUCTION

    HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    GRADATIONS OF SEVERITY

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    DIAGNOSIS

    HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM

    MUTANT THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR

    THERAPY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 26: Sporadic painless, painful subacute and acute infectious thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    DESTRUCTION-INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PAINFUL THYROID

    SPORADIC PAINLESS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    INFECTIOUS ASSOCIATION

    AUTOIMMUNE ASSOCIATION

    GENETIC ASSOCIATION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING

    PATHOLOGY

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    ACUTE INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS

    ETIOLOGY

    BACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    FUNGAL INFECTIONS

    MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

    PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    SYPHILITIC INFECTIONS

    THYROIDAL INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    CYTOLOGY

    IMAGING STUDIES

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 27: Thyrotoxicosis of extrathyroidal origin

    INTRODUCTION

    EXOGENOUS THYROID HORMONE

    CAUSES

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO METASTATIC THYROID CARCINOMA

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    STRUMA OVARII

    DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations

    Chapter 28: Overview of the clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREVALENCE OF CLINICAL FINDINGS

    ORGAN SYSTEM–SPECIFIC MANIFESTATIONS

    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANIFESTATIONS

    CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS

    PULMONARY MANIFESTATIONS

    GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS

    RENAL MANIFESTATIONS

    INTEGUMENTARY FINDINGS

    MUSCULOSKELETAL MANIFESTATIONS

    REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES

    HEMATOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS

    MODULATING FACTORS

    AGE

    PREGNANCY

    COMORBIDITY

    ETIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CLINICAL ASSESSMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 29: Ophthalmopathy

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    PATHOGENESIS

    RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTION

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH GO

    MANAGEMENT OF GO

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 30: The cardiovascular system in thyrotoxicosis

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THE HEART AND VASCULAR SYSTEM

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES

    HEART FAILURE

    HYPERTENSION AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    MAJOR ADVERSE CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

    ROLE OF OTHER HORMONES IN THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    AMIODARONE AND IODINE CONTAINING CONTRAST AGENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 31: Thyroid hormones in intermediary metabolism, thermogenesis, and obesity

    THYROID HORMONE SIGNALING, TISSUE- AND TARGET GENE–SPECIFICITY IN RELATION TO INTERMEDIARY AND ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM

    CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    PROTEIN METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    LIPID METABOLISM

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ENERGY METABOLISM

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON ACTIVITY-RELATED ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION ON THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD

    ENERGY STATUS AND THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    CLINICAL CORRELATES

    POTENTIAL USE OF THYROID HORMONE AS TREATMENT FOR WEIGHT LOSS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA

    CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 32: The skeletal system in thyrotoxicosis

    REGULATION OF THYROID STATUS

    CONTROL OF INTRACELLULAR T3 AVAILABILITY

    MECHANISM OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    ROLE OF TSH IN BONE

    BONE REMODELING CYCLE

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD THYROTOXICOSIS

    SKELETAL EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES IN ADULTS

    POPULATION STUDIES IN NORMAL EUTHYROID INDIVIDUALS

    STUDIES OF ADULT THYROTOXICOSIS

    EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM

    PATIENTS TREATED WITH SUPPRESSIVE DOSES OF THYROXINE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 33: Thyroid dermopathy and thyroid acropachy

    THYROID DERMOPATHY

    HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS IN THYROID DERMOPATHY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    PATHOGENESIS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    OUTCOMES OF THERAPY OF THYROID DERMOPATHY

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THERAPY

    THYROID ACROPACHY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 34: Psychiatric and cognitive effects of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    COGNITIVE MANIFESTATIONS OF OVERT THYROTOXICOSIS

    SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE ASPECTS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: BEHAVIORAL SYNDROMES THAT MAY MIMIC THYROTOXICOSIS

    PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS

    POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN THYROID HORMONE AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    USE OF THYROID HORMONE IN AFFECTIVE DISORDERS

    LITHIUM AND THYROID FUNCTION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 35: Thyrotoxic storm

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    PATHOGENESIS

    TREATMENT

    THERAPY TO REDUCE THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST SYSTEMIC DISTURBANCES

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST THE PERIPHERAL ACTIONS OF THYROID HORMONE

    THERAPY DIRECTED AGAINST PRECIPITATING ILLNESS

    REFERENCES

    C. Diagnosis and Management of Thyrotoxicosis

    Chapter 36: Diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLUES FROM ROUTINE LABORATORY TESTS

    LABORATORY TESTING FOR THYROTOXICOSIS

    SERUM THYROXINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM TRIIODOTHYRONINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM THYROTROPIN DETERMINATIONS

    SCREENING, CASE FINDING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 37: Treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    INTRODUCTION

    THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    DRUG THERAPY OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS (Fig. 37-1)

    MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    INTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EXTRATHYROIDAL ACTIONS

    EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

    CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF THE ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    METHIMAZOLE

    PROPYLTHIOURACIL

    CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    FOLLOW-UP OF PATIENTS TAKING AN ANTITHYROID DRUG FOR GRAVES DISEASE

    REMISSIONS AND ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    THERAPY FACTORS RELATING TO REMISSION OF GRAVES DISEASE

    DISCONTINUATION OF ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    OTHER DRUGS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS CAUSED BY GRAVES DISEASE

    INORGANIC IODIDE

    ORAL CHOLECYSTOGRAPHIC AGENTS

    β-ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST DRUGS

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    PRACTICAL THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS

    COMPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL RISKS OF RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    POSTRADIOIODINE WORSENING OF THYROID FUNCTION

    RADIOIODINE THERAPY AND GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY

    INDICATIONS FOR RADIOIODINE THERAPY

    SURGICAL THERAPY FOR THYROTOXICOSIS (Fig. 37-1)

    SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF THYROTOXICOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY PATIENTS

    THYROTOXICOSIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND DURING LACTATION

    THYROTOXIC STORM

    THYROTOXICOSIS DUE TO TOXIC ADENOMA AND MULTINODULAR GOITER

    TOXIC ADENOMA

    TOXIC MULTINODULAR GOITER

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 38: Subclinical thyrotoxicosis

    ETIOLOGY

    ENDOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EXOGENOUS SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    EVALUATION

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE

    PHYSIOLOGY OF SUPPRESSION OF TSH SECRETION

    CARDIOVASCULAR CONSEQUENCES

    BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM

    COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND DEMENTIA

    TREATMENT

    CHOICE OF TREATMENT MODALITY

    SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT FOR SUBCLINICAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    REFERENCES

    Section IV: Thyroid Diseases: Hypothyroidism

    A. Causes of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 39: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

    INTRODUCTION

    PREDISPOSITION TO CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    ANTIGEN PRESENTATION

    T-CELL RESPONSES

    B-CELL RESPONSES

    EFFECTOR MECHANISMS

    EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    CLINICAL ASPECTS

    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 40: Genetic defects causing hypothyroidism

    MONOGENIC CAUSES OF THYROID DYSGENESIS

    KEY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR MUTATIONS IN TD

    NKX2-1

    PAX8

    FOXE1

    GLIS3

    TSHR

    ADDITIONAL GENES ASSOCIATED WITH TD

    NKX2-5

    JAG1

    CDCA8 (BOREALIN)

    TUBB1

    NETRIN 1 (NTN1)

    SYNDROMES WHICH MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH CH

    GENETIC CAUSES OF DYSHORMONOGENESIS

    THYROGLOBULIN

    TPO

    DUOX2 AND DUOXA2

    IYD (PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AS DEHAL1)

    SLC5A5 (NIS)

    SLC26A4 (PENDRIN)

    SLC26A7

    EVIDENCE FOR AN UNDIAGNOSED GENETIC COMPONENT IN TD

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 41: Primary hypothyroidism due to other causes

    INTRODUCTION

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE (131I THERAPY)

    THYROIDECTOMY

    TREATMENT OF TOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    TREATMENT OF NONTOXIC NODULAR GOITER

    EXTERNAL RADIATION

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO THERAPEUTIC PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS

    LITHIUM CARBONATE

    CYTOKINES

    AMIODARONE

    TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS

    IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITORS

    OTHER DRUGS

    HYPOTHYROIDISM DUE TO INFILTRATIVE DISORDERS

    RIEDEL THYROIDITIS (INVASIVE FIBROUS THYROIDITIS)

    AMYLOIDOSIS

    SARCOIDOSIS

    SCLERODERMA

    HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    CYSTINOSIS

    OTHER INFILTRATIVE OR INFECTIOUS DISORDERS (SEE CHAPTER 22)

    PRIMARY THYROID LYMPHOMA

    CONSUMPTIVE HYPOTHYROIDISM

    INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS (SEE CHAPTER 12)

    EMBRYOLOGIC VARIANTS

    LINGUAL THYROID (SEE CHAPTER 63)

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 42: Central hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOGENESIS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT OF CeH

    REFERENCES

    B. Organ System Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 43: Overview of the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND MORTALITY

    PULMONARY SYSTEM

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC FEATURES

    MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

    INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    KIDNEYS AND ELECTROLYTE METABOLISM

    GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND LIVER

    HEMATOLOGY AND HEMOSTASIS

    PITUITARY DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    ADRENAL DISORDERS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 44: Hypothyroidism and the heart

    CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS

    ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CV RISK FACTORS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LIPIDS

    BLOOD PRESSURE AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    THROMBOGENESIS

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SPECIAL SITUATIONS IN HYPOTHYROIDISM RELATED TO THE HEART

    POSTACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    HEART FAILURE

    TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    CARDIAC SURGERY AND CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION PROCEDURES

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 45: The skeletal system in hypothyroidism

    PHYSIOLOGIC CONTROL OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM IN BONE

    THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN BONE

    ROLE OF TSH ON SKELETAL GROWTH AND MATURATION

    SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF CHILDHOOD HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF IMPAIRED SENSITIVITY TO THYROID HORMONE

    SKELETAL CONSEQUENCES OF ADULT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    A POSSIBLE ROLE FOR THYROID HORMONE SIGNALING IN OSTEOARTHRITIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 46: Psychiatric and cognitive effects of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    PSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    PSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    EFFECT OF THYROID FUNCTION VARIATIONS WITHIN THE NORMAL RANGE ON MOOD AND COGNITION

    HASHIMOTO ENCEPHALOPATHY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 47: Myxedema Coma

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL FEATURES: PRECIPITATING EVENTS

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION

    HYPOTHERMIA

    RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    CARDIOVASCULAR MANIFESTATIONS

    GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS

    RENAL AND ELECTROLYTE MANIFESTATIONS

    NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS

    INFECTIONS

    DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    VENTILATORY SUPPORT

    HYPONATREMIA

    HYPOTHERMIA

    HYPOTENSION

    GLUCOCORTICOID THERAPY

    THYROID HORMONE THERAPY

    COMMENTS

    REFERENCES

    C. Management of Hypothyroidism

    Chapter 48: Diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    PREDISPOSITION TO HYPOTHYROIDISM

    CHRONIC AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LABORATORY TESTING

    SERUM THYROXINE DETERMINATIONS

    SERUM TSH DETERMINATIONS

    OTHER MEASURES OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    SCREENING, CASE FINDING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    FUTURE ADVANCES IN LABORATORY ASSESSMENT

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 49: Treatment of hypothyroidism

    HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    ENDPOINTS DURING LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    FACTORS AFFECTING LEVOTHYROXINE DOSE

    INITIATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    CHOICE OF LEVOTHYROXINE PRODUCT

    LEVOTHYROXINE ABSORPTION, METABOLISM, AND TRANSPORT

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY IN SPECIFIC SUBPOPULATIONS

    PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY

    LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY AND T3 LEVELS

    THERAPIES OTHER THAN LEVOTHYROXINE

    THYROID EXTRACTS

    SYNTHETIC COMBINATION THERAPY

    LIOTHYRONINE THERAPY

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 50: Subclinical hypothyroidism

    INTRODUCTION

    ETIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL AND BIOLOGIC IMPORTANCE

    CURRENT EVIDENCE

    TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Section V: Thyroid Diseases: Nontoxic Diffuse and Multinodular Goiter

    Chapter 51: Multinodular goiter: pathogenesis and management

    INTRODUCTION

    ETIOLOGY

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    NATURAL HISTORY

    CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    DIAGNOSIS EVALUATION

    MANAGEMENT

    IODINE SUPPLEMENTATION

    TSH SUPPRESSIVE THERAPY WITH LEVOTHYROXINE

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS

    SURGERY

    131I THERAPY

    OTHER TREATMENT OPTIONS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 52: Clinical evaluation and management of thyroid nodules

    CLINICAL EVALUATION

    LABORATORY EVALUATION

    SERUM HORMONE AND OTHER MEASUREMENTS

    IMAGING STUDIES

    ULTRASONOGRAPHY

    ELASTOGRAPHY

    RADIONUCLIDE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY

    OTHER IMAGING STUDIES

    FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY

    RISK STRATIFICATION FOR THYROID NODULES

    TECHNIQUE OF FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY

    RESULTS OF FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY

    LIMITATIONS OF FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY OF THYROID NODULES

    CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON FNA CYTOLOGY RESULTS

    NONDIAGNOSTIC CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA I

    BENIGN CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA II

    ATYPIA OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE/FOLLICULAR LESION OF UNDERMINED SIGNIFICANCE (AUS/FLUS) CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA III

    FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM CYTOLOGY (INCLUDES HüRTHLE CELL NEOPLASM): BETHESDA IV

    ROLE OF MOLECULAR TESTING FOR BETHESDA III AND IV NODULES

    SUSPICIOUS FOR MALIGNANCY CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA V

    MALIGNANT CYTOLOGY: BETHESDA VI

    TREATMENT AFTER THYROID SURGERY

    REFERENCES

    Section VI: Thyroid Cancers

    Chapter 53: Carcinomas of follicular epithelium: epidemiology and pathogenesis

    RADIATION

    EXTERNAL RADIATION AND THYROID CARCINOMA

    INTERNAL RADIATION AND THYROID CARCINOMA

    COMPARISON OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RADIATION

    PREVENTING IODINE 131–RELATED THYROID CARCINOMA

    EVALUATION OF IRRADIATED PATIENTS

    RADIATION AND OTHER HEAD AND NECK TUMORS

    CLINICAL FEATURES OF RADIATION-RELATED THYROID NEOPLASMS

    GENETIC PREDISPOSITION

    SYNDROMIC NONMEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    NONSYNDROMIC FAMILIAL NONMEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA (FNMTC)

    GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    PRE-EXISTING THYROID DISEASE

    HORMONAL AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS

    DIETARY FACTORS

    IODINE AND GOITROGENS

    OTHER DIETARY FACTORS

    ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND METABOLIC FACTORS

    SMOKING AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 54: Genomic landscapes of thyroid cancers of follicular cell derivation

    GENOMIC HALLMARKS OF NEOPLASMS ARISING FROM THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    FOLLICULAR NEOPLASMS

    AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING ADENOMA

    FOLLICULAR ADENOMA AND CARCINOMA

    PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    NIFTP

    RARE PTC VARIANTS

    OTHER SOMATIC MUTATIONS

    TERT PROMOTER MUTATIONS

    SOMATIC COPY NUMBER ALTERATIONS

    HÜRTHLE CELL NEOPLASMS

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER

    GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS OF THYROID CANCER GENOMICS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 55: Carcinoma of the follicular epithelium: surgical therapy

    INTRODUCTION

    THYROIDECTOMY NOMENCLATURE

    EXTENT OF THYROIDECTOMY AND RISK OF COMPLICATIONS

    SURGERY FOR INDETERMINATE THYROID NODULES

    THYROIDECTOMY FOR THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CERVICAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION NOMENCLATURE

    EXTENT OF LYMPH NODE DISSECTION AND RISK OF COMPLICATIONS

    LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE AND LOCATION OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    PROGNOSIS OF NODAL METASTASIS IN THYROID CARCINOMA DERIVED FROM FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM

    CENTRAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION

    LATERAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 56: Staging and prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    INTRODUCTION

    STAGING TO PREDICT RISK OF THYROID CANCER DEATH

    ELEMENTS AND COMPARISON OF PUBLISHED STAGING SYSTEMS

    EVOLUTION OF THE TNM SYSTEM TO THE CURRENT 8TH EDITION

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES IN 8TH EDITION TNM STAGING

    PREDICTING THE RISK OF THYROID CANCER RECURRENCE

    ELEMENTS OF INITIAL RISK STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES FOR INITIAL RISK SYSTEMS

    DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION/RESPONSE-TO-THERAPY

    ELEMENTS OF DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION

    VALIDATION AND CONTROVERSIES FOR DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION

    HOW TO USE CURRENT RISK STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS IN PRACTICE

    CONCLUSIONS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 57: Medical management of differentiated epithelial cell thyroid cancer

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY

    THE GOALS OF THE FIRST ADMINISTERED ACTIVITY OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

    ABLATION OF RESIDUAL NORMAL THYROID TISSUE

    RAI TREATMENT AS AN ADJUVANT THERAPY

    PREPARATION FOR RAI THERAPY

    SELECTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE ACTIVITY FOR REMNANT ABLATION

    WHOLE-BODY 131I SCANS AND SPECT/CT

    RAI THERAPY FOR LOCAL OR DISTANT METASTATIC DISEASE

    INDICATIONS FOR RAI THERAPY

    TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH HIGH SERUM THYROGLOBULIN LEVELS AND NEGATIVE IMAGING STUDIES

    COMPLICATIONS OF RAI THERAPY

    FOLLOW-UP PARADIGMS

    EARLY FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS (FIRST YEAR AFTER INITIAL THERAPY)

    FOLLOW-UP PARADIGMS BASED ON RESPONSE TO THERAPY RESTRATIFICATION

    ONGOING, DYNAMIC RISK ASSESSMENT DURING LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP

    TSH-SUPPRESSIVE THYROID HORMONE THERAPY

    EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY

    SYSTEMIC THERAPY FOR ADVANCED DISEASE

    BIOLOGICALLY TARGETED THERAPIES

    CYTOTOXIC CHEMOTHERAPY

    OTHER PALLIATIVE INTERVENTIONS FOR SYMPTOMATIC METASTATIC DTC

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 58: Papillary microcarcinomas

    INCREASING INCIDENCE OF THYROID CANCER WITH STABLE MORTALITY

    SURGERY OF PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA AND OUTCOMES

    FREQUENT MULTIPLICITY AND REGIONAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS

    PROGNOSIS OF HIGH-RISK AND LOW-RISK PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    SURGICAL APPROACH TO PMCs

    ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE OF LOW-RISK PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    HISTORY AND HYPOTHESIS

    PROTOCOL OF THE ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE AT KUMA HOSPITAL

    OUTCOMES OF ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    EVALUATION OF THE RISK OF TRACHEA AND RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE INVASION

    INCIDENCES OF UNFAVORABLE EVENTS IN IMMEDIATE SURGERY VERSUS ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    MEDICAL ECONOMY OF MANAGEMENT OF PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA

    FACTORS THAT MIGHT BE ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE PROGRESSION

    NATURAL HISTORY OF PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

    LIFETIME PROBABILITY OF DISEASE PROGRESSION

    TUMOR VOLUME KINETICS DURING ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    ESTIMATING TUMOR GROWTH BEFORE PRESENTATION

    IMPLEMENTING ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 59: Medullary thyroid cancer

    NATURAL HISTORY

    TUMOR PROGRESSION

    PREOPERATIVE SCREENING

    SURGICAL TREATMENT

    DYNAMIC RISK STRATIFICATION AND FOLLOW-UP

    RECURRENT AND PERSISTENT DISEASE

    REOPERATION

    DISTANT DISEASE

    CONCLUSION

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 60: Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and miscellaneous tumors of the thyroid

    POORLY DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    DEFINITION/EPIDEMIOLOGY

    TREATMENT/PROGNOSIS

    ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER

    INTRODUCTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PATHOGENESIS

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    PATHOLOGY

    GENOMICS/MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY/IMMUNOLOGY

    STAGING

    MANAGEMENT—GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVA

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVB

    MANAGEMENT—STAGE IVC

    MANAGEMENT—OLIGOMETASTATIC STAGE IVC

    PALLIATIVE AND HOSPICE CARE

    ATC SUMMARY

    MISCELLANEOUS TUMORS OF THE THYROID GLAND

    HYALINIZING TRABECULAR TUMOR

    SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    THYROID MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA

    SCLEROSING MUCOEPIDERMOID CARCINOMA WITH EOSINOPHILIA

    MUCINOUS CARCINOMA OF THE THYROID

    ECTOPIC THYMOMA

    SPINDLE EPITHELIAL TUMOR WITH THYMUS-LIKE DIFFERENTIATION

    INTRATHYROID THYMIC CARCINOMA

    PARAGANGLIOMA AND MESENCHYMAL/STROMAL TUMORS

    HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS

    GERM CELL TUMORS (BENIGN TERATOMA, IMMATURE TERATOMA, MALIGNANT TERATOMA)

    SECONDARY MALIGNANCIES OF THE THYROID

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 61: Thyroid cancer in children

    RISK OF THYROID CANCER IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH A THYROID NODULE

    DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCERS

    PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA (PTC)

    PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA (PTMC)

    FOLLICULAR VARIANT PTC

    FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA (FTC)

    MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA 2A

    MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA 2B

    EARLY THYROIDECTOMY IN MEN2

    MANAGEMENT OF MTC IN MEN2

    REFERENCES

    Section VII: The Thyroid in Infancy and Childhood

    Chapter 62: The maturation of thyroid function in the fetus, in the perinatal period and during childhood

    MATURATION OF THYROID FUNCTION IN UTERO

    ORGANOGENESIS AND STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE THYROID GLAND

    FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE THYROID GLAND AND ONSET OF THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    THE ROLE OF THE PLACENTA FOR MATERNOFETAL INTERACTION

    MATURATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–THYROID AXIS

    SYNTHESIS OF THE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORT PROTEINS

    REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN UTERO BY SULFATION

    REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN UTERO BY DEIODINATION

    ONTOGENY OF TRANSMEMBRANE THYROID HORMONE TRANSPORTERS

    ONTOGENY OF THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS

    THE ROLE OF THYROID HORMONES FOR THE FETUS AND THE CHILD

    BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

    COCHLEA DEVELOPMENT

    RETINA DEVELOPMENT

    MUSCLE AND MYOCARDIAL DEVELOPMENT

    BONE DEVELOPMENT AND LINEAR GROWTH

    METABOLIC EFFECTS

    PERINATAL AND POSTNATAL CHANGES IN THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM

    PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE TERM NEONATE

    THYROID FUNCTION IN THE PRETERM NEONATE

    THYROID FUNCTION IN SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE NEONATES

    INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADOLESCENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 63: Hypothyroidism in infants and children

    CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    NEWBORN SCREENING

    RATIONALE FOR BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING FOR CH

    PREMATURE AND VERY LOW–BIRTH-WEIGHT NEWBORNS

    NEWBORNS WITH TRISOMY 21

    EVALUATION OF NEWBORNS WITH A POSITIVE SCREENING RESULT

    QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SCREENING PROGRAMS

    CLASSIFICATION OF CH (Table 63-2)

    ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

    PERMANENT CH

    TRANSIENT CH

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION (Table 63-3)

    TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

    ACQUIRED HYPOTHYROIDISM (CH)

    ETIOLOGIES (Table 63-4)

    CLINICAL PRESENTATION (Fig. 63-4)

    EVALUATION

    TREATMENT

    PROGNOSIS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 64: Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone: defects of transport, metabolism, and action

    TH SECRETION, CELL-MEMBRANE TRANSPORT, METABOLISM, AND ACTION

    THE PARADOX OF COEXISTING MANIFESTATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS

    THYROID HORMONE ACTION DEFECTS KNOWN AS RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE

    RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE BETA (RTHβ)

    CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF TR ACTION

    PROPERTIES OF MUTANT TRβ RECEPTORS AND ASSOCIATED DOMINANT-NEGATIVE EFFECT

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE VARIABLE RTHβ PHENOTYPE

    RTHβ WITHOUT THRB GENE MUTATIONS (NON–TRβ-RTH)

    ANIMAL MODELS OF RTHβ

    PATHOGENESIS

    PATHOLOGY

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    TH AND ITS METABOLITES

    THYROTROPIN AND OTHER THYROID STIMULATORS

    THYROID GLAND ACTIVITY AND INTEGRITY OF HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    IN VIVO EFFECTS OF TH

    IN VITRO TESTS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION

    RESPONSES TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF THYROID HORMONE

    EFFECTS OF OTHER DRUGS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE ALPHA (RTHα)

    BACKGROUND

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DEFECT AND PROPERTIES OF THE MUTANT TRα

    ANIMAL MODELS OF RTHα (SEE ALSO ANIMAL MODELS UNDER RTHβ, ABOVE)

    CLINICAL FEATURES

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROID HORMONE CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORTER DEFECT (THCMTD)

    CELL MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS OF TH

    INHERITANCE AND INCIDENCE

    ETIOLOGY

    THE MCT8 GENE AND MUTATIONS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    SERUM TESTS OF THYROID FUNCTION

    OTHER SERUM TESTS

    X-RAYS AND IMAGING

    TESTS IN TISSUES

    GENETIC TESTING

    ANIMAL MODELS OF MCT8 DEFICIENCY

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DISORDER

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM DEFECT

    INTRACELLULAR METABOLISM OF TH

    ETIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    INCIDENCE AND INHERITANCE

    THE SBP2 GENE AND MUTATIONS

    CLINICAL FEATURES AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE

    LABORATORY FINDINGS

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF THE DISORDER

    THMD CAUSED BY MUTATION IN THE TRU-TCA1-1 GENE

    ANIMAL MODELS OF THMD

    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    TREATMENT

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 65: Hyperthyroidism in the neonate, child, and adolescent

    CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE HYPERTHYROID STATE

    BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THYROID FUNCTION

    GRAVES DISEASE

    ANTITHYROID DRUG THERAPY

    RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY

    THYROIDECTOMY AND RISKS

    SOMATIC COMPLICATIONS OF GD

    NEONATAL THYROTOXICOSIS

    FETAL CONSIDERATIONS

    OTHER CAUSES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM

    HASHITOXICOSIS

    SUMMARY

    REFERENCES

    Section VIII: Thyroid Disorders in Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Chapter 66: Thyroid disorders during preconception, pregnancy, and the postpartum period

    PRECONCEPTION

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PHYSIOLOGY

    CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND MANAGEMENT

    PREGNANCY

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PHYSIOLOGY

    DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID DISEASE

    OVERT HYPOTHYROIDISM

    SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    ISOLATED HYPOTHYROXINEMIA

    AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE IN PREGNANCY

    HYPERTHYROIDISM

    POSTPARTUM

    POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS

    REFERENCES

    Index

     

     

  • 1,30100lei 1040.00 lei

    Description:

    This expert volume in the Diagnostic Pathology series is an excellent point-of-care resource for practitioners at all levels of experience and training. Physicians should have the knowledge derived from morphological findings to identify the likelihood of a cancer patient having an additional underlying familial syndrome- and to decide if that patient should undergo molecular genetic evaluation. This volume is specifically designed to help pathologists, oncologists, and other physicians who diagnose and treat cancer to recognize syndromes and syndrome- associated neoplasms and advise patients and their families on the possibility of a familial syndrome and their risk of developing other tumors. Diagnostic Pathology: Familial Cancer Syndromes, second edition, is an easy-to-use, one-stop reference for information on hereditary cancer syndromes, including differential diagnosis and management, that offers a templated, highly formatted design; concise, bulleted text; and superior color images throughout.

     

    Table Of Contents:

    I. Diagnosis Associated With Syndromes by Organ

    Breast

    Breast Carcinoma, Female

    Breast Carcinoma, Male

    Breast Table

    Blood and Bone Marrow

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Blood and Bone Marrow Table

    Bone and Soft Tissue

    Chondrosarcoma

    Chordoma

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

    Osteosarcoma

    Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Schwannoma

    Bone and Soft Tissue Table

    Head and Neck

    Endolymphatic Sac Tumor

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Head and Neck Table

    Salivary Glands Table

    Endocrine

    Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Cortical Adenoma

    Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma

    Adrenal Cortical Neoplasms in Children

    Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease

    Adrenal Cortex Table

    Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia

    Adrenal Medullary Hyperplasia

    Neuroblastoma

    Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia Table

    Pancreas

    Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Pancreas Table

    Parathyroid

    Parathyroid Adenoma

    Parathyroid Carcinoma

    Parathyroid Hyperplasia

    Parathyroid Table

    Pituitary

    Pituitary Adenoma

    Pituitary Hyperplasia

    Pituitary Table

    Thyroid, Medullary

    C-Cell Hyperplasia

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Thyroid, Medullary Table

    Thyroid, Nonmedullary

    Familial Thyroid Carcinoma

    Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Thyroid, Nonmedullary Table

    Gastrointestinal

    Tubular Gut

    Colon Adenoma

    Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Hamartomatous Polyps of GI Tract

    Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma

    Colon/Rectum Table

    Esophagus/Stomach/Small Bowel Table

    Tubular Gut Table

    Hepatobiliary and Pancreas

    Biliary Tract Neoplasia

    Hepatoblastoma

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Biliary Tract/Liver/Pancreas Table

    Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Table

    Genitourinary

    Bladder

    Bladder Table

    Kidney

    Angiomyolipoma

    Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    HLRCC Syndrome-Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Renal Oncocytoma, Chromophobe, and Hybrid Tumors

    Wilms Tumor

    Kidney Table

    Prostate

    Prostate Table

    Renal Pelvis and Ureter

    Renal Pelvis and Ureter Table

    Testicle

    Germ Cell Tumor

    Sertoli Cell Neoplasms

    Testicle Table

    Gynecology

    Cervical Tumors

    Fallopian Tube Tumors

    Ovarian Tumors

    Uterine Tumors

    Cervix

    Endometrium

    Fallopian Tube

    Ovary

    Nervous System

    Central Nervous System

    Eye

    Peripheral Nervous System

    Pulmonary

    Adenocarcinoma, Lung

    Adenocarcinoma With Lepidic (Bronchioloalveolar) Predominant Pattern

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Lung

    Pleuropulmonary Blastoma

    Lung Table

    Skin

    BAP1-Inactivated Melanocytic Tumor

    Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Cutaneous Melanoma

    Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Sebaceous Carcinoma

    Skin Table

    II. Overview of Syndromes

    Introduction

    Pathology of Familial Tumor Syndromes

    Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Familial/Hereditary Tumor Syndromes

    Molecular Aspects of Familial/Hereditary Tumor Syndromes

    Syndromes

    Ataxia Telangiectasia

    BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome

    Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome/Gorlin Syndrome

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome

    Bloom Syndrome

    Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome

    Carney Complex

    Costello Syndrome

    Cystic Nephroma Syndrome

    Denys-Drash Syndrome

    Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

    DICER1 Syndrome

    Down Syndrome

    Dyskeratosis Congenita

    Familial Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Familial Chordoma

    Familial Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Familial Infantile Myofibromatosis

    Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism

    Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Familial Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome

    Familial Testicular Tumor

    Familial Uveal Melanoma

    Familial Wilms Tumor

    Fanconi Anemia

    GATA2 Spectrum Disorders

    Glucagon Cell Hyperplasia and Neoplasia

    Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: BRCA1

    Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: BRCA2

    Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (HLRCC)

    Hereditary Multiple Exostosis

    Hereditary Neuroblastoma

    Hereditary Pancreatic Cancer Syndrome

    Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Hereditary Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma Syndromes

    Hereditary Prostate Cancer

    Hereditary Renal Epithelial Tumors, Others

    Hereditary Retinoblastoma

    Hereditary SWI/SNF Complex Deficiency Syndromes

    Heritable Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Syndromes

    Howel-Evans Syndrome/Keratosis Palmares and Plantares With Esophageal Cancer

    Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumor Syndrome

    Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Li-Fraumeni Syndrome/Li-Fraumeni-Like Syndrome

    Lynch Syndrome

    McCune-Albright Syndrome

    Melanoma/Pancreatic Carcinoma Syndrome

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1)

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2)

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 4 (MEN4)

    MYH-Associated Polyposis

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome

    Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Syndromes

    *PDGFRA*-Mutant Syndrome

    Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes

    RASopathies: Noonan Syndrome

    Rhabdoid Predisposition Syndrome

    Schwannomatosis

    Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

    Steatocystoma Multiplex

    Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Tumor Syndromes Predisposing to Osteosarcoma

    von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

    Werner Syndrome/Progeria

    Wilms Tumor-Associated Syndrome

    Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

    Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Reference

    Molecular Factors

    Molecular Factors Index

     

     


  • The Adult Knee
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
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    As knee replacement surgeries continue to grow in number worldwide, the need for an authoritative and comprehensive reference in this key area is a must for today’s orthopaedic surgeon. The Adult Knee: Knee Arthroplasty, Second Edition, brings together the knowledge and expertise of internationally recognized experts in the field in one convenient volume.

    • Covers knee biomechanics relevant to knee arthroplasty, alternatives to knee arthroplasty to alleviate arthritis, and primary total knee arthroplasty, including perioperative issues.
    • Discusses complications including stiff knee, periprosthetic fractures, and instability, revision total knee arthroplasty, and management of infections in total knee replacement.

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    Table of Contents:

     

    1.             Cover

    2.             Title Page

    3.             Copyright

    4.             Dedication

    5.             Contributors

    6.             Preface

    7.             Contents

    8.             SECTION 1 Historical Perspectives

    9.             1 Total Knee Arthroplasty: Milestones

    10.          INTERPOSITION ARTHROPLASTY

    11.          HEMIARTHROPLASTY

    12.          HINGED KNEE PROSTHESES

    13.          RESURFACING KNEE PROSTHESES

    14.          ANATOMIC APPROACH

    15.          FUNCTIONAL APPROACH

    16.          CEMENTLESS FIXATION

    17.          MOBILE BEARING

    18.          ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS IN TKA

    19.          ADVANCES IN PERIOPERATIVE CARE

    20.          FUTURE OUTLOOK

    21.          2 Surgical Anatomy of the Knee

    22.          INTRODUCTION

    23.          EMBRYOLOGY

    24.          BONES OF THE KNEE

    25.          Femur

    26.          Tibia

    27.          Fibula

    28.          Patella

    29.          KNEE JOINT STRUCTURES

    30.          Menisci

    31.          Cruciate Ligaments

    32.          Synovial Membrane and Cavity

    33.          Knee Joint Bursae

    34.          Capsule

    35.          THREE LAYERS OF THE MEDIAL AND LATERAL KNEE

    36.          Layers of the Medial Knee

    37.          Layers of the Lateral Knee

    38.          KNEE JOINT MUSCLES AND STABILITY

    39.          Knee Flexors

    40.          Knee Extensors

    41.          Knee Joint Stabilization

    42.          KNEE MOTION

    43.          ARTERIES

    44.          Geniculate Vessels and Knee Anastomoses

    45.          VEINS

    46.          NERVES

    47.          Muscle and Knee Joint Innervation

    48.          Cutaneous Innervation

    49.          CONCLUSION

    50.          3 Anesthesia for Total Knee Replacement

    51.          INTRODUCTION

    52.          PREOPERATIVE PHASE

    53.          MULTIMODAL AGENTS

    54.          Acetaminophen

    55.          Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    56.          Gabapentinoids

    57.          INTRAOPERATIVE PHASE

    58.          Anesthesia Techniques

    59.          Dexamethasone

    60.          Tranexamic Acid

    61.          POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    62.          Local Infiltration Analgesia

    63.          Femoral Nerve Block

    64.          Adductor Canal Nerve Block

    65.          Interspace Between the Popliteal Artery and Posterior Capsule of the Knee Block

    66.          Postoperative Multimodal Analgesia

    67.          CONCLUSION

    68.          SECTION 2 Basic Science

    69.          4 Meniscus, Tendons, and Ligaments: Pathophysiology

    70.          MEDIAL MENISCUS

    71.          LATERAL MENISCUS

    72.          MENISCUS STRUCTURE

    73.          Vascular Supply

    74.          Neurology

    75.          Biomechanical Properties

    76.          INJURIES

    77.          DEGENERATIVE TEAR

    78.          ACUTE TEAR

    79.          RELATION OF TEAR LOCATION TO HEALING

    80.          TENDON

    81.          Normal Structure and Function

    82.          Tendon Junctional Anatomy

    83.          BIOMECHANICS

    84.          INJURIES

    85.          Patterns of Injury

    86.          DEGENERATION

    87.          TENDON HEALING AND REPAIR

    88.          LIGAMENT

    89.          Normal Structure and Function

    90.          Biomechanics

    91.          INJURIES

    92.          Degenerative Tears

    93.          Intra- Versus Extra-articular Ligament Injury

    94.          5 Knee Arthritis: Pathology and Progression

    95.          INTRODUCTION

    96.          OSTEOARTHRITIS

    97.          Epidemiology

    98.          Symptoms

    99.          Physical Exam and Diagnosis

    100.        Imaging

    101.        Pathophysiology and Progression

    102.        RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    103.        Epidemiology

    104.        Symptoms

    105.        Physical Exam and Diagnosis

    106.        Imaging

    107.        Pathophysiology and Progression

    108.        JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    109.        SERONEGATIVE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES

    110.        OTHER INFLAMMATORY ARTHROPATHIES

    111.        CONCLUSION

    112.        6 Lower Extremity Alignment

    113.        ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF THE KNEE

    114.        KNEE MOTION

    115.        LOWER EXTREMITY AXES

    116.        KNEE ALIGNMENT

    117.        ASSESSING ALIGNMENT

    118.        ANGULAR COMPONENTS OF CORONAL ALIGNMENT

    119.        ANGULAR COMPONENTS OF SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT

    120.        OSTEOTOMIES AND COMPONENT PLACEMENT

    121.        Alignment Goals

    122.        Tibial Osteotomy

    123.        Distal Femur Osteotomy

    124.        Anterior and Posterior Femoral Condylar Cuts

    125.        ALIGNMENT STRATEGIES IN TKA

    126.        CONCLUSION

    127.        7 Knee Kinematics Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    128.        OVERVIEW OF KNEE KINEMATICS

    129.        KINEMATIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    130.        FLUOROSCOPIC ANALYSIS METHODS

    131.        KNEE KINEMATICS

    132.        Deep Knee Bend—Range of Motion

    133.        Deep Knee Bend—Condylar Translation

    134.        Deep Knee Bend—Axial Rotation

    135.        Gait

    136.        Chair Rise

    137.        Ramp Activities

    138.        HIGHLY VARIABLE KNEE KINEMATICS

    139.        EFFECTS OF CONDYLAR TRANSLATION

    140.        AXIAL ROTATION OF TKA AND NORMAL KNEES

    141.        REDUCED RANGE OF MOTION AFTER TKA

    142.        KNEE KINEMATICS AND PATIENT-SPECIFIC TKA

    143.        8 Kinematics of the Normal Knee: In Vivo Investigation Using Advanced Imaging Technique

    144.        INTRODUCTION

    145.        IMAGING TECHNIQUE FOR ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF KNEE MOTION

    146.        Tibiofemoral Kinematics and Relevant Coordinate Systems

    147.        Dual Fluoroscopic Image System

    148.        KNEE KINEMATICS DURING FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    149.        Treadmill Gait

    150.        Stair Step-Up

    151.        Kinematics of the Knee During Weight-Bearing Deep Flexion

    152.        SUMMARY

    153.        9 Knee Biomechanics and Implant Design

    154.        LESSONS FROM THE NATURAL KNEE JOINT

    155.        Functional Considerations

    156.        Structural Considerations

    157.        KNEE REPLACEMENT DESIGN

    158.        Design of Articular Surfaces

    159.        Design of Fixation

    160.        10 Biomechanical and Clinical Aspects of the Stable and Unstable Total Knee Arthroplasty

    161.        INTRODUCTION

    162.        FLEXION INSTABILITY

    163.        Clinical Presentation

    164.        Biomechanics of the Native Knee and Stable TKA

    165.        EXTENSION INSTABILITY

    166.        Clinical Presentation

    167.        Biomechanics of the Native Knee and Stable TKA

    168.        GENU RECURVATUM

    169.        MID-FLEXION INSTABILITY

    170.        Clinical Presentation

    171.        Biomechanics of the Native Knee and Stable TKA

    172.        SUMMARY

    173.        11 Metals

    174.        METALLIC BOND

    175.        ALLOY MICROSTRUCTURE

    176.        CORROSION OF ORTHOPEDIC METAL ALLOYS

    177.        STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS

    178.        Alternative Stainless Steels

    179.        COBALT–CHROMIUM ALLOYS

    180.        TITANIUM ALLOYS

    181.        Other Titanium Alloys

    182.        OTHER ALLOYS AND SURFACE COATINGS

    183.        CLINICAL CONCERNS REGARDING METAL IMPLANT DEGRADATION

    184.        Metal Ion Release

    185.        Metal Particle Distribution

    186.        Metal Hypersensitivity Responses

    187.        Metal-Induced Carcinogenesis

    188.        STATUS OF METALS IN TKA

    189.        CONCLUSION

    190.        12 Polyethylene in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    191.        MEDICAL GRADE POLYETHYLENE

    192.        ARTICULAR SURFACE GEOMETRY

    193.        METAL BACKING

    194.        MOTION PATTERN

    195.        WEAR PARTICLES

    196.        STERILIZATION METHODS

    197.        CROSS-LINKING METHODS

    198.        CONCLUSION

    199.        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    200.        13 Damage of Implant Surfaces in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    201.        INTRODUCTION

    202.        TIBIAL INSERTS

    203.        PATELLAR COMPONENTS

    204.        ULTRAHIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE

    205.        DAMAGE ON ARTICULATING AND NONARTICULATING SURFACES

    206.        WEAR MECHANISMS

    207.        WEAR APPEARANCE AND VOLUMETRIC MATERIAL LOSS

    208.        OSTEOLYSIS IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENTS

    209.        FACTORS AFFECTING DAMAGE AND SOLUTIONS TO MINIMIZE WEAR

    210.        Kinematics and Design

    211.        Oxidation

    212.        Mechanical Stress: Conformity and Polyethylene Thickness

    213.        Modularity and Backside Wear

    214.        Clinical Variables

    215.        TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE BEARING SURFACE DAMAGE

    216.        Highly Cross-Linked UHMWPEs and Thermal Treatment

    217.        Antioxidant Stabilization of Cross-Linked UHMWPEs

    218.        Surface Grafting of UHMWPE Using 2-Methacryloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine

    219.        Ceramic and Ceramicized Femoral Components

    220.        Other Technologies

    221.        CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE OUTLOOK

    222.        14 Implant Fixation

    223.        INTRODUCTION

    224.        CEMENTED FIXATION

    225.        Basic Science of Polymethylmethacrylate

    226.        CEMENTLESS FIXATION

    227.        Biology of Cementless Fixation

    228.        STANDARD CONCEPTS IN ACHIEVING OSSEOINTEGRATION

    229.        IMPLANT CONSIDERATIONS: LEARNING FROM OUR MISTAKES

    230.        REVISION ARTHROPLASTY: ACHIEVING OSSEOINTEGRATION IN SETTING OF BONE LOSS

    231.        CONCLUSION

    232.        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    233.        SECTION 3 Clinical Science

    234.        15 Examination of the Knee Before and After Total Knee Replacement

    235.        INTRODUCTION

    236.        EXAMINATION OF THE KNEE BEFORE KNEE REPLACEMENT

    237.        Inspection and Observation

    238.        EXAMINATION OF THE KNEE AFTER KNEE REPLACEMENT

    239.        Introduction

    240.        CONCLUSION

    241.        16 Imaging of the Native and Prosthetic Knee

    242.        INTRODUCTION

    243.        CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHS

    244.        Standard Views

    245.        Additional Views

    246.        COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    247.        NUCLEAR SCINTIGRAPHY

    248.        ULTRASOUND

    249.        Basic Principles

    250.        Diagnostic Imaging

    251.        Ultrasound-Guided Intervention

    252.        BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    253.        MENISCI

    254.        Normal Meniscal Anatomy and Imaging

    255.        Meniscal Pathology

    256.        LIGAMENTS

    257.        Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    258.        Posterior Cruciate Ligament

    259.        Medial Collateral Ligament

    260.        Fibular Collateral Ligament and Posterolateral Corner

    261.        Knee Dislocation

    262.        Extensor Mechanism

    263.        ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    264.        Peripheral Nerves

    265.        POSTOPERATIVE MRI

    266.        Postoperative Meniscus

    267.        Ligament Reconstruction

    268.        Repair of the Articular Surfaces

    269.        KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    270.        CONCLUSION

    271.        17 Knee Rating Scales for Clinical Outcome

    272.        KNEE RATING SCALES FOR CLINICAL OUTCOME

    273.        Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness

    274.        Generic and Specific Measures

    275.        KNEE RATING SCALES FOR ATHLETIC PATIENTS

    276.        KNEE RATING SCALES FOR PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS OF THE KNEE

    277.        MEASURES OF ACTIVITY LEVEL FOR PATIENTS WITH DISORDERS OF THE KNEE

    278.        KNEE OUTCOME SURVEY

    279.        Instructions

    280.        SECTION 4 Patellofemoral Disorders

    281.        18 Etiology of Anterior Knee Pain in the Adult

    282.        BACKGROUND

    283.        ANATOMY

    284.        BIOMECHANICS

    285.        HISTORY

    286.        PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    287.        IMAGING

    288.        Plain X-Rays

    289.        Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    290.        Nuclear Imaging

    291.        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    292.        Soft Tissue

    293.        Bone, Joint, and Cartilage

    294.        Nerve

    295.        Other

    296.        CONCLUSION

    297.        19 Patellar Instability

    298.        INTRODUCTION

    299.        ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT

    300.        CLASSIFICATION OF PATELLAR INSTABILITY

    301.        HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    302.        History

    303.        Physical Examination

    304.        RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION

    305.        Plain Radiographs

    306.        Computed Tomography

    307.        Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    308.        TREATMENT OF PATELLAR INSTABILITY

    309.        Nonoperative Treatment

    310.        Operative Management

    311.        Lateral Retinacular Release

    312.        Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Repair

    313.        Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    314.        Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

    315.        Femoral Trochleoplasty

    316.        CONCLUSION

    317.        20 Cartilage Repair in the Patellofemoral Joint

    318.        INTRODUCTION

    319.        NONSURGICAL TREATMENT

    320.        SURGICAL TREATMENT

    321.        Chondroplasty

    322.        Bone Marrow Stimulation

    323.        Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation

    324.        Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation/MACI

    325.        Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation

    326.        Particulated Cartilage Procedures

    327.        Postoperative Rehabilitation

    328.        Summary

    329.        21 Patellofemoral Arthroplasty

    330.        INTRODUCTION

    331.        INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS

    332.        PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION

    333.        IMPLANT DESIGN

    334.        SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    335.        POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS

    336.        FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AND SURVIVORSHIP

    337.        CONCLUSION

    338.        SECTION 5 Alternatives to Arthroplasty for Knee Arthritis

    339.        22 Oral and Topical Agents and Injectables

    340.        INTRODUCTION

    341.        ORAL MEDICATIONS

    342.        Acetaminophen

    343.        Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    344.        Other Oral Medications

    345.        TOPICAL TREATMENTS

    346.        Topical NSAIDs

    347.        Topical Salicylates and Topical Capsaicin

    348.        CORTICOSTEROID INJECTIONS

    349.        Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action

    350.        Indications

    351.        Adverse Effects

    352.        Contraindications

    353.        HYALURONIC ACID INJECTIONS

    354.        Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action

    355.        Indications

    356.        Adverse Effects and Contraindications

    357.        ORTHOBIOLOGICS

    358.        Platelet-Rich Plasma

    359.        Adverse Effects and Contraindications

    360.        Stem Cells

    361.        CONCLUSION

    362.        23 Physical Therapy and Bracing

    363.        KNEE BRACING

    364.        Indications and Design

    365.        Radiographic Studies

    366.        Gait Analysis Studies

    367.        Clinical Data

    368.        Summary

    369.        REHABILITATION AND TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    370.        Preoperative Education

    371.        Timing of Physical Therapy

    372.        Goals of Acute Physical Therapy

    373.        Long-Term Goals of Physical Therapy

    374.        Future Developments in Rehabilitation After Knee Arthroplasty

    375.        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    376.        24 The Role of Arthroscopy in Treating Degenerative Joint Disease

    377.        INTRODUCTION

    378.        HISTORY OF ARTHROSCOPY IN KNEE OA

    379.        CONTRAINDICATIONS

    380.        PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT

    381.        MANAGEMENT

    382.        FUTURE TREATMENTS

    383.        AUTHOR PREFERRED INDICATIONS

    384.        AUTHOR’S PREFERRED TECHNIQUE

    385.        SUMMARY

    386.        25 Cartilage Restoration Procedures of the Knee

    387.        INTRODUCTION

    388.        OVERALL CARTILAGE INDICATIONS

    389.        MICROFRACTURE

    390.        Technique

    391.        Outcomes

    392.        OSTEOCHONDRAL ALLOGRAFT/AUTOGRAFT

    393.        Osteochondral Allograft Technique

    394.        OAT Technique

    395.        OAT Outcomes

    396.        Osteochondral Allograft Outcomes

    397.        AUTOLOGOUS CHONDROCYTE IMPLANTATION

    398.        Indications/Contraindications

    399.        Surgical Approach/Initial Biopsy

    400.        MENISCAL ALLOGRAFT TRANSPLANTATION

    401.        MALALIGNMENT (DFO/HTO) AND MALTRACKING (TTO)

    402.        CONCLUSION

    403.        26 Femoral and Tibial Osteotomy for the Degenerative Knee

    404.        INTRODUCTION

    405.        PATIENT SELECTION

    406.        History and Physical Examination

    407.        Imaging

    408.        PREOPERATIVE PLANNING

    409.        HIGH TIBIAL OSTEOTOMIES

    410.        Indications

    411.        Degree of Correction

    412.        Surgical Techniques

    413.        Fixation

    414.        Clinical Outcomes

    415.        Complications

    416.        DISTAL FEMORAL OSTEOTOMIES

    417.        Indications

    418.        Degree of Correction

    419.        Surgical Technique

    420.        Fixation

    421.        Clinical Outcomes

    422.        Complications

    423.        Ilizarov Technique

    424.        SUMMARY

    425.        SECTION 6 Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    426.        27 Economics of Total Knee Arthroplasty

    427.        INTRODUCTION

    428.        COST OF TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    429.        Implant Costs

    430.        Navigation Cost

    431.        Computer-Assisted Navigation

    432.        Robotic-Assisted Navigation

    433.        ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT MODELS

    434.        Bundled Payments for Care Improvement

    435.        Revision TKA in APM

    436.        Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement

    437.        BPCI Advanced

    438.        CONCLUSION

    439.        28 Indications for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    440.        INTRODUCTION

    441.        DEFINING INDICATIONS

    442.        GOALS OF TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    443.        PATIENT SELECTION

    444.        Who Is a Candidate for Knee Arthroplasty

    445.        When to Proceed with Knee Arthroplasty

    446.        Outpatient Patient Selection

    447.        Outcomes Prediction Tools

    448.        Other Available Options

    449.        SETTING EXPECTATIONS

    450.        Surgeon Expectations

    451.        Patient Expectations

    452.        PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT

    453.        History

    454.        Physical Examination

    455.        Radiograph Evaluation

    456.        SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS

    457.        Age

    458.        Body Mass Index

    459.        Diabetes Mellitus

    460.        Malnutrition

    461.        Osteonecrosis

    462.        Hemophilia

    463.        Ipsilateral Hip Arthrodesis

    464.        Paget Disease (“Osteitis Deformans”)

    465.        Posttraumatic Arthritis

    466.        Neurologic Dysfunction

    467.        Workers’ Compensation

    468.        CONTRAINDICATIONS TO TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    469.        Active Infection

    470.        Incompetent Extensor Mechanism

    471.        Neuropathic Arthropathy

    472.        Knee Arthrodesis

    473.        Prohibitive Medical Comorbidities

    474.        Peripheral Vascular Disease

    475.        Unrealistic Patient Expectations

    476.        CONCLUSION

    477.        29 Preoperative Planning for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    478.        INTRODUCTION

    479.        PATIENT SELECTION

    480.        PATIENT EXPECTATIONS

    481.        PATIENT ASSESSMENT

    482.        History

    483.        Physical Examination

    484.        Radiographic Analysis

    485.        CONTRAINDICATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES TO TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    486.        Contraindications

    487.        SPECIFIC PATIENT-RELATED CONSIDERATIONS

    488.        Age

    489.        Weight

    490.        Diabetes Mellitus

    491.        Osteonecrosis

    492.        Hemophilic Arthropathy

    493.        Ipsilateral Hip Fusion

    494.        Paget Disease

    495.        Posttraumatic Arthritis

    496.        Neurologic Dysfunction

    497.        Workers’ Compensation

    498.        CONCLUSION

    499.        30 Principles of Implantation—Flexion/Extension

    500.        INTRODUCTION

    501.        PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION

    502.        INTRAOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT

    503.        ACHIEVING A SAGITTALLY BALANCED KNEE

    504.        THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN FLEXION AND EXTENSION GAPS: WHICH GAP TO BALANCE FIRST?

    505.        MANAGING THE TIGHT EXTENSION GAP AND STEPWISE APPROACH TO FLEXION CONTRACTURES

    506.        MANAGING THE FLEXION GAP

    507.        ALGORITHMIC APPROACH FOR INTRAOPERATIVE SAGITTAL BALANCING

    508.        MID-FLEXION INSTABILITY: BALANCING THE FORGOTTEN GAP

    509.        CONCLUSION

    510.        31 Principles of Implantation: Measured Resection

    511.        INTRODUCTION

    512.        SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    513.        Transepicondylar Axis

    514.        Anteroposterior Axis

    515.        Posterior Condylar Axis

    516.        ADVANTAGES

    517.        DISADVANTAGES

    518.        CLINICAL STUDIES

    519.        SUMMARY

    520.        32 Principles of Instrumentation and Component Alignment

    521.        INTRODUCTION

    522.        NORMAL ANATOMY

    523.        BIOMECHANICS

    524.        THEORIES OF AXIAL IMPLANT ALIGNMENT

    525.        Mechanical Alignment

    526.        Anatomical Alignment

    527.        Kinematic Alignment

    528.        MECHANICAL ALIGNMENT

    529.        Outcomes

    530.        Instrumentation

    531.        KINEMATIC ALIGNMENT

    532.        Outcomes

    533.        Instrumentation

    534.        ROTATION

    535.        Femoral Component Rotation

    536.        Tibial Component Rotation

    537.        PATELLAR ALIGNMENT

    538.        NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    539.        CONCLUSION

    540.        33 Patient Specific Instrumentation

    541.        BACKGROUND

    542.        ALIGNMENT

    543.        Kinematic Alignment

    544.        Mechanical Alignment

    545.        Hip–Knee–Ankle Angle

    546.        Coronal Alignment

    547.        Sagittal Alignment

    548.        TEMPLATING AND PREOPERATIVE PLANNING

    549.        MANUFACTURER

    550.        CT VERSUS MRI

    551.        Intraoperative Adjustments and Abandonment

    552.        CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    553.        PERIOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS

    554.        ECONOMIC EVALUATION

    555.        Operative Time

    556.        Cost Considerations

    557.        FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    558.        34 Computer Guidance

    559.        INTRODUCTION

    560.        COMPUTER NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

    561.        IMAGE-BASED COMPUTER NAVIGATION

    562.        IMAGELESS COMPUTER NAVIGATION

    563.        Kinematic Registration

    564.        Surface Registration

    565.        Optical Navigation Systems

    566.        Accelerometer-Based Systems

    567.        ROBOTIC-ASSISTED KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    568.        CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    569.        Computer Navigation

    570.        Robotic-Assisted Knee Arthroplasty

    571.        35 Robotic Applications for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    572.        INTRODUCTION

    573.        ROBOTIC ARM–ASSISTED TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY (MAKO—STRYKER ORTHOPEDICS)

    574.        General Overview

    575.        Indications

    576.        Preoperative Planning

    577.        Patient Setup

    578.        Surgical Exposure

    579.        Tracker Array Placement

    580.        Bone Registration

    581.        Pose Capture

    582.        BONE CUTS PER MEASURED RESECTION TECHNIQUE

    583.        BONE CUTS PER TIBIAL CUT FIRST TECHNIQUE

    584.        BONE CUTS PER TIBIAL CUT AND DISTAL FEMUR CUT FIRST TECHNIQUE

    585.        BONE CUTS PER FEMORAL CUTS FIRST TECHNIQUE

    586.        IMPLANTATION

    587.        EARLY CLINICAL RESULTS

    588.        SUMMARY

    589.        36a Posterior Cruciate Ligament Retention in Total Knee Replacement

    590.        POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT ANATOMY

    591.        KNEE KINEMATICS PERTAINING TO THE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    592.        EVOLUTION OF THE CRUCIATE-RETAINING TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    593.        CURRENT CONTROVERSIES IN POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT–RETAINING AND POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT–SUBSTITUTING TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    594.        Rollback and Kinematics

    595.        Wear and Loosening

    596.        Range of Motion

    597.        Proprioception

    598.        Stability

    599.        AUTHORS’ ARGUMENTS FOR POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RETENTION

    600.        Balancing Flexion and Extension Gaps

    601.        Bone Sparing

    602.        Patellar Clunk and Post Dislocation

    603.        Ease of Management of Supracondylar Femur Fractures

    604.        Avoidance of Peg Wear and Fracture

    605.        Survivorship

    606.        SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    607.        CONCLUSION

    608.        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    609.        36b Posterior Stabilization in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    610.        HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    611.        KINEMATICS

    612.        Specific Design Features

    613.        High Flexion Designs

    614.        INDICATIONS

    615.        SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    616.        CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    617.        PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOME MEASURES

    618.        SURVIVORSHIP

    619.        Registry Data

    620.        SPECIFIC COMPLICATIONS

    621.        Tibial Post Wear

    622.        Patellar Clunk

    623.        SUMMARY

    624.        36c Medial Pivot Knee

    625.        PERSONAL STATEMENT

    626.        INTRODUCTION

    627.        KINEMATICS

    628.        Evolution of Knee Motion Measurements

    629.        Movement of Condyles

    630.        Movement of Contact Area

    631.        IMPLANT DESIGN

    632.        Rationale

    633.        Polyethylene

    634.        Femoral Component

    635.        SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    636.        CASES

    637.        RESULTS

    638.        Survivorship Studies

    639.        Comparison Studies

    640.        Radiographic Evaluation

    641.        COMPLICATIONS

    642.        CONCLUSION

    643.        36d Ultracongruent Total Knee Arthroplasty

    644.        INTRODUCTION

    645.        INDICATIONS AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    646.        OUTCOMES

    647.        36e Mobile-Bearing Knee Replacement

    648.        HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MOBILE BEARINGS

    649.        EVOLUTION OF THE NEW JERSEY LOW CONTACT STRESS MOBILE-BEARING KNEE

    650.        Early Results

    651.        BIOMECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    652.        Component Surface Geometry

    653.        Wear Properties

    654.        FIXATION OF MOBILE BEARINGS

    655.        CLINICAL APPLICATION OF MOBILE BEARINGS

    656.        Unicompartmental Knee Replacement

    657.        Bicompartmental Knee Replacement

    658.        Rotating Bearing Patella Replacement

    659.        SURVIVORSHIP

    660.        POSTERIOR-STABILIZED LOW CONTACT STRESS MOBILE-BEARING KNEE

    661.        REVISION TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    662.        Rotation

    663.        Fixation

    664.        36f Bicruciate Retaining in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    665.        INTRODUCTION

    666.        HISTORY

    667.        KINEMATICS

    668.        CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    669.        COMPLICATIONS

    670.        SUMMARY

    671.        37 Cement Fixation for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    672.        38 Cementless Total Knee Arthroplasty

    673.        INTRODUCTION

    674.        EARLY CEMENTLESS DESIGNS: LEARNING FROM HISTORICAL FAILURES

    675.        EARLY CEMENTLESS DESIGNS: SUCCESS STORIES

    676.        MODERN CEMENTLESS TKA DESIGNS: IMPROVED BIOMATERIALS AND DESIGNS

    677.        MODERN CEMENTLESS TKA: EARLY CLINICAL PERFORMANCE

    678.        SURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PREFERRED TECHNIQUE

    679.        Clinical and Perioperative Considerations

    680.        CONCLUSIONS

    681.        39 Surgical Exposures in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    682.        INTRODUCTION

    683.        SKIN INCISION AND SOFT-TISSUE HANDLING

    684.        MEDIAL PARAPATELLAR APPROACH

    685.        Surgical Technique

    686.        MIDVASTUS APPROACH

    687.        SUBVASTUS APPROACH

    688.        MEDIAL TRIVECTOR-RETAINING APPROACH

    689.        LATERAL PARAPATELLAR APPROACH

    690.        DIFFICULT EXPOSURES: SPECIALIZED TECHNIQUES

    691.        MODIFICATIONS TO THE MEDIAL PARAPATELLAR APPROACH IN CHALLENGING EXPOSURES

    692.        QUADRICEPS SNIP OR RECTUS SNIP

    693.        TIBIAL TUBERCLE OSTEOTOMY

    694.        V-Y QUADRICEPSPLASTY OR QUADRICEPS TURNDOWN

    695.        COMPARISON OF REVISION APPROACHES

    696.        ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES

    697.        CONCLUSION

    698.        40 Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    699.        INTRODUCTION

    700.        INDICATIONS AND PATIENT SELECTION

    701.        Anteromedial Osteoarthritis

    702.        Avascular Osteonecrosis

    703.        Obesity

    704.        Age

    705.        Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

    706.        Chondrocalcinosis

    707.        Lateral Posttraumatic Arthritis

    708.        Absolute Contraindication

    709.        Extra-articular Deformity

    710.        The Ideal Patient

    711.        IMPLANT DESIGNS

    712.        Mobile- Versus Fixed-Bearing UKA

    713.        Cemented Versus Cementless

    714.        All-Polyethylene Versus Metal-Backed

    715.        KINEMATICS OF THE NATIVE KNEE AND UKA

    716.        PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION

    717.        Physical Examination Criteria

    718.        Imaging

    719.        Patient Expectations

    720.        SURGICAL POSITIONING

    721.        THE SURGICAL STEPS FOR MEDIAL UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    722.        Main Principles in Medial UKA

    723.        Operative Technique

    724.        THE SURGICAL STEPS FOR LATERAL UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    725.        Anatomy

    726.        Indications

    727.        Specificity of Preoperative Planning for Lateral UKA

    728.        Approach

    729.        First Step: Tibial Cut

    730.        Second Step: Femoral Cuts

    731.        Third Step: Positioning of the Implant

    732.        Common Surgical Errors Leading to Failure in Lateral UKA

    733.        Conclusion

    734.        RESULTS AND SURVIVAL OF UKA

    735.        Results of Medial UKA for Osteoarthritis

    736.        Results of Medial UKA in Young Patients

    737.        Results of Medial UKA in Old Patients (Older Than 75 years)

    738.        Results of Lateral UKA

    739.        Results of UKA for Avascular Osteonecrosis of the Knee

    740.        FAILURES AND REVISION OF UKA

    741.        Introduction

    742.        Progression of Osteoarthritis in the Other Compartments

    743.        Aseptic Loosening

    744.        Bearing Dislocation in Mobile-Bearing Implants

    745.        Periprosthetic Fracture

    746.        Infection

    747.        Stiffness

    748.        Unexplained Pain

    749.        Preoperative Evaluation

    750.        Revision Strategies

    751.        Results of Revision UKA

    752.        Conclusion

    753.        PROCESS OPTIMIZATION IN PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT

    754.        Perioperative Management

    755.        Rehabilitation and Postoperative Care

    756.        Conclusion

    757.        41 Robotic Application of Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    758.