pe pagina
  • 920.00 lei



    The most trusted, all-in-one guide to fetal brain imaging—now in full color. Edited and written by recognized experts, this acclaimed reference is a highly clinical text and visual atlas. It facilitates a thorough comprehension of the normal and abnormal fetal central nervous system—and helps you apply one of the most important advances in modern perinatology: the early detection of central nervous system anomalies. Here, you will find the full spectrum of prenatal sonography tools and insights, from using ultrasound and MRI to diagnose the fetal face, eye, and brain, to the neurobehavioral development of the fetal brain. Featuring a new full-color presentation and an enhanced, reader-friendly design, the third edition of this unmatched guide is completely refreshed to mirror the significant advances made in imaging resolution and three-dimensional Doppler technology. In addition, the book reflects the growing interest in imaging the fetal nervous system as it pertains to the fetal brain.

    FEATURES:

    • New full-color design and additional figures, tables, and graphs
    • New chapter on ventriculomegaly examines the most common presenting sonographic sign of brain pathology
    • New chapters on the evaluation of the fetal cortex and posterior fossa shed light on diagnostically problematic areas of the fetal brain
    • New chapters highlighting intrauterine insults, intrauterine infections, and metabolic disorders demonstrate the progress being made in areas that have become critical to fetal neuroscans
    • Greater emphasis on the use of high frequency and deep penetrating ultrasound transducer probes clearly explain how they can yield high-resolution pictures of the fetal brain and spine
    • Latest perspectives on dissemination of 3D ultrasound techniques and magnetic resource imaging are interwoven into individual chapters to encourage their adoption in daily clinical practice
    • More detailed examination of imaging the fetal brain is based on leading-edge, peer-reviewed research from around the world
    • SI units are included throughout
    • Numerous new 2D and 3D ultrasound images and updated literature references contribute to the most current overview available of this dynamic specialty

  • Pocket Anatomy & Protocols for Abdominal Ultrasound
    by PENNY
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    8900lei 67.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

     

    Packing essential abdominal imaging protocols in a compact format, this handy reference makes it easy to access the most up-to-date protocols, organ-specific measurements, and echogenicities for abdominal sonography. Organized logically by the organs of the abdomen, this succinct, image-based quick-reference presents imaging and line drawings side-by-side to help you make confident, accurate observations.

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    1: Abdominal Sonography Overview

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM INDICATIONS FOR AN ABDOMEN AND/OR RETROPERITONEUM SONOGRAM

    EQUIPMENT SELECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL

    THE ALARA PRINCIPLE

    SONOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY

    COMMON ARTIFACTS

    BASICS OF DOPPLER SONOGRAPHY

    GENERAL CLINICAL HISTORY QUERIES

    SUMMARY OF RELEVANT LABORATORY VALUES AND KEY ABDOMINAL FINDINGS (TABLE 1-3)

    PATIENT POSITIONING FOR ABDOMINAL SONOGRAPHY

    LABELING OF SONOGRAPHIC EXAMINATIONS

    COMPLETE ABDOMEN AND RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT SUGGESTED PROTOCOL

    FLUID RECOGNITION

    FOCUSED ASSESSMENT WITH SONOGRAPHY FOR TRAUMA EXAMINATION

    INFECTION CONTROL AND MACHINE MAINTENANCE

    ERGONOMICS

    REFERENCES

    2: Pancreas

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PANCREAS

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE PANCREAS

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE PANCREAS

    ESSENTIAL PANCREATIC PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    3: Liver

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LIVER

    PATIENT PREPARATION

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE LIVER

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE LIVER

    ESSENTIAL LIVER PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    4: Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL AND NORMAL ANATOMY OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT

    ESSENTIAL GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    5: Urinary Tract

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE URINARY TRACT

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE URINARY TRACT

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE URINARY TRACT

    ESSENTIAL URINARY TRACT PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    6: Spleen

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SPLEEN

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE SPLEEN

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE SPLEEN

    ESSENTIAL SPLENIC PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    7: Abdominal Aorta and Inferior Vena Cava

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    Suggested Protocol for Sonography of the Abdominal Aorta and IVC

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC

    ESSENTIAL ABDOMINAL AORTA AND IVC PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    8: Gastrointestinal Tract

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GI TRACT

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE GI TRACT

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GI TRACT

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GI TRACT

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF BOWEL

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE GI TRACT

    SCANNING TIPS

    MEASUREMENTS OF THE GI TRACT

    ESSENTIAL GI PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    9: Male Pelvis

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SCROTUM

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE PELVIS

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SCROTUM

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE MALE PELVIS

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE SCROTUM

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE SCROTUM

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE SCROTUM

    ESSENTIAL SCROTAL PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    10: Neck and Face

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM RECOMMENDATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE NECK AND FACE

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NECK AND FACE

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE NECK AND FACE

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE NECK AND FACE

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE NECK AND FACE

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE NECK AND FACE

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE NECK AND FACE

    ESSENTIAL NECK AND FACE PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    11: Breast

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM AND ACR RECOMMENDATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE BREAST

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BREAST

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE BREAST

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE BREAST

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE BREAST

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE BREAST

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE BREAST

    ESSENTIAL BREAST PATHOLOGY

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    12: Infant Hips, Neonatal Brain, and Neonatal Spine

    INTRODUCTION

    AIUM AND ACR RECOMMENDATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    ESSENTIAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE INFANT HIP, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    PATIENT PREPARATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE INFANT HIP, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    SUGGESTED EQUIPMENT

    CLINICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SONOGRAPHY OF THE INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    NORMAL SONOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    SUGGESTED PROTOCOL FOR SONOGRAPHY OF INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    SCANNING TIPS

    NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    ESSENTIAL PATHOLOGY OF INFANT HIPS, NEONATAL BRAIN, AND NEONATAL SPINE

    WHERE ELSE TO LOOK

    IMAGE CORRELATION

    REFERENCES

    INDEX

     

  • Normal Findings in CT and MRI
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    110.00 lei

    The key for any beginning radiologist who wishes to recognize pathological findings is to first acquire an ability to distinguish them from normal ones. This outstanding guide gives beginning radiologists the tools they need to systematically approach and recognize normal MR and CT images. Highlights include: Reference-quality images from the author's own teaching files show all standard normal findings as seen in CT and MRI Checklists in each section offer the reader a systematic way to approach the images Thorough guidelines to help beginning radiologists dictate their reports Lists of standard measurements and tips for ruling out pathology

  • Clinico Radiological Series: Sinonasal Imaging
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    170.00 lei

    Part of the Clinico Radiological Series, this book provides a multidisciplinary overview of diagnostic imaging for sinonasal disorders. Divided into seven sections, the text begins with an introduction to normal anatomy and imaging techniques. The following sections discuss imaging and pathology of different sinonasal diseases including inflammatory nasal conditions, tumours and tumour-like disorders, trauma, and congenital and systemic diseases. Emphasis is placed on the importance of image interpretation and a complete chapter is dedicated to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) imaging.

    The comprehensive text is enhanced by nearly 500 radiological images and tables, and includes illustrative cases and guidance on structured reporting format. Other titles in the Clinico Radiological Series include Temporal Bone Imaging and Imaging of Interstitial Lung Diseases.

    Table of contents

    Section 1: Normal Anatomy and Imaging


    Imaging Modalities and Techniques

    Sinonasal Anatomy: Structure-wise

    Sinonasal Anatomy: Section-wise


    Section 2: Inflammatory Nasal Conditions


    Imaging in Rhinosinusitis (Inflammatory Diseases)

    Imaging in Polyps and Mucoceles

    Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Clinical Aspects

    Imaging in Fungal Sinusitis

    Fungal Diseases of Nose and Paranasal Sinuses: Surgical Aspects

    Pre- and Post-Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Imaging


    Section 3: Tumor and Tumor-Like Conditions


    Pathology of Sinonasal Lesions

    Pathology of Bony/Cartilaginous Sinonasal Tumors

    Benign Tumors of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses: Imaging

    Benign Sinonasal Tumors: Surgical Perspective

    Malignant Tumors of Sinonasal Cavities: Imaging

    Malignant Tumors of Nose and Paranasal Sinuses: Surgical Perspective

    Radiation and Chemotherapy in Management of Malignant Sinonasal Tumors


    Section 4: Trauma


    Imaging in Sinonasal Trauma

    Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks

    Sinonasal Trauma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Surgical Aspects
    Section 5: Congenital/Pediatric Diseases


    Pediatric Sinonasal Disorders: Imaging

    Pediatric Sinonasal Disorders: Surgical Perspective


    Section 6: Systemic Disorders/Surrounding Structures involving PNS


    Systemic Disorders affecting Sinonasal Cavity

    Anterior Skull Base Lesions: Imaging

    Imaging of Dental Lesions and Sinonasal Cavity

    Imaging of Disorders Involving Sinonasal Cavity and Orbit


    Section 7: Clinico-Radiological Approach


    Approach to Nasal Obstruction

    Approach to Epistaxis

    Imaging Approach to Sinus Lesions





     

  • Noninterpretive Skills in Radiology
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    190.00 lei

    FOUR STARS from Doody's Star Ratings™

    This is a must have for all ABR exam takers -- Doody's Reviews (Score: 91)

    Within each section are excellent graphics, cartoons, and medical images which help to solidify each discussion point. The 175 questions cover most material with which one would be expected to be familiar. -- American Journal of Neuroradiology

    This robust study guide is ideal for American Board of Radiology (ABR) exam preparation, mirroring the syllabus in the new Noninterpretive Skills (NIS) module for the Core, Certifying, and Maintenance of Certification exams. Skilled radiologists with NIS expertise provide boardtype questions and high-yield pearls on why the keys to a successful radiology practice involve more than "just reading 'em right."

    The ABR safeguards the public through careful licensing of radiologists who demonstrate the highest commitment to competence, professionalism, and safety. The NIS module was created in response to the fact that radiologists tend to be primarily diagnosis-oriented, but also need to master other important skills to attain and maintain excellence as practitioners.

    Select Features

    • Included are a wide range of high-yield questions with detailed answers.
    • Patient safety, radiation safety, effective patient communication, error prevention, quality improvement, contrast reaction management, MRI contraindications, and more, are all discussed.
    • The business of radiology: professionalism, best practices, key performance measures, malpractice, ethics, critical thinking, and more, are explained.
    • Six Sigma and Lean-highly regarded improvement methodologies-are discussed in cogent,easily relatable language.
    • Abundant memory aids in the form of mnemonics and tips are interfused throughout the text.

    The reader-friendly text and tips format, coupled with the well-written Q & A format, enable proficient learning of a large depth and breadth of material. Radiology residents who utilize this rigorous ABR exam prep will gain the confidence to attain top scores on the NIS portion of the boards. This book is also an essential resource for established radiologists preparing for the MOC exam.

  • 22600lei 190.00 lei

    Chapman and Nakielny's Guide to Radiological Procedures has become the classic, concise guide to the common procedures in imaging on which a radiology trainee will be expected to be familiar. Now fully revised and updated in line with current practice, it will also prove invaluable to the wider clinical team that now delivers modern imaging services, including radiographers and radiology nurses, as well as a handy refresher for radiologists at all levels. The highly accessible format has been retained, with every technique described under a set of standard headings, making it ideal for quick reference and exam preparation. * Comprehensively reviewed and updated throughout - incorporating the very latest techniques, clinical practice developments and key recent national and international guidelines * New chapter on the important roles of the radiographer and nurse in procedural radiology - reflecting the delivery of modern radiological practice by multi-professional teams * New chapter on ablative therapies - outlining the various radiological techniques and indications for non-surgical treatment of tumours * Complementary access to the complete, enhanced eBook version - including new, interactive MCQs to check understanding and aid those preparing for the FRCR and similar examinations Previous edition review comments: "The book provides a comprehensive and well-referenced guide to a wide range of imaging techniques and the imaging modalities employed...Overall, an excellent book. " Rad Magazine * Comprehensively reviewed and updated throughout - incorporating the very latest techniques, clinical practice developments and key recent national and international guidelines * New chapter on the important roles of the radiographer and nurse in procedural radiology - reflecting the delivery of modern radiological practice by multi-professional teams * New chapter on ablative therapies - outlining the various radiological techniques and indications for non-surgical treatment of tumours * Complementary access to the complete, enhanced eBook version - including new, interactive MCQs to check understanding and aid those preparing for the FRCR and similar examinations

  • Pocket Interventional Radiology
    by RAHIM
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    26300lei 197.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Publisher's Note: Products purchased from 3rd Party sellers are not guaranteed by the Publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Pocket Interventional Radiology is a practical, high-yield reference offering current, evidence-based practices and expert guidance in this fast-growing area. Featuring an easy-to-use, loose-leaf format, it contains key clinical information regarding the workup of patients, imaging, and necessary procedural details, including physical exam tips and tricks, medication information, and pre- and post-procedure patient management.

     

    Table of Contents:

    PERI-OPERATIVE WORKUP

    CONTRAST, SEDATION, ANALGESIA

    CONTRAST

    General Types of Contrast

    Premedication for Contrast Reactions (ACR Manual on Contrast Media 2017)

    Contrast Reactions (ACR Manual on Contrast Media 2017)

    Sedation and Analgesia (Radiographics 2013;33:E47–60)

    Intraprocedural Monitoring

    Postprocedural Monitoring

    Patient-Controlled Analgesia

    DRUGS IN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY

    BACKGROUND

    Anticoagulants (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2011)

    Antiplatelets (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2011)

    Antihypertensives (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2011)

    Antibiotics (ABX) (JVIR 2010;21:1611–30)

    Prophylaxis for Common IR Procedures

    Vasodilators (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2011)

    Thrombolytics (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2011)

    Medications that Reduce Peristalsis (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2011)

    Antiemetics (Whalen K. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014; Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, 2011)

    NONINVASIVE IMAGING

    NONINVASIVE VASCULAR IMAGING MODALITIES

    Ultrasound

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Imaging Techniques

    THYROID GLAND

    Thyroid Nodules

    LYMPH NODES

    Indeterminate Lymph Node

    CHEST

    Pleural Effusion

    Radiographic and Sonographic Imaging Findings in Pleural Effusion

    Computed Tomography

    Imaging Findings in CT to Distinguish Empyema From Lung Abscess

    Pneumothorax

    Imaging Techniques

    ABDOMEN AND PELVIS

    Ascites

    Hemoperitoneum

    Abscess

    Common Causes of Intraabdominal Abscess

    Imaging Findings

    AORTA AND VASCULATURE

    Background

    Classifications

    Complications

    Imaging Findings

    Ultrasound

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

    3D Contrast-Enhanced MRA

    Management

    THE LIVER

    Background

    Imaging Appearance of the Normal Liver

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Cirrhosis

    Focal Liver Lesions (FLL)

    HCC

    Metastasis

    Cholangiocarcinoma

    Imaging of Post Microinvasive Local Treatment

    Imaging of Liver Transplant

    Imaging of Posttransplant Liver

    THE PANCREAS

    Acute Pancreatitis and Indications for Intervention

    THE SPLEEN

    Background

    Imaging Findings

    Splenic Abscess

    Splenomegaly

    Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    THE ADRENAL GLANDS

    Adrenal Adenoma

    KIDNEYS

    Background

    Imaging

    Cystic Kidney Lesions

    Solid Kidney Lesions

    Hydronephrosis

    Renal Artery Imaging

    Renal Transplant Evaluation

    Imaging of Kidney Intervention-Related Complications

    Imaging of Acute Renal Infection

    Imaging

    REFERENCES

    DEVICES (WIRES AND CATHETERS)

    VASCULAR IR DEVICES

    Access Needles

    Coaxial Micropuncture Set

    Peel-away Sheath

    Central Venous Lines

    Guidewires

    Dilators

    Catheters

    Sheaths

    Embolization

    Balloons

    Vascular Stents

    NONVASCULAR IR DEVICES

    Biopsy Needles

    Other Biopsy

    Nonvascular Catheters

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    VASCULAR ACCESS

    PREPROCEDURE MANAGEMENT

    ARTERIAL ACCESS

    Background

    Access Points

    Creating Arterial Access

    Postprocedure Management

    Venous Access

    Common Sites of Venous Access

    Postprocedural Management

    Types of Central Venous Access

    Complications during Central Venous Catheter Placement

    Complications After Central Venous Catheter Placement

    Lymphangiograms

    HEMOSTASIS

    BODY INTERVENTIONS

    DRAINAGES

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Image Guidance Options

    Catheter Routes for Pelvic Collections

    Techniques

    Catheter Size

    Considerations for Hepatic or Renal Abscess Drainage

    Treatment Considerations for Ascites

    Postprocedure Care of Drainage Catheters

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    BIOPSIES

    Thyroid Biopsies

    Background

    Indications

    Procedure

    Results

    Complications

    Post Procedure Care

    ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCE

    RENAL BIOPSIES

    Focal Renal Biopsy

    Background

    INDICATIONS (BJUI 2011;10(9):867–72; Urology 2012;79:372–78; Urol Oncol 2017;35:87–91)

    Procedure

    Results (Eur Urol 2016;69:660–73)

    Complications (Eur Urol 2016;69:660–73)

    NONFOCAL RENAL BIOPSY

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Procedure (Percutaneous)

    Procedure (Transjugular) (Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008;31:906–18)

    Results

    Complications (Am J Kidney Dis 2012;60(1):62–73)

    Transjugular (Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008;31:906–18)

    LIVER BIOPSIES

    Focal Hepatic biopsy

    Background

    Indications (Radiol Clin N Am 2015;53:1049–59)

    Contraindications

    Procedure (Radiol Clin N Am 2015;53:1049–59; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21:1539–47)

    Results (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21:1539–47)

    Complications

    NONFOCAL HEPATIC BIOPSY

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Procedure (Percutaneous)

    Procedure (Transjugular) (Diagn Interv Imaging 2014;95:11–5)

    Results

    Complications

    LUNG BIOPSIES

    Background (Radiol Clin N Am 2017;55:1163–81)

    Indications (Insights Imaging 2017;8:419–28; Radiology 2017;284:228–43)

    Contraindications (Insights Imaging 2017;8:419–28)

    Procedure (Insights Imaging 2017;8:419–28; 4)

    Post Biopsy Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2016)

    Results

    Complications

    MESENTERIC LYMPH NODE AND OMENTAL BIOPSIES

    Background

    Indications (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2017;28:1569–76; Eur J Radiol 2009; 70:331–35; World J Surg Oncol 2013;11:251; Radiology 2011;261(1):311–7; Ultrasound Q 2011;27:255–68)

    Procedure (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2017;28:1569–76; Ultrasound Q 2011;27:255–68)

    Results

    MUSCULOSKELETAL INTERVENTIONS

    ARTHROGRAPHY—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Equipment

    Supplies

    Medications

    Complications

    Useful Hints

    Postprocedure Care

    PAIN MANAGEMENT—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Equipment

    Supplies

    Medications

    Viscosupplementation

    Complications

    Useful Hints

    Postprocedure Care

    ARTHROCENTESIS—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Equipment

    Supplies

    Medications

    Complications

    Useful Hints

    Postprocedure Care

    COMMON JOINTS—TECHNIQUE

    Hip

    Shoulder

    Knee

    LESS COMMON JOINT—TECHNIQUE

    Ankle

    Elbow

    Wrist

    Foot

    Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Injection

    Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint

    Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint

    SPINE INJECTIONS

    See Interventional Pain Management Chapter for More Details

    Nerve Root Block

    Facet Injection

    CT GUIDED BONE PROCEDURES—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Equipment

    Supplies

    Sedation

    Complications

    Useful Hints

    Postprocedure Care

    CT-GUIDED BONE PROCEDURES—TECHNIQUE

    1) Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    1) Bone Lesion Biopsy

    Metastatic Disease

    Osteomyelitis/Spondylodiscitis

    US GUIDED PROCEDURES—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Equipment

    Supplies

    Medications

    Complications

    Useful Hints

    1) Bursal Injection

    2) Perineural Injection

    3) Peritendinous/Periligamentous Injection

    ARTERIAL INTERVENTIONS

    PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE

    Definition

    Etiology & Risk Factors

    Pathophysiology: Mechanisms of vessel lumen occlusion

    Clinical Manifestation

    Physical Exam

    Noninvasive Studies

    Imaging

    Treatment of PAD

    ACUTE OCCLUSIVE DISEASE OF UPPER EXTREMITY

    Background

    Etiologies

    Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    ACUTE OCCLUSIVE DISEASE OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY

    Background

    Etiology

    Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    ACUTE MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA

    Background

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    CHRONIC MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA

    Background

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnosis

    Duplex US—Initially (Overview of Intestinal Ischemia in Adults. In: UpToDate. 2017, UpToDate)

    US Velocity Criteria

    Treatment

    MANAGING BYPASS GRAFTS

    BASIC ENDOVASCULAR PRE-, PERI-, & POSTOP MANAGEMENT

    Preoperative Management

    Intraop Care

    Complications

    Postoperative Care

    ANGIOGRAPHY

    Introduction

    Indications

    Basic Vascular Access and Angiography Operative Technique

    Angioplasty

    Background

    Indications

    Angioplasty Operative Technique (Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. 4th ed. Principles of Angioplasty. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2017; PocketRadiologist: Inventional Top 100 Procedures. 1st ed. A. Inc. 2003, Salt Lake City, Utah: W.B. Saunders Company; Atlas of Vascular Anatomy: An Angiographic Approach. 2th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007)

    Intraoperative Difficulty (Arterial Interventions: Peripheral Arterial Disease. Interventional Radiology Procedures 2017 5/10/2017]; Available from: https://www.irprocedures.com; Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. 4 ed. Principles of Angioplasty. 2017, Edinburgh: Elsevier)

    Complications

    STENTING

    Background

    Stenting Operative Technique (Arterial Interventions: Peripheral Arterial Disease. Interventional Radiology Procedures 2017 5/10/2017]; Available from: https://www.irprocedures.com; Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. 4 ed. Principles of Angioplasty. 2017, Edinburgh: Elsevier)

    Intraoperative Difficulty (Arterial Interventions: Peripheral Arterial Disease. Interventional Radiology Procedures 2017 5/10/2017]; Available from: https://www.irprocedures.com; Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. 4 ed. Principles of Angioplasty. 2017, Edinburgh: Elsevier)

    Complications

    ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS

    Background

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnosis (Ann Intern Med 1997;126(6):441–9)

    Treatment

    EVAR OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE

    Operative Planning/Graft Selection (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedure (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    EVAR Postoperative Care

    THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSMS

    Background

    Classifications (Essentials of General Surgery. 5 ed. Diseases of the Vascular System. 2013: Wolters Kluwer; Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Adults, in UpToDate. 2017, UpToDate)

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnostic Studies

    Treatment

    TEVAR Operative Technique

    TEVAR Postoperative Care

    Endoleaks

    AORTIC DISSECTIONS

    Background

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Physical Exam

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    VENOUS INTERVENTIONS

    VENOUS THROMBOLYSIS

    Background

    Indications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; J Vasc Intervent Radiol 2014;25(9):1317–25)

    Contraindications (J Vasc Intervent Radiol 2014;25(9):1317–25)

    Preprocedure Preparation/Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Procedure Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Postprocedural Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Villalta Scoring System (J Vasc Surg 2013;57(1):254–61)

    Complications (J Vasc Intervent Radiol 2014;25(9):1317–25)

    Landmark studies (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Lancet 2012;379(9810):31–8; N Engl J Med 2017;377(23):2240–52)

    PULMONARY THROMBOLYSIS/THROMBECTOMY

    Background

    Indications for Catheter-Directed Therapy (Circulation 2011;123(16):1788–30; Chest 2012;141(2 suppl):7S–47S; Eur Heart J 2014;35(43):3033–69)

    Preprocedure Preparation/Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Pulmonary Angiography Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Endovascular Techniques

    Complications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    CHRONIC VENOUS SYNDROMES

    Background

    Paget–Schroetter Syndrome (Effort Thrombosis) (Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016;6(6):582–92)

    Secondary Upper-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis (Catheter-Related)

    Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (J Roentgenol 2009;193(2):549–58)

    Iliocaval Thrombosis and May–Thurner Syndrome (Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016;6(6):582–92)

    Portal Vein Thrombosis (J Vasc Intervent Radiol 2017;28(12):1714–21)

    RENAL AND GENITOURINARY INTERVENTIONS

    NEPHROSTOMY AND NU PLACEMENT

    Background

    Indications to Intervene

    Indications for Stent Placement (Yonsei Med J 2003;44(2):273–8; J Endourol 2010;24(7):1189–93; J Endourol 2000;14(7):583–87)

    Workup of the Patient Requiring Nephrostomy/NU Placement

    Contraindications (J Vascu Intervent Radiol 1997;8(5):769–74; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998;170(5):1169–76)

    Whitaker Test (Am J Roentgenol 1980;134(1):9–15)

    Determining the Catheter Type

    Procedure Technique (Machan. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Technical Notes

    Special Notes about NU/double J

    Nephrostomy Exchange

    Dislodged Catheters

    Special Cases of PCN

    Complications

    Postprocedural Care

    Tips and Tricks

    RENOVASCULAR STENTING

    Background (Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. 2006: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Demographics (J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43(9):1606–13; Kidney Int Suppl 1975:S153–60; JAMA 1972;220(9): 1209–18)

    Workup of Patients with RVH

    Specific Imaging Features to Evaluate

    Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    Indications to Not Intervene

    Indications for Intervention

    Indications for Stenting

    Preprocedural Care

    Procedure Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:205–213)

    Types of Stents

    Intraoperative Notes

    Intraoperative Images that Should be Taken

    Complications

    Endpoints of Procedure (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:205–213)

    Postprocedural Care

    RENAL VEIN SAMPLING

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Physiology

    Workup of Patients Undergoing Renal Vein Sampling

    Procedure Technique

    Complications

    Postprocedural Care

    RENAL ARTERY EMBOLIZATION

    Background (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book: Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013:404–410)

    Indications

    Workup of the Patient Undergoing Embolization

    Special Note about Aneurysms

    Contraindications

    Complications

    Embolization Equipment

    Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Postoperative Management

    DIALYSIS ACCESS INTERVENTIONS

    Background (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book: Expert Radiology Series. 2013: Elsevier Health Sciences; Abrams’ angiography: interventional radiology. 2006: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Additional Notes About Grafts/Fistulas

    Dialysis Access Surveillance (guidelines by KDOQI) (Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;4(1):86–92)

    Indications for Intervention (ACR-SIR Practice Guideline for Endovascular Management of the Thrombosed or Dysfunctional Dialysis Access. Digest of Council Actions)

    When to Stent (KDOQI guidelines)

    Workup for Intervention

    Contraindications

    Physical Examination

    Types of Dialysis Access (Am J Roentgenol 2015;205(4):726–34)

    Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2011)

    Fistulogram

    Technique: Declotting/Stenting

    Closing the Access

    Goals and Outcomes

    Complications and Management

    Postoperative Care

    Tips and Tricks

    SUPRAPUBIC BLADDER CATHETERIZATION

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Workup

    Technique

    Complications

    Postoperative Care

    Tips and Tricks

    PROSTATE ARTERY EMBOLIZATION (PAE)

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Workup

    Advantages of PAE Over Surgery

    Technique

    Postoperative Care

    Results and Complications

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    HEPATOBILIARY INTERVENTIONS

    PORTAL HYPERTENSION

    Definition (J Hepatol 2012;57:458–61; World J Gastroenterol 2017;23(10):1735–46; Clin Liver Dis 2001;5:617–27; Semin Liver Dis 1986;6:309–17)

    Epidemiology and Etiology (J Hepatol 2012;57:458–61; World J Gastroenterol 2017;23(10):1735–46; Clin Liver Dis 2001;5:617–27; Semin Liver Dis 1986;6:309–17; Clinics in liver disease 2014;18(2):281–91; Int J Hepatol 2012;2012:895787; Child CG, Turcotte JG. The liver and portal hypertension. In: CG Child, ed. Surgery and Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1964:50–4; Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;7:141–55)

    Portosystemic Collateral Pathways (Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;7:141–55; J Clin Exp Hepatol 2012;2(4):338–52; Clin Liver Dis 2005;9(4):685–13, vii.; CMAJ 2006;174(10):1433–43; Dig Dis 2016;34(4):382–6; Clinical radiology 2015;70(10):1047)

    Diagnostic Studies (World J Gastroenterol 2017;23(10):1735–46; Clin Liver Dis 2001;5:617–27; Semin Liver Dis 1986;6:309–17; Clin Liver 2014;18(2):281–91; Int J Hepatol 2012;2012:895787; Child CG, Turcotte JG. The liver and portal hypertension. In: CG Child, ed. Surgery and Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1964:50–4; Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;7:141–55; J Clin Exp Hepatol 2012;2(4):338–52; J Clin Exp Hepatol 2012;2(4):338–52)

    Clinical Manifestations/Prognosis (Clin Liver Dis 2001;5:617–27; Hepatology 2007;45(3):797–05; World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(11):1166–75; J Hepatol 2002;36(4):494–500)

    Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)

    Treatment and Management (Clin Liver Dis 2005;9(4):685–13, vii.; CMAJ 2006;174(10):1433–43; Dig Dis 2016;34(4):382–6; Clinical radiology 2015;70(10): 1047; Clin Liver Dis 2014;18(2):451–76; Hepatology 2007;45(3):797–05; World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(11):1166–75; J Hepatol 2002;36(4):494–500)

    TRANSJUGULAR INTRAHEPATIC PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNT (TIPS)

    Background (Semin Intervent Radiol 2014;31(3):235–42; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4):746–55)

    Patient Selection (Semin Intervent Radiol 2014;31(3):235–42; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4): 746–55; Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:1167–74; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(1):1–7; J Vasc Interv Radiol 1997;8(5):733–44; Semin Intervent Radiol 1995;12:337–46; Semin Intervent Radiol 2015;32(2):123–32; AJR 2006;186:1138–43; J Hepatol 2006;44(1):217–31)

    Preprocedural Work-Up (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(1):1–7; J Vasc Interv Radiol 1997;8(5):733–44; Semin Intervent Radiol 1995;12:337–46)

    Anatomic Considerations (Radiology 1994;191:705–12; Gut 2010;59(7):988–1000; Hepatology 2009;51:306; AJR 2005;85:89–91)

    Technical Procedure (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2016; Radiology 1994;191:705–12; Gut 2010;59(7):988–1000; Hepatology 2009;51:306; AJR 2005;185:89–91)

    Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Postprocedural Management (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedural Complications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Hepatology 1998;28(2):416–22; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2009;20:180–85)

    Long-Term Complications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Hepatology 1998;28(2):416–22; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2009;20:180–85; Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18:1135; Semin Intervent Radiol 2012;29(2):118–28; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13)

    Surveillance (AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008;191(6):1751–7; Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18:1135–41; Semin Intervent Radiol 2012;29(2):118–28; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13)

    BALLOON-OCCLUDED RETROGRADE TRANSVENOUS OBLITERATION

    Background (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2012;29(2):118–28; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13 © Thieme Medical Publishers, 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):333–8; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4):721–9; Radiol Case Rep 2016;11(4):365–9; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;31:727e33; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28:288–95; Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84(10):1244–9)

    Indications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2012;29(2):118–28; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13 © Thieme Medical Publishers, 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):333–8; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4):721–9; Radiol Case Rep 2016;11(4):365–9; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;31:727e33; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28:288–95; Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84(10):1244–9)

    Contraindications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2012;29(2):118–28; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13 © Thieme Medical Publishers, 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):333–8; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4):721–9; Radiol Case Rep 2016;11(4):365–9; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;31:727e33; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28:288–95; Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84(10):1244–9)

    Preprocedural Work-Up (Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):303–13 © Thieme Medical Publishers, 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):333–8; Am J Roentgenol 2012;199(4):721–9; Radiol Case Rep 2016;11(4):365–9; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;31:727e33; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28:288–95; Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84(10):1244–9; Hepatology 1992;16(6):1343–9; Gastroenterology 2004;126(4):1175–89; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28:288e95; J Gastroenterol 2007;42:663e72; Dig Dis Sci 2015;60:1543e53; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016;31:727e33; Hepatology 1989;9(6):808–14; Hepatology 2001;33(4):821–25; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):325–32; Semin Intervent Radiol 2011;28(3):288–95)

    Technical Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Plug/Coil-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016; 27(1):1–7)

    Postprocedural (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:1702–9; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007;189:W365–72)

    Follow-up (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:1702–9; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007;189:W365–72)

    TRANSJUGULAR LIVER BIOPSY

    Background (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Hepatol 2007;47:284–94; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:583–7; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007;18:237–41; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19:351–8; Indian J Radiol Imaging 2008;18(3):245–8; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2015:26(2):S84)

    Indications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; J Hepatol 2007;47:284–94; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:583–7)

    Relative Contraindications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; J Hepatol 2007;47:284–94; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:583–7)

    Preprocedural Evaluation (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Anatomy (J Hepatol 2007;47:284–94; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:583–7; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007;18:237–41; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19:351–8)

    Transvenous Pressure Measurements (Indian J Radiol Imaging 2011;21(4):291–3; Clin Mol Hepatol 2014;20(1):6–14; Clin Liver Dis 2006;10:499–512; Semin Liver Dis 2006;26:348–62)

    Equipment (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Complications (J Hepatol 2007;47:284–94; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:583–7; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007;18:237–41; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19:351–8; Indian J Radiol Imaging 2008;18(3):245–8; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2015:26(2):S84)

    Postprocedural management (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Background (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63)

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Types of Liver Transplantation (Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995; 65(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84)

    Liver Transplant Anatomy (Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63)

    Liver Transplant Complications (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84; HPB (Oxford) 2004;6(2):69–75; World J Hepatol 2016;8(1):36–57; Transplant Proc 1997;29:2853–55; Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81)

    Hepatic Arterial Stenosis (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84; HPB (Oxford) 2004;6(2):69–75; World J Hepatol 2016;8(1):36–57; Transplant Proc 1997;29:2853–5; Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81)

    Hepatic Arterial Thrombosis (HAT) (Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81; Transplant Proc 2006;38:2111–6; Transpl Int 2011;24:949–57)

    Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Transpl Int 2011;24:949–57)

    Technical Procedure (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25)

    Follow-up (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Semin Intervent Radiol 2004;21(4):221–33)

    Portal Venous Stenosis (PVS) (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84; HPB (Oxford) 2004;6(2):69–75; World J Hepatol 2016;8(1):36–57; Transplant Proc 1997;29:2853–5; Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81; Transplant Proc 2006;38:2111–6; Transpl Int 2011;24:949–57; Radiographics 2003;23:1093–114; Ann Ital Chir 2001;72(2):187–205; Semin Intervent Radiol 2004;21(4):221–33; J Vasc Interv Radiol 1990;1:17–22)

    Technical Procedure (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Portal Venous Thrombosis (PVT) (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84; HPB (Oxford) 2004;6(2):69–75; World J Hepatol 2016;8(1):36–57; Transplant Proc 1997;29:2853–5; Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81)

    Technical Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    IVC/Hepatic Vein Stenosis (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Am J Transplant 2013;13(9):2384–94; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(5). pii: a015602; Transplantation 1997;63(2):250–5; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(5):1145–9; Transplantation 1994;57(2):228–31; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986;147(4):657–63; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;28:18–25; Am J Surg 1991;161(1):76–83; Liver Transpl 2006;12:330–51; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183(6):1577–84; HPB (Oxford) 2004;6(2):69–75; World J Hepatol 2016;8(1):36–57; Transplant Proc 1997;29:2853–5; Liver Transpl 2001;7:75–81; Transplant Proc 2006;38:2111–6) Transpl Int 2011;24:949–57; Radiographics 2003;23:1093–114; Ann Ital Chir 2001;72(2):187–05; Semin Intervent Radiol 2004;21(4):221–33; J Vasc Interv Radiol 1990;1:17–22; AJR Am J Roentgenol 2011;196(3 Suppl):WS15–25 Quiz S35–8; Radiology 2005;236:352–9; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;173:215–19; Radiographics 2001;21(5):1085–102)

    Technical Procedure

    PERCUTANEOUS TRANSHEPATIC CHOLANGIOGRAM

    Background (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Gastrointest Surg 2011;15(4):623–30; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(7):1056–69)

    Indications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Gastrointest Surg 2011;15(4):623–30; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(7):1056–69)

    Contraindications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Anatomy

    Preprocedural Evaluation (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;9:69–76; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21:611–30; J Gastrointest Surg 2011;15(4):623–30; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(7):1056–69; World J Gastroenterol 2007;13(29):3948–55; Indian J Palliat Care 2016;22(4):378–87; Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16(6):2543–6; Gut Liver 2014;8(5):526–35; World J Gastrointest Oncol 2016;8(6):498–508; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21(6):789–95; Radiographics 2002;22(2):305–22; World J Gastroenterol 2007;13:3531–39; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19(9):1328–35; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2003; 14(9 Pt 2):S243–6; Endoscopy 2009;41:323–8)

    Equipment (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Procedural Imaging Findings (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Complications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; World J Gastroenterol 2007;13(29):3948–55)

    PERCUTANEOUS BILIARY DRAIN PLACEMENT

    Background (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;9:69–76; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21:611–30; J Gastrointest Surg 2011;15(4):623–30; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016;27(7):1056–69; World J Gastroenterol 2007;13(29):3948–55; Indian J Palliat Care 2016;22(4):378–87; Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16(6):2543–6; Gut Liver 2014;8(5):526–35; World J Gastrointest Oncol 2016;8(6):498–508; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21(6):789–95; Radiographics 2002;22(2):305–22; World J Gastroenterol 2007;13:3531–9; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19(9):1328–35; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2003; 14(9 Pt 2):S243–6)

    Indication (Kandarpa K. Handbook of interventional radiologic procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Contraindication (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Relative

    Pre-evaluation (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Equipment

    Procedure (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Postprocedure Management (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Major Complications (World J Gastroenterol 2007;13(29):3948–55)

    Troubleshooting (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Percutaneous Biliary Stent Placement (Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;9:69–76; Radiology 1990;177: 793–7; Gastrointest Endosc 2010;72(5):915–23; Gastrointest Endosc 1993;39:43–9; Radiographics 1993;13:1249–63)

    BISMUTH–CORLETTE CLASSIFICATION

    Indications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Radiology 1996;201(1): 167–72; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2014;25(12):1912–20; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2003;14(11):1409–16; Radiology 1990;177:793–7; Gastrointest Endosc 2010;72(5):915–23)

    Contraindications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Radiology 1996;201(1):167–72; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2014;25(12):1912–20; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2003;14(11):1409–16; Radiology 1990;177:793–7; Gastrointest Endosc 2010;72(5):915–23)

    Equipment

    Procedure (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Postprocedure Management (Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016)

    Major Complications (Radiographics 2002;22(2):305–22; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19(9):1328–35)

    Complications related to the biliary stent

    CHOLANGIOGRAM AT THE LEVEL OF THE CBD DEMONSTRATED BILIARY DILATATION WITH EXTRINSIC COMPRESSION OF THE COMMON HEPATIC DUCT BY A MASS

    INTERNAL/EXTERNAL BILIARY DRAIN CONVERSION TO “Y” BILIARY STENT CONFIGURATION

    Fluoroscopically Guided Conversion of Internal–External Biliary Drains for Bilateral Internal Biliary Stents “Y-Configuration” Resulting in Internal Biliary Decompression

    PERCUTANEOUS CHOLECYSTOSTOMY

    BACKGROUND (Archives of Surgery 1999;134(7):727–32; HPB (Oxford) 2009;11(3):183–93; N Engl J Med 1994;330:403–8; Am J Surg 1983;146:719–22; AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168:1247–51)

    Indications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Kaufman J, Lee M. Vascular and Interventional Radiology: The Requisites. Elsevier; 2016; Archiv Surg 1999;134(7):727–32)

    Contraindications (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Kessel D, Robertson I. Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier; 2016; Kaufman J, Lee M. Vascular and Interventional Radiology: The Requisites. Elsevier; 2016; Archiv Surg 1999;134(7):727–32)

    Preprocedure Evaluation (AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168:1247–51; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21(6):789–95; Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(97):12–7; Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(97):12–7)

    Technique (Kandarpa K. Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011)

    Complications (AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168:1247–51; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21(6):789–95; Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(97):12–7; Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(97):12–7)

    Postprocedure Management (Kaufman J, Lee M. Vascular and Interventional Radiology: The Requisites. Elsevier; 2016)

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    GASTROINTESTINAL INTERVENTIONS

    NONVASCULAR ESOPHAGEAL INTERVENTIONS

    Background

    Esophageal Strictures (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;17:831–5; Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013; Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103;570–4)

    Workup for Esophageal Balloon Dilation and Stent Placement (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;17:831–5; Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013; Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103;570–4; Am J Roentgenol 2009;193:W278–82)

    Balloon Dilation and Stent Placement Technique (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2006;17:831–5; Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013; Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103;570–4; Am J Roentgenol 2009;193:W278–82; RadioGraphics 2003;23:89–105; Handbook of interventional radiologic procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2005;16:1705–9; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001;12:283–97)

    Balloon Dilation and Stent Placement Technical Notes (Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013; Handbook of interventional radiologic procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Complications of Balloon Dilation and Stent Placement (RadioGraphics 2003;23:89–105; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Am J Roentgenol 1997;169:1281–4; Am J Roentgenol 2012;198:453–9)

    Postprocedure Care (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2006; RadioGraphics 2003;23:89–105)

    Esophageal Varices (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Fluoroscopic-Guided Esophageal Foreign-Body Removal (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; J Vasc Interv Radiol 1998;9:95–103)

    NONVASCULAR LOWER INTESTINAL INTERVENTION

    Background

    Colorectal Strictures

    Colonic Fistulas

    UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE

    Background

    Relevant Anatomy (Semin Interv Radiol 2009;26:167–74)

    Initial Evaluation (Gastrointest Endosc 2012;75:1132–8)

    Indications for Catheter Directed Angiography (CDA) and Intervention

    Contraindications for Catheter Directed Angiography (CDA) and Intervention

    Preprocedure Workup

    Procedural Technique

    Identifying Site of Hemorrhage

    Selection of Embolic Agent

    Technical Notes

    Provocative Angiography for Occult Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage (Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007;30:1042–6; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010;21:477–83)

    Complications

    Postprocedural Care

    LOWER INTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE

    Background

    Relevant Anatomy (Semin Interv Radiol 2009;26:167–74)

    Initial Evaluation (Am J Gastroenterol 2016;111:459–74)

    Indication for Catheter-Directed Angiography (CDA) and Intervention (Am J Gastroenterol 2016;111:459–74)

    Contraindications for Catheter-Directed Angiography (CDA) and Intervention

    Preprocedural Workup

    Procedural Technique (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013)

    Identifying Site of Hemorrhage

    Technical Notes

    Provocative Angiography for Occult Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Complications

    Postprocedural Care

    MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA

    Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and Chromic Mesenteric Ischemia

    Background

    Relevant Anatomy

    Indications for Endovascular Intervention (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; J Vasc Surg 2009;50(2):341–8.e1)

    Contraindications to Intervention (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Initial Evaluation (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; World J Gastroenterol WJG 2006;12:3243–7)

    Preprocedure Management (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedural Technique (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002;13:P149–54)

    Diagnostic Angiography (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002;13:P149–54)

    Therapeutic Intervention (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002;13:P149–54)

    SMV and Portal Vein Thrombosis (Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013)

    Acute Mesenteric Ischemia due to Aortic Dissection

    Complications (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013)

    Postprocedure Care (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    PANCREATIC INTERVENTION

    Background

    Complications of Pancreatitis (Image-Guided Interventions E-Book Expert Radiology Series. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Pol Przegl Chir 2015;87:485–90; RadioGraphics 2005;25:S191–211)

    Complications of Pancreatic Cancer

    Vascular Complications of Pancreatic Transplantation (Abrams’ Angiography: Interventional Radiology. LWW; 2013)

    GASTROINTESTINAL FEEDING INTERVENTION

    Fluoroscopic-Guided Nasogastric/Nasojejunal Tube Placement

    Background (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65)

    Clinical and Preprocedural Workup (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:727–36; Essential Clinical Procedures: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013)

    Indications (Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Springer; 2016)

    Contraindications (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:727–36; Laryngoscope 2014;124:916–20)

    Type of Nasogastric Tubes (Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Springer; 2016)

    Procedural Technique (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Springer; 2016; Interventional Radiology: A Survival Guide. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016)

    Troubleshooting (Gut 2003;52:vii1–12)

    Complications (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Springer; 2016)

    Postprocedural Care (Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Springer; 2016; Interventional Radiology Procedures in Biopsy and Drainage. Springer London; 2011)

    PERCUTANEOUS GASTROINTESTINAL TUBE PLACEMENT

    Percutaneous Gastrostomy

    Types of Percutaneous Gastrostomy Tubes (Gut 2003;52:vii1–12; Clin Radiol 2003;58:398–405)

    Background (Interventional Radiology Procedures in Biopsy and Drainage. Springer London; 2011)

    Clinical and Preprocedural Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:727–36; Essential Clinical Procedures: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013; Gut 2003;52:vii1–12)

    Contraindications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011, Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:727–36; Semin Interv Radiol 2004;21:181–9; Vascular and Interventional Radiology: The Requisites. 2nd ed. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013)

    Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy (RIG) Procedural Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; Clin Radiol 2003;58:398–405)

    Per-Oral Image-Guided Gastrostomy (PIG/pull gastrostomy) Procedural Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gut 2003;52:vii1–12)

    Troubleshooting (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gut 2003;52:vii1–12; WJG 2014;20:8505–24)

    Complications (WJG 2014;20:7739–51; Radiology 1995;197:699–704)

    Postprocedural Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gut 2003;52:vii1–12; Clin Radiol 2003;58:398–405; World J Gastroenterol 2014;WJG 20:7739–51)

    Percutaneous Gastrojejunostomy

    Indications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Clin Radiol 2003;58:398–405)

    Types (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Procedural Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Complications (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65)

    Percutaneous Jejunostomy

    Background (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65)

    Indications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65)

    Procedural Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65; Radiology 1998;209:747–54; Hepatology 57:1651–3)

    Complications (Gastroenterology 2011;141:742–65)

    Percutaneous Cecostomy

    Indications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:727–36)

    Procedural Technique (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    Complications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011)

    REFRACTORY ASCITES

    Background (Hepatology 2013;57:1651–3; J Hepatol 2010;53(3):397–417; Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29: 129–34; Ann Surg 2004;239:883–91; Am J Transplant 2005;5:1886–92)

    Management of Refractory Ascites (Hepatology 2013;57:1651–3; J Hepatol 2010;53(3):397–417; Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34; Ann Surg 2004;239:883–91; Am J Transplant 2005;5:1886–92)

    PERITONEOVENOUS SHUNTING

    Background (Am J Transplant 2005;5:1886–92)

    Clinical and Preprocedural Workup (Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34)

    Indications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011; Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34; J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2014;25:S127; J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2017;5:538–46; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2013;24:1073–4)

    Contraindications (Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34)

    Components (Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34; Ann Surg 1974;180:580–90)

    Procedural Technique (Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34; Eur Radiol 2002;12:1188–92)

    Complications (Semin Interv Radiol 2012;29:129–34; Eur Radiol 2002;12:1188–92; Arch Surg 1982;117:924–8; J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;22:2161–6; J Pediatr Surg 2011;46:315–9; Arch Surg 1982;117:631–5; Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2011;34:980–8; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2015; 26:S39)

    Postprocedural Care

    ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

    PEDIATRIC INTERVENTIONS

    GYNECOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS

    UTERINE ARTERY EMBOLIZATION

    Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    Procedure

    Technical Notes

    Postprocedure Management

    Complications

    Follow-Up

    Outcomes (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(12):CD005073; Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:933-9)

    Other Applications of Uterine Artery Embolization

    Ovarian Vein Embolization for Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Fallopian Tube Recanalization (Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2004;16:221–9; Radiographics 2000;20:1759–68)

    Technique—Fallopian Tube Recanalization

    IR and Special Considerations in Pregnancy (J Vasc Interv Radiol 2012;23:19–32)

    TRAUMATIC LIVER INJURIES

    TRAUMATIC SPLEEN INJURIES

    Background

    Workup

    Imaging

    Treatment

    Indications for Angioembolization

    Procedure Technique

    Expected Outcomes/Results

    Complications

    BRONCHIAL ARTERY EMBOLIZATION

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Imaging and Anatomic Considerations

    Preprocedural Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Procedure Technique

    Postprocedural Care

    Results

    Complications

    EXTREMITY TRAUMA

    Background

    Workup

    Indications for Angiography

    Procedure Technique

    PELVIC TRAUMA

    Background

    Workup and Initial Management

    Indication for Angioembolizations

    Contraindications

    Anatomy and Imaging Findings

    Procedure and Technique

    Results

    Complications

    THORACIC DUCT EMBOLIZATION

    Background

    Anatomic Considerations

    Indications for Lymphangiogram and Potential Embolization

    Contraindications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Preprocedural Workup

    Procedure Technique

    Postprocedural Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. 2011: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

    Results

    Complications

    APPROACH TO THE TRAUMA PATIENT

    Background

    Initial Assessment and Resuscitation (Advanced Trauma Life Support Program for Physicians. 9th ed. Chicago, IL: 2012)

    Labs

    Imaging Modalities

    Imaging Findings in Trauma

    Treatment

    Indication for Angioembolization

    Technique (Semin Intervent Radiol 2010;27(1):14–28)

    NEUROINTERVENTIONS

    INTERVENTIONAL ONCOLOGY

    INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL ABLATION METHODS

    Background

    Radiofrequency Ablation (J Vasc Inter Radiol 2010;21:S179–86; Radiographics 2014;35:1344–62)

    Cryoablation (Radiographics 2014;35:1344–62; Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999;53(2):185–92; Urology 2002; 60 (suppl 1):S40–9; Surgery 2010;147(5):686–95; Ann Surg 2000;231(5):752–61)

    Microwave Ablation (Radiographics 2014;35:1344–62; Radiographics 2005;25:S69–83; Am J Roentgenol 2009;192(2):511–4)

    HEPATIC TUMOR ABLATION

    Background

    Patient Selection (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 537–48)

    Preprocedural Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 537–48)

    Technical Procedure

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 537–48)

    Surveillance

    Results

    RENAL TUMOR ABLATION

    Patient Selection

    Preprocedural Workup

    Technical Procedure

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications

    Surveillance (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 548–54)

    Results (J Urol 2008;179:1227–33; BJU Int 2012;110:1438–43; J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008;19:1311–20; Cancer 2008;113:2671–80; European Urolog 2015;67:252–9)

    PULMONARY TUMOR ABLATION

    Background (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 530–7; Key Statistics for Lung Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/non-small-cell-lung-cancer/about/key-statistics.html#written_by)

    Patient Selection (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 530–7)

    Preprocedural Workup (Radiology 2007;243:268–75; Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13:1529–37)

    Technical Procedure

    Postprocedural Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 530–7)

    Complications (Semin Intervent Radiol 2013;30:169–75)

    Surveillance (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 530–7)

    Results

    TRANSARTERIAL EMBOLIZATION AND CHEMOEMBOLIZATION FOR UNRESECTABLE HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AND METASTATIC LIVER DISEASE

    Background (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Patient Selection (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Preprocedural Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Technical Procedure (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Postprocedural Care (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Complications (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Surveillance (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 258–62; Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 263–9)

    Results

    RADIOEMBOLIZATION TREATMENT OF UNRESECTABLE HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AND METASTATIC LIVER DISEASE

    Background (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 269–75)

    Differences between SIR-Spheres and Theraspheres

    Patient Selection (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 269–75)

    Pre-Procedural Workup (Handbook of Interventional Radiologic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 269–75)

    Technical Procedure

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications and Management

    Results

    INTERVENTIONAL PAIN MANAGEMENT

    Chronic Pain

    Background (Clin J Pain 1993;9:174–82; Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definition of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 1994; Spine 1995;20:11–9; Pain Physician 2013;16:S1–48; Pain Physician 2013;16:S49–283)

    Etiologies and Presentation (Clin J Pain 1993;9:174–82; Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definition of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 1994; N Eng J Med 2001;344:262–70; Radiology 2016;281(3):669–88; Spine 2004;29:17–25; N Eng J Med 2008;358:818–25; Joint Bone Spine 2006;73:151–8; Spine 2008;33(23):2560–5)

    Axial vs. Radicular Pain

    Evaluation (N Eng J Med 2001;344:262–70; Radiology 2016;281(3):669–88; Spine 1995;20:2613–25; Radiology 2005;237:597–04; J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72(3):403–8)

    Management (Pain Physician 2013;16:S49–283; N Eng J Med 2001;344:262–70; N Eng J Med 2008;358:818–25; Spine J 2013;13(11):1438–48; Spine J 2017;17(10):1480–8; Spine 2009;34(10):1094–109; Spine 2009; 34(10);1066–77)

    SPINAL INJECTIONS

    Background

    Patient Selection (Radiology 2016;281(3):669)

    Preprocedural Workup

    ESI/SNRB

    Procedural Preparation

    Technical Procedures

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications (Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2008;1(3–4):212)

    Facet and SI Joint Injections

    Procedural Preparation

    Technical Procedures

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications (Pain Physician 2012;15(2):E143–50; PMR 2012;4(7):473–8)

    STELLATE GANGLION BLOCKS

    Background (Brit J Anesth 1955;27:616–21; AJR 1992;158:655–9; Pain Physician 2000;3(3):294–304)

    Patient Selection

    Preprocedural Workup

    Technical Procedure (Pain Physician 2000;3(3):294–304; Clin J Pain 2002;18(4):216–33; BMJ 1998;316(7134):792–3; Reg Anesth 1997;22(3):287–90; Pain 2000;87(1):103–5; Lancet Oncol 2008;9(6):523–32; Clin Cardiol 1985;8: 111–3; Circulation 2000;102:742–7; Circulation 2010;121:2255–62; Circulation 2004;109:1826–33; N Engl J Med 2008;358:2024–9; Pain Physician 2004;7:327-–31; J Anaesthesia 2011;55:52–6; Acta Anaesth Belg 2016;67:1–5)

    Postprocedural Care

    Complications (Pain Physician 2000;3(3):294–304)

    PRIAPISM

    Definition

    Physiology

    Etiology (J Urol 2003;170:1318–24)

    Clinical Manifestations

    Diagnostic Studies

    Treatment

    Additional Resources

    ICU AND FLOOR MEDICINE

    Hypertension

    Background

    Compelling Indications (NEJM 2006;355:385)

    Special Populations

    Second-Line Agents

    Medication Side-Effects

    Common Comorbidities

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

    Coronary Heart Disease (CAD)

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

    Introduction to Ventilators

    Background

    Modes

    Parameters

    Complications

    Other Types of Oxygen Delivery

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

    INTRODUCTION TO VASOPRESSORS

    Shock

    INTRODUCTION TO SEPSIS

    Definition

    Introduction to Cardiac Intensive Care

    ON CALL ISSUES

    CONSULTS

    Background

    Evaluation

    Postprocedure Pain Management

    Background (JVIR 2003;14:1373–85)

    Evaluation

    Treatment (Anesthesiology 2013;118:251–70; JPAIN 2016;17(2):131–57)

    Postoperative Fever

    Background (Weed H & Baddour L, Postoperative Fever. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, Accessed October 31, 2017)

    Evaluation

    BLEEDING FROM PUNCTURE SITE

    Evaluation

    Treatment

    SECURING A CATHETER

    Background

    Technique (NEJM 2007;357;e15)

    REMOVING A TUNNELED CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER

    Background (JVIR 2007;18:1232–40)

    Technique

    DRAINAGE CATHETER-RELATED COMPLICATIONS

    Background (Semin Intervent Radiol 2006;23:194–204)

    Catheter has Come Out (RadioGraphics 2002;22:305–22)

    Should the Catheter Come Out?

    Catheter Site Infection

    Bleeding

    Pericatheter Leakage (Semin Intervent Radiol 2015;32:67–77)

    Catheter Dislodgement

    Catheter Obstruction

    CONTRAST REACTIONS

    ACLS

    INDEX

     

  • 24000lei 215.00 lei

    This comprehensive, easy-to-consult pocket atlas is renowned for its superb illustrations and ability to depict sectional anatomy in every plane. Together with its two companion volumes, it provides a highly specialized navigational tool for all clinicians who need to master radiologic anatomy and accurately interpret CT and MR images.

    Special features of Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy: Didactic organization in two-page units, with high-quality radiographs on one side and brilliant, full-color diagrams on the other Hundreds of high-resolution CT and MR images made with the latest generation of scanners (e.g., 3T MRI, 64-slice CT) Color-coded schematic drawings that indicate the level of each section Consistent color coding, making it easy to identify similar structures across several slices Updates for the 4th edition of Volume II: CT imaging of the chest and abdomen in all 3 planes: axial, sagittal, and coronal New back-cover foldout featuring pulmonary and hepatic segments and lymph node stations Follows standard international classifications of the American Heart Association for cardiac vessels and the AJCC/UICC for mediastinal lymph nodes Compact, easy-to-use, highly visual, and designed for quick recall, this book is ideal for use in both the clinical and study settings.

  • Ultrasound: A Core Review
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    28900lei 217.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Uniquely designed for the Core Exam, Ultrasound: A Core Review covers all key aspects of ultrasound, mimicking the image-rich, multiple-choice format of the actual test. Ideal for residents getting ready for the Core Examination, as well as practitioners taking recertification exams, this one-of-a-kind review follows the structure and content of what you’ll encounter on the test, effectively preparing you for Core Exam success!

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Interactive Question Presentation

    1  Hepatobiliary

    2  Pancreas, Spleen, and Bowe

    3  Urinary Tract and Adrenal Glands

    4  Neck

    5  Scrotum

    6  Gynecology

    7  First Trimester Pregnancy

    8  Second and Third Trimester Pregnancy

    9  Vascular

    10  Musculoskeletal

    11  Peritoneal Space, Retroperitoneum, Abdominal Wall, and Chest

    Static Presentation

    1  Hepatobiliary

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    2  Pancreas, Spleen, and Bowe

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    3  Urinary Tract and Adrenal Glands

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    4  Neck

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    5  Scrotum

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    6  Gynecology

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    7  First Trimester Pregnancy

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    8  Second and Third Trimester Pregnancy

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    9  Vascular

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    10  Musculoskeletal

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    11  Peritoneal Space, Retroperitoneum, Abdominal Wall, and Chest

    Questions

    Answers and Explanations

    Index

     

  • Neuroradiology: A Core Review
    by DUBEY
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    28900lei 217.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Designed specifically for the Core Exam, Neuroradiology: A Core Review covers all key aspects of neuroradiology, mimicking the image-rich, multiple-choice format of the actual test. Ideal for residents preparing for the Core Examination, as well as practitioners taking recertification exams, this unique review follows the structure and content of what you’ll encounter on the test, effectively preparing you for Core Exam success!

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Interactive Question Presentation

    1 Neoplastic Abnormalities

    2 Inflammatory and Demyelinating Conditions

    3 Skull, Ventricles, and Developmental Abnormalities

    4 Trauma

    5 Brain Infections

    6 Inherited and Neurodegenerative Abnormalities

    7 Vascular Abnormalities

    8 CNS Imaging Manifestations of Toxic, Metabolic, and Systemic Pathologies

    9 Spine Trauma and Degeneration

    10 Spine Infection, Inflammation, and Demyelination

    11 Spine Neoplasms, Spine and Neck Vascular Diseases

    12 Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Spine

    13 Soft Tissue Neck

    14 Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

    15 Orbit

    16 Sella, Suprasellar, and Parasellar Lesions

    17 Skull Base

    18 Temporal Bone

    19 CNS Angiography: Normal Anatomy and Vascular Diseases

    20 Noninterpretive Skills

    Static Presentation

    1 Neoplastic Abnormalities

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    2 Inflammatory and Demyelinating Conditions

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    3 Skull, Ventricles, and Developmental Abnormalities

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    4 Trauma

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    5 Brain Infections

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    6 Inherited and Neurodegenerative Abnormalities

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    7 Vascular Abnormalities

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    8 CNS Imaging Manifestations of Toxic, Metabolic, and Systemic Pathologies

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    9 Spine Trauma and Degeneration

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    10 Spine Infection, Inflammation, and Demyelination

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    11 Spine Neoplasms, Spine and Neck Vascular Diseases

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    12 Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Spine

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    13 Soft Tissue Neck

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    14 Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    15 Orbit

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    16 Sella, Suprasellar, and Parasellar Lesions

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    17 Skull Base

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    18 Temporal Bone

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    19 CNS Angiography: Normal Anatomy and Vascular Diseases

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    20 Noninterpretive Skills

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    Index

     

  • Pediatric Imaging: A Core Review
    by BLUMER
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    28900lei 217.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Designed specifically to help you succeed on the Core Exam, Pediatric Imaging: A Core Review covers all key aspects of pediatric imaging, mimicking the image-rich, multiple-choice format of the actual test. Ideal for residents getting ready for the Core Examination, as well as practitioners taking recertification exams, this one-of-a-kind review follows the structure and content of what you’ll encounter on the test, effectively preparing you for Core Exam success!

     

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Interactive Question Presentation

    1 Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract

    2 Pediatric Genitourinary Tract

    3 Pediatric Musculoskeletal System

    4 Pediatric Chest Radiology

    5 Pediatric Neuroradiology

    6 Pediatric Vascular Radiology

    7 Pediatric Cardiac Radiology

    8 Pediatric Multisystem Radiology

    Static Presentation

    1 Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    2 Pediatric Genitourinary Tract

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    3 Pediatric Musculoskeletal System

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    4 Pediatric Chest Radiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    5 Pediatric Neuroradiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    6 Pediatric Vascular Radiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    7 Pediatric Cardiac Radiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    8 Pediatric Multisystem Radiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    Index

     

  • Breast Imaging: A Core Review
    by SHAH
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    28900lei 217.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    The only review tool designed specifically for the Core Exam, Breast Imaging: A Core Review, 2nd Edition, covers all key aspects of breast imaging, mimicking the image-rich, multiple-choice format of the actual test. Ideal for residents getting ready for the Core Examination, as well as practitioners taking recertification exams, this unique review follows the structure and content of what you’ll encounter on the test, effectively preparing you for Core Exam success!

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Interactive Question Presentation

    1 Regulatory/Standards of Care

    2 Breast Cancer Screening

    3 Diagnostic Breast Imaging, Breast Pathology, and Breast Imaging Findings

    4 Breast Intervention

    5 Breast Imaging Physics and Safety

    Static Presentation

    1 Regulatory/Standards of Care

    QUESTIONS

    Answers and Explanations

    2 Breast Cancer Screening

    QUESTIONS

    Answers and Explanations

    3 Diagnostic Breast Imaging, Breast Pathology, and Breast Imaging Findings

    QUESTIONS

    Answers and Explanations

    4 Breast Intervention

    QUESTIONS

    Answers and Explanations

    5 Breast Imaging Physics and Safety

    QUESTIONS

    Answers and Explanations

     

  • 23600lei 220.00 lei

    This comprehensive, easy-to-consult pocket atlas is renowned for its superb illustrations and ability to depict sectional anatomy in every plane. Together with its two companion volumes, it provides a highly specialised navigational tool for all clinicians who need to master radiologic anatomy and accurately interpret CT and MR images.

    Special features of Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy:

    * Didactic organisation in two-page units, with high-quality radiographs on one side and brilliant, full-colour diagrams on the other.

    * Hundreds of high-resolution CT and MR images made with the latest generation of scanners (e.g., 3T MRI, 64-slice CT).

    * Consistent colour coding, making it easy to identify similar structures across several slices.

    * Concise, easy-to-read labelling of all figures. Updates for the 4th edition of Volume I

    * New cranial CT imaging sequences of the axial and coronal temporal bone.

    * Expanded MR section, with all new 3T MR images of the temporal lobe and hippocampus, basilar artery, cranial nerves, cavernous sinus, and more.

    * New arterial MR angiography sequences of the neck and additional larynx images.

    * Compact, easy-to-use, highly visual, and designed for quick recall, this book is ideal for use in both the clinical and study settings.

  • 26200lei 225.00 lei

    Renowned for its superb illustrations and highly practical information, the third volume of this classic reference reflects the very latest in state-of-the-art imaging technology. Together with Volumes 1 and 2, this compact and portable book provides a highly specialized navigational tool for clinicians seeking to master the ability to recognize anatomical structures and accurately interpret CT and MR images.

    Highlights of Volume 3:

    • New CT and MR images of the highest quality
    • Didactic organization using two-page units, with radiographs on one page and full-color illustrations on the next
    • Concise, easy-to-read labeling on all figures
    • Color-coded, schematic diagrams that indicate the level of each section
    • Sectional enlargements for detailed classification of the anatomical structure

    Comprehensive, compact, and portable, this popular book is ideal for use in both the classroom and clinical setting.

  • 230.00 lei

    Part of McGraw-Hill?s Radiology Case Review Series, this unique resource challenges you to look at a group of images, determine the diagnosis, answer related questions, and gauge your knowledge by reviewing the answer. It all adds up to the best review of chest imaging available?one that?s ideal for certification or recertification, or as an incomparable clinical refresher. Distinguished by a cohesive 2-page design, each volume in this series is filled with cases, annotated images, questions & answers, pearls, and relevant literature references that will efficiently prepare you for virtually any exam topic. Radiology and cardiac residents and fellows, medical students, radiologists, and physicians who want to increase their knowledge of chest imaging will find this book to be an invaluable study partner.

  • 26000lei 230.00 lei

    Effectively prepare for certification, increase your knowledge, and improve your image interpretation skills using the proven and popular Case Review approach! In this new edition, Drs. John P. McGahan, Sharlene A. Teefey, and Laurence Needleman present 127 clinically relevant cases with associated images, multiple-choice questions, and rationales - organized by degree of difficulty and designed to reinforce your understanding of the essential principles needed to interpret a wide range of general and vascular ultrasound images.

  • 235.00 lei

    Radiographic positioning - comprehensive and concise Now in its second edition, Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Positioning is a practical how-to guide that provides the detailed information you need to reproducibly obtain high-quality radiographic images for optimal evaluation and interpretation of normal, abnormal, and pathological anatomic findings. It shows positioning techniques for all standard examinations in conventional radiology, with and without contrast, as well as basic positioning for CT and MRI.

     For each type of study a double-page spread features an exemplary radiograph, positioning sketches, and helpful information on imaging technique and parameters, criteria for the best radiographic view, and patient preparation.

    Clearly organized to be used in day-to-day practice, the atlas serves as an ideal companion to Moeller and Reif's Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy and their three-volume Pocket Atlas of Cross-Sectional Anatomy.

    Highlights of the second edition: New chapters on positioning in MRI and CT, including multislice CT A greatly expanded section on mammography Special features, including information on the advantages of a specific view, variations of positions, and practical tips and tricks Nearly 500 excellent radiographs and drawings demonstrating the relationship between correct patient positioning and effective diagnostic images Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Positioning, Second Edition is an excellent desk or pocket reference for radiologists, radiology residents, and for radiologic technologists.

  • 240.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    Effectively prepare for certification, increase your knowledge, and improve your image interpretation skills using the proven and popular Case Review approach! In this new edition, Drs. John P. McGahan, Sharlene A. Teefey, and Laurence Needleman present 127 clinically relevant cases with associated images, multiple-choice questions, and rationales – organized by degree of difficulty and designed to reinforce your understanding of the essential principles needed to interpret a wide range of general and vascular ultrasound images.

     

    Features:

    Study efficiently with content that mimics the format of board exams as well as the everyday clinical experience – offering highly effective preparation for certification, recertification, and practice.

    Build your skills in a cumulative way by progressing through three overall categories, from least to most difficult, with separate sections for Opening Round, Fair Game, and Challenge cases.

    New To This Edition:

    Gain new understanding from dozens of unknown cases reflecting the most recent changes in abdominal and small part ultrasound, including the scrotum and thyroid. 

    Understand the recent changes in the complexities of vascular ultrasound of the carotid, transplants, and extremities.

    Stay up to date with new thyroid cases and musculoskeletal cases, including rheumatoid arthritis and shoulder ultrasound.

    Expand your awareness of physics, state-of-the-art instrumentation, and common aritifacts with added new content.

    Clearly visualize what you’re likely to see on exams and in practice thanks to new images -- including color Doppler images.

     

    Table Of Contents:

    1. Opening Round Cases

    2. Fair Game Cases

    3. Challenge Cases

       

     

     

     

    Reviews the most current and novel treatment strategies for NHL

    Supplemented with numerous color illustrations, photographs, and tables

    Written by worldwide experts in the field

     

    About this book

     

    This text provides a state-of-the-art overview on Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in children and adolescents. The volume is divided into seven sections, each of which focuses on a critical component of pediatric NHL, including history and epidemiology, pathology and molecular biology, disease evaluation and response, common and rare sub-types of NHL, and current and novel treatment strategies. The text also comprehensively reviews the late effects of treatment, quality of patient life, and NHL treatment in countries with limited resources.

    Written by experts in the field, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Childhood and Adolescence is a valuable resource for clinicians and practitioners who treat children and adolescents with NHL.

    Table of contents (28 chapters)

    History of Diagnoses and Treatment Strategies in Pediatric Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

    Pages 3-13

    Mann, Georg

    Epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas in Childhood and Adolescence

    Pages 15-22

    Thacker, Nirav (et al.)

    Diagnosis and Classification

    Pages 23-29

    Molina, Thierry Jo

    Pathogenesis of B-Cell Lymphoma

    Pages 33-50

    Wagener, Rabea (et al.)

    Pathogenesis of T-Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Pages 51-56

    Bond, Jonathan (et al.)

    The Pathogenesis of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Pages 57-65

    Turner, Suzanne Dawn

    Pathology

    Pages 67-95

    Kornauth, Christoph (et al.)

    Genetic Predisposition to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Pages 97-110

    Haas, Oskar A. (et al.)

    Response Assessment in Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Pages 113-118

    Truong, Tony H. (et al.)

    Minimal Disseminated and Minimal Residual Disease in Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Pages 119-129

    Mussolin, Lara (et al.)

    Prognostic Factors in Childhood and Adolescent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Pages 131-149

    Pillon, Marta (et al.)

    Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    Pages 153-164

    Burkhardt, Birgit (et al.)

    Burkitt Lymphoma and Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Pages 167-183

    Egan, Grace (et al.)

    Primary Mediastinal and Gray Zone Lymphomas

    Pages 185-193

    Giulino-Roth, Lisa (et al.)

    Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Post-Transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disease

    Pages 195-211

    Geerlinks, Ashley V. (et al.)

    Pediatric-Type Follicular Lymphoma (PTFL)

    Pages 213-219

    Attarbaschi, Andishe

    Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Pages 221-227

    Burkhardt, Birgit

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Pages 229-238

    Abla, Oussama (et al.)

    Rare B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Childhood and Adolescence

    Pages 239-247

    Beishuizen, Auke (et al.)

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents

    Pages 251-262

    Lowe, Eric J. (et al.)

    Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Pages 263-269

    Mellgren, Karin (et al.)

    Extranodal NK-/T-Cell Lymphomas and EBV+ Lymphoproliferative Diseases of Childhood

    Pages 271-279

    Wanitpongpun, Chinadol (et al.)

    Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas in Childhood and Adolescence

    Pages 281-291

    Willemze, Rein

    Principles of Immunotherapy

    Pages 295-304

    Goldman, Stanton (et al.)

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Pages 305-313

    Mori, Tetsuya (et al.)

    Novel Therapies in Paediatric NHL

    Pages 315-335

    Burke, Amos (et al.)

    Childhood and Adolescence Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Pages 337-351

    Ozuah, Nmazuo W. (et al.)

    Long-Term Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Pages 353-366

    Nathan, Paul C. (et al.)

     

  • 24300lei 182.00 lei

     

    Description:

    Designed specifically for the Core Exam, Vascular and Interventional Radiology : A Core Review covers all key aspects of the field, mimicking the image-rich, multiple-choice format of the actual test. Ideal for residents preparing for the Core Examination, as well as practitioners taking recertification exams, this unique review follows the structure and content of what you’ll encounter on the test, effectively preparing you for Core Exam success!

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Interactive Question Presentation

    1 Fundamentals of Interventional Radiology

    2 Arterial Interventions

    3 Venous Interventions

    4 Thoracic

    5 Gastrointestinal

    6 Urinary

    7 Reproductive Endocrine

    8 Noninvasive Imaging

    9 Quality and Safety

    10 Physics

    Static Presentation

    1 Fundamentals of Interventional Radiology

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    2 Arterial Interventions

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    3 Venous Interventions

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    4 Thoracic

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    5 Gastrointestinal

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    6 Urinary

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    7 Reproductive Endocrine

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    8 Noninvasive Imaging

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    9 Quality and Safety

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    10 Physics

    QUESTIONS

    ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

    Index

     

  • MRI: The Basics
    by HASHEMI
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    34100lei 256.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Concise, readable, and engaging, MRI: The Basics, 4th Edition, offers an excellent introduction to the physics behind MR imaging. Clinically relevant coverage includes everything from basic principles and key math concepts to more advanced topics, including the latest MR techniques and optimum image creation. Hundreds of high-quality illustrations, board-style questions and answers, legible equations, and instructive diagrams take you from the basics of MR physics through current applications.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Part I: Basic Concepts

    1 Introductory Math

    2 Basic Principles of MRI

    3 Radio Frequency Pulse

    4 T1, T2, and T2*

    5 TR, TE, and Tissue Contrast

    6 Tissue Contrast: Some Clinical Applications

    7 Pulse Sequences: Part I (Saturation, Partial Saturation, Inversion Recovery)

    8 Pulse Sequences: Part II (Spin Echo)

    9 Fourier Transform

    10 Image Construction: Part I (Slice Selection)

    11 Image Construction: Part II (Spatial Encoding)

    12 Signal Processing

    13 Data Space

    14 Pulse Sequence Diagram

    15 Field of View

    16 k-Space: The Final Frontier!

    17 Scan Parameters and Image Optimization

    18 Artifacts in MRI

    Part II: Fast Scanning

    19 Fast Spin Echo

    20 Gradient Echo: Part I (Basic Principles)

    21 Gradient Echo: Part II (Fast Scanning Techniques)

    22 Echo Planar Imaging

    23 Scanning Features

    24 Parallel Imaging (by Mark Bydder, PhD)

    25 Tissue Suppression Techniques

    26 Flow Phenomena

    27 MR Angiography (contributions by Jiang Du, PhD)

    28 Cardiac MRI

    29 MR Spectroscopy in the Brain

    30 High-Performance Gradients

    31 The Many Combinations of MRI

    Part III: Advanced Scan Techniques

    32 Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    33 MR Elastography

    34 MR Relaxometry (T1 and T2/T2* Times)

    35 Motion Correction

    36 Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI)

    Part IV: MR Safety

    37 General MR Safety (by Christopher Walker, MD)

    38 Contrast Safety

    Part V: Boards-Style Questions

    39 100 Questions and Answers

    Appendix A: Chapter Answers

    Appendix B: Abbreviations

    Appendix C: Suggested Readings

    Appendix D: Bibliography

    Index

     

  • Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics
    by CHANDRA
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    34700lei 260.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    Part of the renowned The Basics series, Nuclear Medicine Physics helps build foundational knowledge of how and why things happen in the clinical environment. Ideal for board review and reference, the 8th edition provides a practical summary of this complex field, focusing on essential details as well as real-life examples taken from nuclear medicine practice. New full-color illustrations, concise text, essential mathematical equations, key points, review questions, and useful appendices help you quickly master challenging concepts in nuclear medicine physics.

     


    Table of Contents:

     

    1 Basic Review

    Matter, Elements, and Atoms

    Simplified Structure of an Atom

    Molecules

    Binding Energy, Ionization, and Excitation

    Forces or Fields

    Electromagnetic Forces

    Characteristic X-Rays and Auger Electrons

    Interchangeability of Mass and Energy

    2 Nuclides and Radioactive Processes

    Nuclides and Their Classification

    Nuclear Structure and Excited States of a Nuclide

    Radionuclides and Stability of Nuclides

    Radioactive Series or Chain

    Radioactive Processes and Conservation Laws

    Alpha (α) Decay

    Beta (β) Decay, or More Appropriately, Isobaric Transition

    Gamma (γ) Decay, or More Appropriately, Isomeric Transition

    Decay Schemes

    3 Radioactivity: Law of Decay, Half-Life, and Statistics

    Radioactivity: Definition, Units, and Dosage

    Law of Decay

    Calculation of the Mass of a Radioactive Sample

    Specific Activity

    The Exponential Law of Decay

    Half-Life

    Problems on Radioactive Decay

    Average Life (Tav)

    Biologic Half-Life

    Effective Half-Life

    Statistics of Radioactive Decay

    Poisson Distribution, Standard Deviation, and Percent Standard Deviation

    Propagation of Statistical Errors

    Error in Count Rate

    Room Background

    4 Production of Radionuclides

    Methods of Radionuclide Production

    Reactor-Produced Radionuclides

    Accelerator- or Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides

    Fission-Produced Radionuclides

    General Considerations in the Production of Radionuclides

    Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides, Using a Long-Lived Radionuclide via a Generator

    Principles of a Generator

    Description of a Typical 99Mo–99mTc Generator

    5 Radiopharmaceuticals

    Design Considerations for a Radiopharmaceutical

    Selection of a Radionuclide

    Selection of a Chemical

    Development of a Radiopharmaceutical

    Chemical Studies

    Animal Distribution and Toxicity Studies

    Human or Clinical Studies

    Quality Control of a Radiopharmaceutical

    Radionuclidic Purity

    Radiochemical Purity

    Chemical Purity

    Sterility

    Apyrogenicity

    Labeling of Radiopharmaceuticals with Technetium-99m

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Technetium-99m Pertechnetate (99mTcO–4)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Sulfur Colloid

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Macroaggregated Albumin (MAA, Macrotec, or Technescan)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Pyrophosphate (PYP), Methyl Diphosphonate (MDP) and Oxidronate (HDP)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Human Serum Albumin

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Red Cells

    Technetium-99m-Labeled 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA, Pentetate or Techniplex)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Mertiatide (MAG3 or TechneScan MAG3)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Mebrofenin (Choletec) and Disofenin (Heptolite)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Sestamibi (Cardiolite)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Tetrofosmin (Myoview)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Brain Imaging Agents, Exametazime (HMPAO or Ceretec), and Bicisate (ECD or Neurolite)

    Technetium-99m-Labeled Tilmanocept (Lymphoseek)

    Radioiodine123-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals (123I replacing 131I)

    Iodine-123-Labeled Sodium Iodide

    Iodine-123-Labeled MIBG (Metaiodobenzylguanidine, Iobenguane, or Andreview)

    Iodine-123-Labeled Ioflupane (DaTscan)

    Compounds Labeled with Other Radionuclides

    Gallium-67 Citrate

    Thallous-201 Chloride

    Chromium-51-Labeled Red Cells

    Indium-111-Labeled Platelets and Leukocytes

    Indium-111-Labeled DTPA (111In-Pentetate)

    Indium-111-Labeled Pentetreotide (OctreoScan)

    Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies (111In-ProstaScint)

    Radioactive Gases and Aerosols

    Radiopharmaceuticals for PET Imaging

    18FDG (Fludeoxyglucose)

    18F-Florbetapir (Amyvid), 18F-Florbetaben (NeuraCeq), and 18F-Flutemetamol (Vizamyl)

    18F-Labeled Sodium Fluoride

    13N-Ammonia

    82Rb (Cardiogen-82)

    11C-Choline

    18F-Labeled Fluciclovine (FACBC or Axumin)

    68Ga-Labeled DOTATATE and DOTATOC

    Radiopharmaceuticals in Pregnant or Lactating Women

    Therapeutic and Theranostic Uses of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Design of a Radiopharmaceutical for Therapeutic Uses

    Problems and Uses

    Misadministration of Radiopharmaceuticals

    6 Interaction of High-Energy Radiation with Matter

    Interaction of Charged Particles (10 keV to 10 MeV)

    Principal Mechanism of Interaction (Ionization and Excitation)

    Differences Between Lighter and Heavier Charged Particles

    Range R of a Charged Particle

    Factors That Affect Range, R

    Bremsstrahlung Production

    Stopping Power (S)

    Linear Energy Transfer

    Difference Between LET and Stopping Power, S

    Annihilation of Positrons

    Cerenkov Radiation

    Interaction of X- or γ-Rays (10 keV to 10 MeV)

    Attenuation and Transmission of X- or γ-Rays

    Attenuation Through Heterogeneous Medium

    Mass Attenuation Coefficient, µ (mass)

    Atomic Attenuation Coefficient, µ (atom)

    Mechanisms of Interaction

    Dependence of µ (mass) and µ (linear) on Z

    Relative Importance of the Three Processes

    Interaction of Neutrons

    7 Radiation Dosimetry

    General Comments on Radiation Dose Calculations

    Definitions and Units

    Radiation Dose, D

    Radiation Dose Rate, dD/dt

    Parameters or Data Needed

    Calculation of the Radiation Dose

    Step 1—Rate of Energy Emission

    Step 2—Rate of Energy Absorption

    Step 3—Dose Rate, dD/dt

    Step 4—Average Dose, D

    Cumulated Radioactivity

    Simplification of Radiation Dose Calculations Using “S” Factor

    Some Illustrative Examples

    Radiation Doses in Routine Imaging Procedures

    Radiation Doses in Children

    Radiation Dose to a Fetus

    Computer Program (OLINDA/EXM)

    8 Detection of High-Energy Radiation

    What Do We Want to Know About Radiation?

    Simple Detection

    Quantity of Radiation

    Energy of the Radiation

    Nature of Radiation

    What Makes One Radiation Detector Better than Another?

    Intrinsic Efficiency or Sensitivity

    Dead Time or Resolving Time

    Energy Discrimination Capability or Energy Resolution

    Other Considerations

    Types of Detectors

    Gas-Filled Detectors

    Mechanism of Gas-Filled Detectors

    Types of Gas-Filled Detectors

    Scintillation Detectors (Counters)

    Scintillator

    Associated Electronics

    Response to Monochromatic (Single-Energy) γ-Rays

    Response to γ-Rays of Two Energies and Secondary Peaks

    Semiconductor Detectors

    9 In Vitro Radiation Detection

    Overall Efficiency E

    Intrinsic Efficiency

    Geometric Efficiency

    Well-Type NaI(Tl) Scintillation Detectors (Well Counters)

    Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    Basic Components

    Preparation of the Sample Detector Vial

    Problems Arising in Sample Preparation

    10 In Vivo Radiation Detection: Basic Problems, Probes, and Scintillation Camera

    Basic Problems

    Collimation

    Scattering

    Attenuation

    Organ Uptake Probes

    NaI(Tl) Detector

    Collimator

    Miniature Surgical Probes

    Organ Imaging and Scintillation Camera

    Components of a Scintillation Camera

    Collimators

    Detector, NaI(Tl) Crystal

    Position-Determining Circuit (X, Y Coordinates)

    Display

    Imaging with a Scintillation Camera

    11 Computer Interfacing and Image Processing

    Interfacing with a Computer

    Digital Images from the Scintillation Camera

    Pixel and Matrix

    Acquisition Modes

    Display of Images

    Digital Image Processing

    Scaling, Addition or Subtraction, and Smoothing

    Display of Volumetric Data

    Regions of Interest

    Registration of Images

    Tracer Kinetic Modeling

    12 Operational Characteristics and Quality Control (QC) of a Scintillation Camera

    Quantitative Parameters for Measuring Spatial Resolution

    PSF and FWHM as Measures of Spatial Resolution, R

    MTF

    Resolution of an Imaging Chain

    Quantitative Parameters for Measuring Sensitivity

    Point Sensitivity Sp

    Line Sensitivity, SL

    Plane Sensitivity, SA

    Factors Affecting Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity of an Imager

    Scintillation Camera

    Uniformity and High Count Rate Performance of a Scintillation Camera

    Uniformity

    High Count Rates and Issues of Dead Time and Pulse Pile-up

    QC of a Scintillation Camera

    Peaking

    Field Uniformity

    Spatial Resolution

    13 Emission Computed Tomography (ECT), General Principles

    Basic Principles

    Considerations in Data Acquisition

    Pixel Width, Matrix, and Number of Projections

    Pixel Width, Resolution, and Sensitivity

    Image Reconstruction Methods

    Back-Projection (a Simple Explanation)

    Filtered Back-Projection (An Improved Reconstruction Method): Actual Steps

    Practical Challenges

    Iterative Methods

    Quantitation

    14 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Data Acquisition With a Scintillation Camera

    Collimators

    Sources of Error and Needed Quality Control

    Corrections for Accurate Image Reconstruction

    Attenuation Correction

    Scatter Correction

    Resolution Recovery (also known as Collimator-Detector Response Correction)

    Dedicated SPECT Systems

    D-SPECT

    GE Discovery NM 530c

    Other Novel Designs

    15 Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Basic Principles

    Positron Emission and Annihilation

    Coincidence Detection

    Standard PET Instrumentation

    Data Acquisition

    2D versus 3D Mode

    Time-of-flight (TOF) PET

    PET/CT Imaging

    Correction Methods

    Normalization or Uniformity Correction

    Attenuation Correction

    Scattered Coincidence Correction

    Random Coincidence Correction

    Resolution in PET and its Recovery by PSF Modeling

    Quality Control (QC) of a PET Scanner

    Performance Characteristics of PET Scanners

    16 Detectability or Final Contrast in an Image

    Parameters that Affect Detectability of a Lesion

    Object Contrast

    Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity of an Imaging Device

    Statistical (Quantum) Noise

    Projection of Volume Distribution into Planar Distribution

    Compton Scattering of γ-Rays

    Attenuation

    Object Motion

    Display Parameters

    Contrast–Detail Curve

    Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve

    17 Biologic Effects of Radiation and Risk Evaluation from Radiation Exposure

    Mechanism of Biologic Damage

    Factors Affecting Biologic Damage

    Radiation Dose

    Dose Rate

    LET or Type of Radiation

    Type of Tissue

    Amount of Tissue

    Rate of Cell Turnover

    Biologic Variation

    Chemical Modifiers

    Deleterious Effects in Humans

    Acute Effects

    Late Effects

    Low Dose Relationship for Stochastic Effects

    Radiation Effects in the Fetus

    Different Radiation Exposures and the Concepts of Equivalent Dose (Dose Equivalent) and Effective Dose (Effective Dose Equivalent)

    Equivalent Dose (Dose Equivalent)

    Effective Dose, Effective Dose Equivalent, and Tissue Weighting Factors

    Methodology for Comparison of Different Exposures

    Committed Equivalent Dose and Committed Effective Dose

    Sources of Radiation Exposure to U.S. Population and Average Effective Dose

    Natural Background Radiation

    Medical Exposure

    Technological Exposures

    Average Total Effective Dose per Person

    Effective Doses in Nuclear Medicine and Comparison with Other Sources of Exposure

    18 Methods of Safe Handling of Radionuclides and Pertaining Rules and Regulations

    Principles of Reducing Exposure from External Sources

    Exposure

    Calculation of Exposure from External Sources

    Avoiding Internal Contamination

    The Radioactive Patient

    Rules and Regulations

    U.S. Regulatory Agencies

    Exposure or Dose Limits: Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentration

    ALARA Principle

    Types of Licenses

    Radiation Safety Committee and Radiation Safety Officer

    Personnel Monitoring

    Receipt, Use, and Disposal of Radionuclides

    Control and Labeling of Areas Where Radionuclides Are Stored and/or Used

    Contamination Survey and Radiation-Level Monitoring

    Receiving and Shipping (Transport) of Radioactive Packages

    Accidental Radioactive Spills

    Appendix A: Physical Characteristics of Some Radionuclides of Interest in Nuclear Medicine

    Appendix B: CGS and SI Units

    Appendix C: Radionuclides of Interest in Nuclear Medicine

    Answers

    Suggestions for Further Reading

     

  • Head and Neck Imaging
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    280.00 lei

     

    ·         Translates a challenging subspecialty into easy-to-assimilate bulleted summaries of key facts and overviews of various imaging techniques

    ·         A comprehensive reference tool designed with the practising clinician in mind

    ·         Organised by anatomical region and specific head and neck disorders to allow for ease of reference

    ·         Features over 400 high-quality radiological images

     

    Table of Contents

    1: The neck
    2: Orbital and lacrimal apparatus
    3: Anatomy and pathology of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses
    4: Temporal base
    5: Jaws
    6: Cranial nerves
    7: Ultrasound of neck
    8: Thyroid and parathyroid
    9: Image guided biopsy of the neck and central skull base

     

  • 30000lei 285.00 lei

    Features

    • Provides comprehensive coverage of all modern ultrasound techniques and useful information on preparation and positioning of the patient for ultrasound
    • Features an easy-to-use and practical design for use in everyday practice
    • Follows a consistent format throughout for ease of reference
    • Includes ultrasound images to clarify measurement criteria
    • Incorporates the most up-to-date ultrasound measurement techniques

    Summary

    Measurement and interpretation of key ultrasound parameters are essential to differentiate normal anatomy from pathology. By using Measurement in Ultrasound, trainee radiologists and ultrasonographers can gain an appreciation of such measurements, while practitioners can use it as a valuable reference in the clinical setting.

    The book follows a consistent format throughout for ease of reference and features useful information on preparation and positioning of the patient for ultrasound, the type of transducer and method to be used, the appearance of the resulting ultrasound images and the measurements to be derived from them.

    Designed for frequent use in everyday practice, the book includes more than 150 high-quality ultrasound images annotated with key measurements and accompanied by concise explanatory text. Normal variants are provided, along with ranges for features that can change during development and in disease.

    This new edition covers relevant developments in ultrasound. Where appropriate, updated ultrasound measurements that have arisen are also included and key references are provided as an aid to further study.

  • Musculoskeletal Imaging: A Core Review
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    290.00 lei

     Preparing for the new Core Exam , Mainenance of Certification Exam , or Certifying Exam ? Excel on your boards with this review book written for the new exam format. Featuring high-quality radiographs and CT, MRI, and ultrasound images, this practical, easy-to-use resource includes key musculoskeletal radiology questions formatted to model the new core exam . Key Features: 300 questions are formatted to model the new Core Exam Questions are divided into topic sections for quick and easy review Each question includes an explanation of why the correct answer is correct and the other options incorrect. Now with the print edition, enjoy the bundled interactive eBook edition, offering tablet, smartphone, or online access to: Complete content with enhanced navigation A powerful search that pulls results from content in the book, your notes, and even the web Cross-linked pages, references, and more for easy navigation Highlighting tool for easier reference of key content throughout the text Ability to take and share notes with friends and colleagues Quick reference tabbing to save your favorite content for future use 300 interactive exam questions

  • 35800lei 290.00 lei

    Features

    • Presents a hands-on, practical approach to the diagnosis of vascular disease
    • Provides an overview of performing vascular ultrasounds, the physiology of blood flow, and vascular pathology
    • Uses an easy-to-read format with concise text
    • Covers setting up a vascular ultrasound diagnostic service
    • Reviews interventional vascular ultrasound procedures
    • Includes high-resolution ultrasound images and informative line diagrams

    Summary

    Ultrasound is used to demonstrate and classify numerous vascular diseases and provides a firm basis for deciding the most appropriate interventional treatment. Practical Vascular Ultrasound: An Illustrated Guide delivers a hands-on, practical approach to the diagnosis of vascular disease.

    Providing an overview of performing vascular ultrasounds, the physiology of blood flow, and vascular pathology, the book explores the various vascular conditions most investigated through ultrasound. Conditions covered range from extracranial cerebrovascular arterial diseases to chronic venous disease in the lower limbs. For each disorder, the authors discuss:

    • Anatomy
    • Pathology
    • Clinical presentations
    • Differential diagnosis
    • What doctors need to know for each condition
    • Normal findings and criteria for disease as seen by ultrasound
    • Comprehensive protocols for scanning
    • Ultrasound images and observations that should be collected for best practice reporting

    The authors also discuss interventional vascular ultrasound procedures. Using easy-to-read, point-form text, this concise text is enhanced with high-resolution ultrasound images and clear line diagrams. It provides a consistent, comprehensive, and professional approach to vascular ultrasound.

  • Radiology 101: The Basics and Fundamentals of Imaging
    by FARRELL
    La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani
    39300lei 295.00 lei

     

    Promotie in perioada 7-31 octombrie- reducere de 25% din pretul de catalog.

     

    Description:

    With over 35,000 copies of the first 4 editions sold, Radiology 101 introduces diagnostic imaging to non-radiologists; medical students, individuals on a radiology rotation, as well as PA and nursing students. As in previous editions, there is coverage of normal anatomy, commonly encountered diseases and their radiological manifestations with up to date clinical content relevant to those studying for the USMLE.  Each chapter includes an outline, highlighted important information and an end of chapter Question and Answer section. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on what exam to order with extensive referencing to the ACR Appropriateness Criteria© which will assume new importance as the basis for evidence based clinical decision support when ordering imaging in the near future.

     

    Table of Contents:

    Dedication

    Preface

    Contributing Authors

    CHAPTER 1 Imaging: Appropriate, Gentle, and Wise

    CHAPTER 2 Chest Imaging

    CHAPTER 3 Abdominal Imaging

    CHAPTER 4 Pelvic Imaging, Including Obstetric Ultrasound

    CHAPTER 5 Pediatric Imaging

    CHAPTER 6 Musculoskeletal Imaging

    CHAPTER 7 Brain Imaging

    CHAPTER 8 Head and Neck Imaging

    CHAPTER 9 Spine Imaging

    CHAPTER 10 Nuclear Medicine

    CHAPTER 11 Breast Imaging

    CHAPTER 12 Interventional Radiology

     

  • 36700lei 300.00 lei

     

    Description:

     

    This book covers the normal anatomy of the human body as seen in the entire gamut of medical imaging. It does so by an initial traditional anatomical description of each organ or system followed by the radiological anatomy of that part of the body using all the relevant imaging modalities. The third edition addresses the anatomy of new imaging techniques including three-dimensional CT, cardiac CT, and CT and MR angiography as well as the anatomy of therapeutic interventional radiological techniques guided by fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT and MR. The text has been completely revised and over 140 new images, including some in colour, have been added. A series of 'imaging pearls' have been included with most sections to emphasise clinically and radiologically important points. The book is primarily aimed at those training in radiology and preparing for the FRCR examinations, but will be of use to all radiologists and radiographers both in training and in practice, and to medical students, physicians and surgeons and all who use imaging as a vital part of patient care. The third edition brings the basics of radiological anatomy to a new generation of radiologists in an ever-changing world of imaging.

    This book covers the normal anatomy of the human body as seen in the entire gamut of medical imaging. It does so by an initial traditional anatomical description of each organ or system followed by the radiological anatomy of that part of the body using all the relevant imaging modalities. The third edition addresses the anatomy of new imaging techniques including three-dimensional CT, cardiac CT, and CT and MR angiography as well as the anatomy of therapeutic interventional radiological techniques guided by fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT and MR. The text has been completely revised and over 140 new images, including some in colour, have been added. A series of 'imaging pearls' have been included with most sections to emphasise clinically and radiologically important points. The book is primarily aimed at those training in radiology, but will be of use to all radiologists and radiographers both in training and in practice, and to medical students, physicians and surgeons and all who use imaging as a vital part of patient care. The third edition brings the basics of radiological anatomy to a new generation of radiologists in an ever-changing world of imaging.

    Anatomy of new radiological techniques and anatomy relevant to new staging or treatment regimens is emphasised.

    'Imaging Pearls' that emphasise clinically and radiologically important points have been added throughout.

    The text has been revised to reflect advances in imaging since previous edition.

    Over 100 additional images have been added.

     

     

    Table of contents:

     

    1 Head and neck

    The skull and facial bones

    The skull vault (Figs 1.1–1.4)

    Figure 1.1 • (A) Lateral view of skull. (B) Frontal view of skull.

    Figure 1.2 • Three-dimensional (3D) CT skull of a 2-month-old infant to show sutures, (A) lateral and (B) anterior. 1Coronal suture2Zygomaticofrontal suture3Pterion4Sphenotemporal (sphenosquamosal) suture5Temporoparietal (squamosal) suture6Asterion7Lambdoid suture8Wormian bones9Lambda10Sagittal suture11Anterior fontanelle12Metopic suture13Nasofrontal suture14Zygomaticofrontal suture

    The skull base (Figs 1.5, 1.6)

    Individual bones of the skull base

    Figure 1.3 • Lateral skull radiograph. Bony landmarks1Bregma2Coronal suture3Lambda4Lambdoid suture5Vertex6Inner skull table7Outer skull table8Internal occipital protuberance9External occipital protuberance10External auditory meatus11Styloid process12Clivus13Dorsum sellae14Posterior clinoid process15Anterior clinoid process16Pituitary fossa (sella turcica)17Tuberculum sellae18Planum sphenoidale19Greater wings of sphenoid20Undulating floor of anterior cranial fossa (roof of orbit)21Anterior limit of foramen magnum22Posterior limit of foramen magnum23Posterior wall of maxillary sinus24Floor of orbit25Hard palate26Neck of mandible27Temporomandibular joint28Condylar (mandibular) canalVascular markings29Middle meningeal vessels: anterior branches30Middle meningeal vessels: posterior branches31Transverse sinus32Diploic vein33Diploic venous confluence: parietal starSinuses/air cells34Frontal sinus35Sphenoid sinus36Posterior ethmoidal cells37Maxillary sinus38Mastoid air cellsSoft tissues39Soft palate40Base of tongue

    Bony landmarks

    Vascular markings

    Sinuses/air cells

    Soft tissues

    Figure 1.4 • OF20 skull radiograph. 1Sagittal suture2Frontal sinus3Planum sphenoidale4Crista galli5Perpendicular plate of ethmoid6Floor of pituitary fossa7Nasal septum8Ethmoid air cells9Superior orbital fissure10Lesser wing of sphenoid11Innominate line12Zygomatic process of frontal bone13Zygomaticofrontal suture14Frontal process of zygomatic bone15Foramen rotundum16Petrous ridge17Maxillary sinus18Inferior nasal turbinate19Mastoid process20Occipital bone21Dens of atlas

    Figure 1.5 • (A) Skull base: internal aspect. (B) 3D CT of skull base, internal aspect. 1Crista galli2Anterior clinoid process3Optic canal4Posterior clinoid process5Cribriform plate6Posterior ethmoidal foramen7Foramen ovale8Foramen spinosum9Foramen lacerum10Jugular foramen11Foramen magnum

    Figure 1.6 • (A) SMV view of skull; (B) Skull base. 3D CT of skull base, inferior view.(A) Bony landmarks1Odontoid process of C22Anterior arch of C13Posterior limit of foramen magnum4Transverse process of C15Foramen transversarium of C16Condylar process of mandible7Coronoid process of mandible8Zygomatic arch9Posterior wall of maxillary sinus10Lateral boundary of orbit11Lesser wing of sphenoid: anterior limit of middle cranial fossa12Nasal septum13Posterior limit of hard palate14ClivusForamina and canals15Foramen ovale16Foramen spinosum17Carotid canal18Bony part of eustachian tube(Note: Foramen rotundum or jugular foramen cannot be seen on SMV.)Air space and sinuses19Air in nasopharynx20Sphenoid sinus21Ethmoid air cells22Mastoid air cells23Pneumatization in petrous bone24Maxillary sinus(B) 1Greater palatine foramen2Pterygoid plate3Foramen ovale4Foramen spinosum5External acoustic foramen6Jugular fossa7Foramen lacerum8Groove for pharyngotympanic tube9Styloid process10Stylomastoid foramen11Foramen magnum

    Bony landmarks

    Foramina and canals

    Air space and sinuses

    Figure 1.7 • Pituitary fossa: lateral view.

    Cranial fossae (Fig. 1.5)

    Foramina of the skull base (Figs 1.5, 1.6; Table 1.1)

    Radiology pearl

    Table 1.1 Foramina of the skull base

    Radiological features of the skull base and vault

    Plain films

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Cross-sectional imaging

    The neonatal and growing skull

    Radiology pearl

    Calcification on the skull radiograph in the normal person (see also Chapter 2)

    The facial bones (Figs 1.1, 1.8)

    The zygoma

    The nasal bones

    Radiology pearl

    The bony orbit (Fig. 1.10)

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 1.8 • OM skull radiograph. 1Frontal sinus2Ethmoid sinus3Nasal septum4Inferior orbital rim5Infraorbital foramen6Lamina papyracea (medial wall of orbit)7Medial wall of maxillary sinus8Maxillary sinus9Innominate line10Anterior nasal spine11Zygomatic process of frontal bone12Zygomaticofrontal suture13Zygomatic arch14Coronoid process of mandible15Body of mandible16Odontoid process of C217Transverse process and foramen transversarium of C1

    Figure 1.9 • Lateral radiograph of nasal bones. 1Frontonasal synchondrosis2Nasal spine of frontal bone3Groove for anterior ethmoidal nerve

    Radiology of the bony orbit

    Plain films

    Computed tomography

    The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (Figs 1.8, 1.11)

    The nasal cavity

    Blood supply of the nasal cavity

    Figure 1.10 • (A) Bony orbit.(B) 3D CT of orbit AP. 1Supraorbital notch2Nasal septum3Infraorbital foramen4Superior orbital fissure5Zygomaticofrontal suture6Greater wing of sphenoid7Nasolacrimal canal8Lateral aspect of inferior orbital fissure9Orbital process of maxillary bone

    Radiology pearl

    The paranasal sinuses

    The frontal sinuses

    Figure 1.11 • Coronal CT scan of the sinuses: (A) coronal view at level of ostiomeatal complex and (B) posterior at level of sphenoethmoidal recess. 1Nasal septum2Maxillary sinus3Middle nasal turbinate4Inferior nasal turbinate5Superior meatus6Middle meatus7Inferior meatus8Ethmoid infundibulum9Uncinate process10Maxillary ostium11Maxillary infundibulum12Infraorbital nerve13Alveolar process of maxilla14Ethmoid sinus15Sphenoid sinus16Sphenoethmoidal recess17Superior turbinate18Greater palatine canal

    The ethmoid sinuses

    The sphenoid sinuses

    The maxillary sinuses

    Radiology of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    Plain films (Fig. 1.8)

    Computed tomography and MRI

    Radiology pearl

    The mandible and teeth

    The mandible (Figs 1.12, 1.13, 1.18)

    Figure 1.12 • Mandible: inner aspect.

    Figure 1.13 • 3D CT of mandible. 1Oblique line2Mental foramen3Mental protuberance4Mental tubercle5Body of mandible6Coronoid process7Mandibular notch8Condylar process9Neck10Ramus11Angle12Mandibular foramen13Mylohyoid line

    Figure 1.14 • Temporomandibular joint.

    The temporomandibular joint (Figs 1.14–1.16)

    Figure 1.15 • Radiographs of temporomandibular joints, (A) closed mouth and (B) open mouth views. 1Articular tubercle2Temporomandibular fossa3Head4External auditory meatus5Neck

    The teeth – nomenclature and anatomy (Figs 1.17–1.19)

    Figure 1.16 • MRI of the TMJ; (A) closed mouth view; (B) open mouth view. 1Head of mandible2Articular tubercle3Temporal lobe4External auditory meatus5Lateral pterygoid muscle6Fibrocartilaginous disc

    Radiology of the mandible and teeth (Figs 1.15–1.19)

    Plain films

    Cross-sectional imaging (Figs 1.13, 1.16)

    Dental pantomography

    Figure 1.17 • (A) The structure of teeth, adult.(B) Radiograph of the teeth, adult. 1Bone2Lamina dura3Periodontal membrane4Root canal5Pulp cavity6Dentine7Enamel

    Arthrography

    The oral cavity and salivary glands

    The oral cavity (Figs 1.20, 1.21)

    Figure 1.18 • Dental pantomogram. The third molars have been extracted. 1Condylar process of mandible2Temporomandibular fossa3Hard palate4Maxillary sinus5Medial wall of maxillary sinus6Floor of maxillary sinus7Condylar canal8Ramus of mandible9Angle of mandible10Body of mandible11Mandibular notch12Upper left incisor13Hyoid bone (projected laterally)14Ear lobe

    Figure 1.19 • Radiograph of the teeth of 9-year-old child. 1Resorbing roots of a deciduous tooth2Unerupted teeth

    Radiology of the oral cavity (Fig. 1.21)

    Figure 1.20 • Floor of mouth: coronal section.

    Figure 1.21 • MRI of mouth. (A) Coronal section; (B) Sagittal section.(A) 1Hard palate2Intrinsic muscles of tongue3Lingual septum4Mandible5Genioglossus muscle6Platysma muscle7Submandibular gland8Geniohyoid muscles9Mylohyoid muscle(B) 1Hard palate2Soft palate3Intrinsic muscles of tongue4Lingual septum5Genioglossus muscle6Mylohyoid muscle7Hyoid bone8Mandible

    Figure 1.22 • Parotid gland: (A) lateral view; (B) transverse section.

    The salivary glands

    The parotid gland (Figs 1.22–1.24)

    Figure 1.23 • Axial MRI parotid. 1Medial pterygoid muscle2Mandible3Masseter muscle4Internal carotid artery5Internal jugular vein6Parotid gland7External carotid artery and posterior facial vein8Mastoid process9Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    Figure 1.24 • Sialography: (A) AP view of parotid gland; (B) lateral view of parotid gland; (C) lateral view of submandibular gland. Note how the duct and its branches are moulded around the ramus of the mandible.(A) 1Cannula in parotid duct2Parotid duct (Stensen's)3Normal branching ductules4Condylar process of mandible5Angle of mandible6Body of mandible(B) 1Cannula in parotid orifice2Parotid duct3Secondary ductules4Contrast on surface of tongue5Condylar process of mandible6Angle of mandible(C) 1Cannula in orifice of submandibular duct2Submandibular duct3Secondary ductules4Contrast on superior surface of tongue5Condylar process of mandible6Coronoid process of mandible7Mandibular notch

    The submandibular gland (Figs 1.24C, 1.25)

    The sublingual gland (Fig. 1.20)

    Radiology of the salivary glands

    Sialography (Fig. 1.24)

    CT and MRI (Figs 1.23, 1.35)

    Figure 1.25 • Ultrasound of submandibular gland. 1Submandibular gland – superficial part2Submandibular gland – deep part3Mylohyoid muscle4Submandibular duct5Facial vein6Digastric muscle

    Ultrasound (Fig. 1.25)

    Radiology pearl

    Nuclear imaging

    The orbital contents (Fig. 1.26)

    Figure 1.26 • (A) Orbit: sagittal section. (B) Eye: internal anatomy; sagittal section.

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 1.27 • Ultrasound of eye.(A) Transverse image showing anterior structures. 1Anterior chamber2Iris3Anterior aspect of lens4Posterior aspect of lens5Vitreous body(B) Longitudinal image showing posterior structures. 1Vitreous body2Retinal surface3Optic nerve4Retrobulbar fat5Lateral rectus muscle6Lateral wall of bony orbit

    Internal anatomy and coverings of the eye (Fig. 1.26)

    Radiology of the orbit and eye (Figs 1.27–1.29)

    Plain films

    Radiology pearl

    Ultrasound

    Figure 1.28 • CT scan of orbit: axial section through optic nerve. 1Nasal septum2Nasal bone3Ethmoid air cells4Globe of left eye5Sclera6Optic nerve7Medial rectus muscle8Lateral rectus muscle9Superior ophthalmic vein10Optic canal11Anterior clinoid process (pneumatized)12Superior orbital fissure13Middle cranial fossa14Greater wing of sphenoid15Frontal process of zygomatic bone16Temporal fossa/temporalis muscle

    Computed tomography (Fig. 1.28)

    Figure 1.29 • MR of orbit: axial image at level of nasolacrimal gland. 1Globe of right eye2Sclera3Optic nerve4Larimal gland5Medial rectus muscle6Lateral rectus muscle7Optic canal8Temporal lobe of brain9Greater wing of sphenoid10Frontal process of zygomatic bone11Temporalis muscle12Ethmoid air cells

    Magnetic resonance imaging (Fig. 1.29)

    Figure 1.30 • (A) Lacrimal apparatus: coronal section.(B) Nasolacrimal duct. Coronal CT through anterior nose. 1Lacrimal gland2Ethmoid infundibulum draining to middle meatus3Upper end of right nasolacrimal duct4Inferior turbinate5Crista galli6Middle turbinate7Inferior part of left nasolacrimal duct8Opening of nasolacrimal duct

    The lacrimal apparatus (Fig. 1.30)

    Radiology of the lacrimal gland

    Dacryocystography

    CT (Fig. 1.30B) and MRI

    The ear (Figs 1.31–1.33)

    The external ear

    The middle ear

    Figure 1.31 • Ear: coronal section showing outer, middle and inner ear.

    Radiology pearl

    The inner ear

    Figure 1.32 • (A) Axial T2 MRI to show the internal auditory meatus and its contained nerves; (B) Diagram of membranous labyrinth; (C) Membranous labyrinth as seen on 3D MRI.(A) 1Cochlea2Vestibulocochlear nerve3Facial nerve4Basilar artery with flow artefact5Cerebellopontine angle cistern(C) 1Cochlear duct2Superior semicircular canal3Posterior semicircular canal4Lateral semicircular canal5Utricle6Endolymphatic duct7Utriculosaccular duct8Saccule9Internal auditory meatus

    The internal auditory meatus (Fig. 1.33)

    Figure 1.33 • CT scan of inner ear: (A) axial section at mid-cochlear level; (B) coronal section in vestibular plane; (C) axial CT to show the cochlear duct; (D) axial CT to show the vestibular duct. 1Cochlear turns2Internal auditory meatus3Vestibule4Posterior semicircular canal5Facial nerve in its bony canal6Malleus7Incus8Epitympanic recess9Mastoid air cells10Middle cranial fossa11Posterior cranial fossa12Lambdoid suture13Superior semicircular canal14Lateral semicircular canal15Oval window16Crista falciformis17Scutum18External auditory meatus19Mastoid antrum20Aditus ad antrum

    Development of the ear

    Radiology of the middle and inner ear

    Plain films

    Computed tomography (Fig. 1.33)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (Fig. 1.32)

    Radiology pearl

    The pharynx and related spaces (Fig. 1.34)

    Radiology pearl

    The nasopharynx and related spaces (Fig. 1.35)

    The nasopharynx

    Figure 1.34 • Pharynx: sagittal section: (A) diagram; (B) sagittal T1 MRI. 1Soft palate2Adenoids3Middle turbinate4Inferior turbinate5Hard palate6Intrinsic muscle of tongue7Genioglossus8Mandible9Mylohyoid muscle10Hyoid bone11Epiglottis12Vocal cord13Thyroid cartilage14Nasopharynx15Oropharynx16Corniculate cartilage17Arytenoid cartilage18Cricoid cartilage

    Figure 1.35 • Nasopharynx: axial section.(A)Diagram.(B)Axial CT.1Nasopharyngeal space2Prevertebral muscle3Lateral pharyngeal recess, fossa of Rosenmueller4Cartilaginous end of eustachian tube5Opening of eustachian tube6Torus tubarius7Pterygoid bone8Medial pterygoid plate9Medial pterygoid muscle10Lateral pterygoid plate11Lateral pterygoid muscle12Parapharyngeal space13Styloid process14Internal carotid artery15Internal jugular vein16Parotid gland17Ramus of mandible18Infratemporal space19Coronoid process of mandible and masseter muscle20Zygoma21Maxillary sinus22Polyp in left maxillary sinus23Nasal bone24Nasal septum

    Figure 1.36 • Infratemporal fossa: axial section.

    Spaces related to the nasopharynx

    Figure 1.37 • CT of pterygopalatine fossa. * = pterygopalatine fossa.(A) 1Inferior orbital fissure2Foramen rotundum3Pterygomaxillary fissure4Cut ends of zygomatic arch5Maxilla6Lateral pterygoid plate7Greater palatine foramen(B) 1Maxillary sinus2Sphenopalatine foramen3Pterygomaxillary fissure4Zygomatic arch5Vidian canal6Foramen ovale7Foramen spinosum8Mandibular head9Carotid foramen10Jugular foramen(C) 1Sphenoid sinus2Inferior orbital fissure3Sphenopalatine foramen4Pterygomaxillary fissure5Maxillary sinus6Greater palatine canal7Greater palatine foramen8Nares9Unerupted teeth10Zygomatic arch11Mandible

    The oropharynx and laryngopharynx

    Cross-sectional anatomy of the nasopharynx (Figs 1.34–1.36)

    Radiology of the pharynx (Figs 1.34–1.38)

    Plain films (Fig. 1.38)

    Figure 1.38 • Lateral radiograph of the neck: soft-tissue view showing pharynx and larynx. 1Nasopharynx2Soft palate3Oropharynx4Laryngopharynx5Hyoid bone6Epiglottis7Aryepiglottic fold8Laryngeal ventricle9Prevertebral space10Trachea

    Palatal studies and videofluoroscopic feeding studies

    Radiology pearl

    Cross-sectional imaging

    Radiology pearl

    The larynx (Figs 1.38–1.42)

    Figure 1.39 • 3D CT larynx. 1Nares2Nasopharynx3Tongue4Oropharynx5Epiglottis6Vallecula7Piriform sinus8False cocal cord9Laryngeal ventricle10True vocal cord11Trachea

    Figure 1.40 • Larynx: (A) sagittal section showing cartilages; (B) coronal section.

    Cross-sectional anatomy of the larynx (Figs 1.41, 1.42)

    Supraglottic level (Figs 1.41A, 1.42A)

    Glottic level (Figs 1.41B, 1.42B)

    Figure 1.41 • Larynx: (A) axial section, supraglottic level; (B) axial section, glottic level; (C) axial section, infraglottic level.

    Infraglottic level (Figs 1.41C, 1.42C)

    Radiology of the larynx (Figs 1.38, 1.39, 1.42)

    Plain radiography

    CT and MRI

    The thyroid and parathyroid glands

    The thyroid gland (Figs 1.42–1.44)

    Figure 1.42 • CT scan of the larynx/neck: (A) supraglottic level; (B) glottic level; (C) infraglottic level.(A) 1Base of tongue2Median glossoepiglottic fold3Lateral glossoepiglottic fold4Vallecula5Epiglottis6Laryngopharynx7Pharyngeal constrictor muscle8Greater cornu of hyoid bone9Tip of piriform sinus (the sinus is separated from the laryngopharynx on lower cuts by the aryepiglottic fold)10Internal carotid artery11Internal jugular vein12Sternomastoid muscle13External jugular vein14Submandibular gland15Platysma muscle16Subcutaneous fat17Prevertebral muscle18Foramen transversarium(B) (There is a pathological abscess in the left sternomastoid muscle.) 1Thyroid cartilage2Cricoid cartilage3Vocal process of arytenoid cartilage4Vocal cord5Anterior commissure6Laryngopharynx7Upper pole of thyroid gland8Anterior jugular vein9Strap muscles10Sternomastoid muscle11Internal jugular vein12Common carotid artery13External jugular vein14Prevertebral muscle15Abscess in sternomastoid muscle(C) 1Cricoid cartilage2Cricothyroid membrane3Right lobe of thyroid gland4Left lobe of thyroid gland5Oesophagus (collapsed)6Prevertebral muscles7Common carotid artery8Internal jugular vein9Sternomastoid muscle10External jugular vein11Anterior jugular veins

    Figure 1.43 • Thyroid gland: (A) gross anatomy; (B) axial section.

    Cross-sectional anatomy (Fig. 1.43B)

    Figure 1.44 • Ultrasound of the thyroid gland showing left lobe. 1Strap muscle2Sternomastoid muscle3Isthmus4Trachea5Left common carotid artery6Left lobe of gland7Left internal jugular vein

    Blood supply and lymph drainage

    Ectopic thyroid tissue

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology of the thyroid gland

    Ultrasound (Fig. 1.44)

    Nuclear medicine studies

    CT (Fig. 1.42C)

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    The parathyroid glands

    Radiology of the parathyroid glands

    Cross-sectional imaging

    Nuclear medicine studies

    The neck vessels

    The carotid arteries in the neck (Figs 1.45–1.52)

    Figure 1.45 • Ultrasound of the carotid artery: longitudinal section. CCCommon carotid arteryICInternal carotid arteryECExternal carotid artery

    Figure 1.46 • Carotid artery in the neck.

    Anatomical relations of the common carotid artery within the carotid sheath

    Figure 1.47 • Arch aortogram: subtraction film. The catheter is in the aortic arch. All branches of the external carotid are shown except the occipital artery. The facial artery is not filling on the right. 1Arch of aorta2Brachiocephalic trunk3Right common carotid artery (superimposed upon the subclavian artery)4Right subclavian artery5Right vertebral artery6Left common carotid artery7Left subclavian artery8Left vertebral artery9Right external carotid artery10Sinus of right internal carotid artery11Left internal carotid artery12Left external carotid artery13Right superior thyroid artery (arising from the external carotid artery)14Left superior thyroid artery (arising from common carotid artery)15Right lingual artery16Left lingual artery17Left facial artery18Left ascending pharyngeal artery19Left posterior auricular artery20Right posterior auricular artery21Right maxillary artery22Middle meningeal artery (branch of right maxillary artery)23Right superficial temporal artery

    Anatomical relations of the internal carotid artery within the carotid sheath

    Anatomical relations of the external carotid artery

    Figure 1.48 • Carotid arteries in neck. (A) MR angiogram; (B) CT angiogram.(A) 1Superficial temporal artery2Maxillary artery3Lingual artery4External carotid artery5Origin of superior thyroid artery6Common carotid artery7Posterior auricular artery8Occipital artery9Ascending pharyngeal artery10Internal carotid artery11Vertebral artery(B) 1Occipital artery2Internal carotid artery3Facial artery4Lingual artery5External carotid artery6Superior thyroid artery7Common carotid artery

    Branches of the external carotid artery (Figs 1.46–1.48)

    Superior thyroid artery

    Ascending pharyngeal artery

    Lingual artery

    Facial artery

    Figure 1.49 • Veins of the face and neck.

    Figure 1.50 • Subclavian angiogram. 1Left common carotid artery2Left subclavian artery3Vertebral artery4Thyrocervical trunk5Transverse cervical artery6Internal thoracic artery7Thoracoacromial artery8Acromial artery9Lateral thoracic artery10Subscapular artery

    Figure 1.51 • Arteries in the root of the neck.

    Figure 1.52 • Veins in the root of the neck.

    Occipital artery

    Posterior auricular artery

    Superficial temporal artery

    Maxillary artery

    Radiology of the carotid vessels (Figs 1.45, 1.47, 1.48)

    Ultrasound (Fig. 1.45)

    Angiography

    CT and MRI

    Venous drainage of the head and neck (Figs 1.49, 1.52)

    Radiology of the veins of the head and neck

    The subclavian arteries in the neck (Figs 1.50, 1.51)

    Branches of the subclavian artery in the neck

    Figure 1.53 • Brachial plexus.

    The subclavian veins in the neck (Fig. 1.52)

    Radiology of the subclavian vessels

    Ultrasound

    Figure 1.54 • Coronal MRI brachial plexus. 1Sternomastoid muscle2Roots of brachial plexus3Scalenus anterior muscle

    Angiography, CT angiography and MR angiography

    The brachial plexus (Figs 1.53, 1.54)

    Radiology of the brachial plexus

    CT and MRI (Fig. 1.54)

    2 The central nervous system

    Cerebral hemispheres

    Cerebral cortex (Figs 2.1, 2.2)

    Frontal lobe

    Motor cortex

    Premotor cortex

    Figure 2.1 • (A) Superolateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. (B) Sagittal MRI of brain lateral to midline.(B) 1Central sulcus2Parieto-occipital sulcus3Insula4Temporal horn of lateral ventricle and hippocampus

    Figure 2.2 • (A) Medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. (B) Midline sagittal MRI of the brain.(B) 1Cingulate gyrus2Central sulcus3Parieto-occipital sulcus4Corpus callosum5Fornix

    Prefrontal area

    Parietal lobe

    Sensory cortex

    Parietal association cortex

    Temporal lobe

    Auditory cortex

    Temporal association cortex

    Occipital lobe

    Visual cortex

    Occipital association cortex

    Insula (of Reil)

    Radiological features of the cerebral cortex

    CT and MRI

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain

    White matter of the hemispheres

    Commissural fibres

    The corpus callosum (Figs 2.4, 2.5)

    Figure 2.3 • MRI of brain: (A) level of the pons; (B) level of midbrain; (C) level of the lateral ventricles; (D) above lateral ventricles.(A) 1Ethmoid sinus2Globe3Left temporal lobe4Pons5Fourth ventricle6Right cerebellar hemisphere7Petrous part of temporal bone8Basilar artery9Cerebellar peduncle10Transverse sinus11Pinna of ear12Greater wing of sphenoid bone(B) 1Interhemispheric fissure2Left frontal lobe3Sylvian fissure (containing branches of the middle cerebral artery)4Cerebral peduncle of midbrain5Aqueduct of Sylvius6Great cerebral vein in quadrigeminal cistern7Cerebellar vermis8Optic tract9Left ambient cistern10Superior colliculus and quadrigeminal plate (tectum) of midbrain11Left occipital lobe12Superior sagittal sinus13Anterior cerebral arteries(C) 1Interhemispheric fissure2Tapetum3Corpus callosum4Head of caudate nucleus5Anterior horn of right lateral ventricle6Interventricular foramen7Sylvian fissure8External capsule9Anterior limb of internal capsule10Putamen of lentiform nucleus11Globus pallidus of lentiform nucleus12Posterior limb of internal capsule13Thalamus14Atrium and choroid plexus of lateral ventricle15Calcarine sulcus16Superior sagittal sinus17Septum pellucidum(D) 1Centrum semiovale2Central sulcus – note characteristic inverted omega shape

    Anterior commissure (Figs 2.4, 2.6)

    Figure 2.4 • Corpus callosum and other commissures.

    Habenular commissure

    Posterior commissure

    Figure 2.5 • MRI scan of brain: midline sagittal image. 1Frontal lobe2Parietal lobe3Occipital lobe4Rostrum of corpus callosum5Genu of corpus callosum6Body of corpus callosum7Splenium of corpus callosum8Septum pellucidum9Foramen of Monro10Fornix11Massa intermedia of thalami12Third ventricle13Supraoptic recess of third ventricle14Suprapineal recess of third ventricle15Pineal gland16Optic chiasm17Midbrain18Interpeduncular cistern19Aqueduct of Sylvius20Quadrigeminal plate (superior and inferior colliculi)21Quadrigeminal plate cistern22Fourth ventricle23Vermis of cerebellum24Pons25Tonsil of cerebellum26Prepontine cistern27Medulla oblongata28Odontoid process29Cisterna magna30Clivus31Pituitary32Tentorium cerebelli33Spinal cord

    Hippocampal commissure

    Projection fibres

    Internal capsule (see Fig. 2.3C)

    Radiological features of the commissural and projection fibres

    Plain films of the skull

    CT and MRI

    Figure 2.6 • Anterior commissure. (A) Axial T2 MRI. (B) Midline sagittal MRI. (C) Cor MRI.(B) 1Corpus callosum2Head of caudate nucleus3Internal capsule4External capsule5Anterior commissure(C) 1Corpus callosum2Fornix3Anterior commissure4Mamillary body

    Figure 2.7 • Coronal MRI of brain. (A) Image through the third ventricle. (B) Subthalamic nuclei.(A) 1Superior sagittal sinus2Interhemispheric fissure3Tapetum4Body of corpus callosum5Septum pellucidum6Fornix7Third ventricle8Sphenoid sinus9Sylvian fissure10Insula11External capsule12Lentiform nucleus13Head of caudate nucleus14Internal capsule(B) 1Head of caudate nucleus2Thalamus3Putamen4Globus pallidus5Subthalamic nucleus

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 2.8 • Myelination of infant brain as seen on T1 and T2 MR images at level of the internal capsule. (A) T1 newborn – only the white matter in the posterior limb of internal capsule is bright, indicating that only these fibres are myelinated. (B) T1 at 1 year old; almost all white matter is bright now. Only the most superficial subcortical fibres have not achieved adult appearance so that grey–white differentiation remains a little blurred. (C) T1 at 2 years old. All white matter is bright and myelinated now including the subcortical white matter into the depth of each gyrus. The grey–white differentiation is sharp now. (D) T2 newborn – only the white matter in the posterior limb of internal capsule is dark indicating myelination. (E) T2 at 1 year old. All of the internal capsule, the corpus callosum and the deep white matter (especially posteriorly) are dark. The superficial subcortical fibres have not achieved adult appearance and grey–white differentiation remains blurred. (F) T2 at 2 years old. All white matter is dark and myelinated now including the subcortical white matter into the depth of each gyrus.

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (Fig. 2.10)

    Basal ganglia (Figs 2.11, 2.12)

    Figure 2.9 • MR tractography 3D image depicting fibres passing from brain stem to cerebral cortex. Reference axial slice shows fibres as they pass through the posterior limb of the internal capsule on both sides.

    Figure 2.10 • Ultrasound of infant brain. (A) Coronal image through the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles; (B) coronal image through body of the lateral ventricle. (C) Midline sagittal image; (D) parasagittal image through lateral ventricle. 1Interhemispheric fissure2Sulci3Frontal horn of lateral ventricle4Corpus callosum5Caudate above, lentiform nucleus below, separated by internal capsule (these three are not distinguished separately)6Sylvian fissure7Brainstem8Parahippocampal gyrus of temporal lobe9Choroid plexus in atrium of lateral ventricle10Calcarine sulcus11Genu of corpus callosum12Cavum septum pellucidum13Cingulate gyrus14Midbrain15Pons16Medulla17Fourth ventricle18Vermis of cerebellum19Third ventricle20Body of lateral ventricle21Hippocampus22Fornix

    Caudate nucleus

    Lentiform nucleus

    Figure 2.11 • Basal ganglia.

    Claustrum (Fig. 2.12)

    Radiological features of the basal ganglia

    CT and MRI

    Figure 2.12 • MRI of Claustrum + striatal fibres. (A) Cor; (B) axial. 1Claustrum2Head of caudate nucleus3Striatal fibres across the internal capsule4Lentiform nucleus5Putamen6Globus pallidus

    Radiology pearl

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (Fig. 2.10)

    Radiology pearl

    Thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland

    Thalamus

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 2.13 • Anterior surface of brainstem.

    Hypothalamus (Figs 2.13, 2.21)

    Pineal gland (see Figs 2.4, 2.5)

    Radiological features of the thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland

    Skull radiographs

    CT and MRI

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (Fig. 2.10)

    Pituitary gland (Fig. 2.14)

    Blood supply

    Radiological features of the pituitary gland

    Skull radiographs

    MRI (Fig. 2.14)

    Figure 2.14 • Pituitary gland and cavernous sinus: coronal section. (A) Diagram. (B) Coronal T1 MRI after IV contrast. (C) More posterior T2 view to show Meckel's cave.(B) 1Suprasellar cistern2Anterior cerebral artery3Optic chiasm4Pituitary stalk5Pituitary gland6Internal carotid artery in cavernous sinus(C) 1Optic chiasm2Carotid artery3Trigeminal ganglion in Meckel's cave

    CT

    Limbic lobe (Fig. 2.15)

    Figure 2.15 • Components of the limbic lobe.

    Hippocampus (Fig. 2.16)

    Fornix (Fig. 2.15)

    Radiological features of the limbic lobe

    MRI

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (see Fig. 2.10)

    The brainstem (Fig. 2.13)

    Figure 2.16 • Hippocampus: (A) coronal T1 MRI; (B) diagram of coronal section right hippocampus; (C) parasagittal MRI showing hippocampus; (D) parasagittal MRI showing indusium griseum.(A) 1Fimbria2Alveus3Cornu ammonis4Dentate gyrus5Temporal horn of lateral ventricle6Tail of caudate7Alveus8Cornu ammonis9Subiculum10Collateral sulcus(C) 1Amygdala2Temporal horn of lateral ventricle3Hippocampal tail4Hippocampal body5Fimbria of hippocampus6Hippocampal head7Parahippocampal gyrus(D) 1Indusium griseum2Corpus callosum

    Midbrain

    External features

    Internal features (Fig. 2.17)

    Cranial nerves

    Blood supply

    Radiological features of the midbrain

    CT and MRI

    Figure 2.17 • Midbrain, axial section: (A) T2 MRI; (B) diagram.

    Pons

    External features

    Cranial nerves

    Blood supply

    Radiological features of the pons

    CT and MRI (Fig. 2.3A)

    Medulla oblongata

    External features

    Cranial nerves

    Blood supply

    Radiological features of the medulla oblongata

    CT and MRI

    Cerebellum (Figs 2.18, 2.19)

    Figure 2.18 • Cerebellum: (A) anterior view; (B) posterior view; (C) midline sagittal section of vermis.

    Figure 2.19 • Midline sagittal T2 MRI to show vermis of cerebellum. 1Lingula on superior medullary velum2Primary fissure3Horizontal fissure4Prepyramidal fissure5Foramen of Magendie

    Hemispheres

    Vermis

    Subdivisions of the cerebellum

    The function of the cerebellum

    Arterial supply

    Venous drainage

    Radiological features of the cerebellum

    CT and MRI

    Ventricles, cisterns, CSF production and flow ventricles (Figs 2.20–2.22)

    Figure 2.20 • The ventricular system.

    The lateral ventricles (Fig. 2.20)

    Frontal (anterior) horn

    Body

    Temporal (inferior) horn

    Figure 2.21 • Third and fourth ventricles and related midline sagittal structures.

    Figure 2.22 • The subarachnoid cisterns. 1Suprasellar cistern2Pontine cistern3Cavum velum interpositum4Quadrigeminal plate cistern5Interpeduncular cistern6Cisterna magna

    Occipital horn

    The choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    Figure 2.23 • Axial CT to show cavum velum interpositum.

    The third ventricle (Figs 2.20–2.22)

    The cerebral aqueduct (Figs 2.20, 2.21)

    The fourth ventricle (Figs 2.20–2.22)

    Radiology pearl

    Radiological features of the ventricular system

    Skull radiographs

    CT and MRI (Figs 2.3, 2.7, 2.22)

    Radiology pearl

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (see Fig. 2.10 and 2.24)

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 2.24 • Coronal ultrasound through interventricular foramina. 1Interhemispheric fissure2Corpus callosum3Anterior horn of left lateral ventricle4Cavum septum pellucidum5Choroid plexus marking position of interventricular foramen6Third ventricle

    Pneumoencephalography and air or contrast ventriculography

    The subarachnoid cisterns (Fig. 2.22)

    Cisterna magna (cerebellomedullary cistern)

    Pontine cistern

    Interpeduncular cistern

    Quadrigeminal cistern

    Cistern of the velum interpositum (Figs 2.21–2.23)

    Ambient cisterns

    Suprasellar cisterns

    Pericallosal cistern

    Radiological features of the subarachnoid cisterns

    CT and MRI

    Cervical myelography

    Cranial ultrasound

    Pneumoencephalography

    Figure 2.25 • Ultrasound through the foramen magnum. 1Inferior margin of occipital bone = posterior border of foramen magnum2Cisterna magna3Cervical cord4Medulla oblongata5Dura6Cervical vertebral bodies7Pons

    Cerebrospinal fluid production and flow

    Radiological features of CSF production and flow

    Radiology pearl

    Skull radiographs

    Radionuclide cisternography

    Magnetic resonance CSF flow study

    Meninges

    Dura mater

    Arachnoid mater

    Pia mater

    Arterial supply of the meninges

    The nerve supply of the meninges

    Radiological features of the meninges

    Extradural haematoma

    Subdural haematoma

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Skull radiographs

    CT and MRI

    Arterial supply of the CNS (Figs 2.26–2.30)

    Internal carotid artery (Figs 2.26, 2.27; see also the section on the carotid arteries in neck in Chapter 1)

    Figure 2.26 • Distribution of the cerebral arteries: (A) superolateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere; (B) medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere.

    Branches of the internal carotid artery

    Figure 2.27 • The arterial circle of Willis and arteries of the brainstem.

    Ophthalmic artery (Fig. 2.28)

    Posterior communicating artery

    Anterior choroidal artery

    Figure 2.28 • Internal carotid angiogram: (A) AP view; (B) lateral view. The posterior communicating artery does not fill in this case.(A) 1Internal carotid artery in the neck2Petrous part of the internal carotid artery (carotid canal)3Cavernous part of the internal carotid artery4Carotid siphon5Intracranial part of the internal carotid artery6Ophthalmic artery7A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery8Pericallosal artery9Callosomarginal artery10Middle cerebral artery11Anterior choroidal artery12Lenticulostriate arteries: medial and lateral13Sylvian point14Posterior parietal artery15Angular artery16Posterior temporal artery(B) 1Internal carotid artery in the neck2Internal carotid artery in the petrous bone3Internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus4Carotid siphon5Intracranial part of the internal carotid artery6Ophthalmic artery7Anterior cerebral artery8Middle cerebral artery9Anterior choroidal branches10Callosomarginal artery11Pericallosal artery

    Striate arteries

    Figure 2.29 • Vertebral angiogram: (A) AP view; (B) lateral view.(A) 1Left vertebral artery2Right vertebral artery (reflux of contrast)3Posterior inferior cerebellar artery4Anterior inferior cerebellar artery5Basilar artery6Superior cerebellar artery7Posterior cerebral artery8Thalamoperforate branches9Internal occipital artery10Posterior temporal artery11Calcarine branch of the internal occipital artery12Parieto-occipital branch of the internal occipital artery(B) 1Vertebral artery2Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) – anterior medullary segment3Lateral medullary segment of PICA4Posterior medullary segment of PICA5Inferior tonsillar loop of PICA6Supratonsillar loop of PICA7Retrotonsillar segment of PICA8Vermis branch of PICA9Tonsillohemispheric branch of PICA10Hemispheric branch11Superior cerebellar artery12Posterior cerebral artery13Posterior communicating artery14Thalamoperforate branches of posterior cerebral artery15Medial posterior choroidal branches16Lateral posterior choroidal branches (arise distal to 15)17Superior vermian branches of 1118Internal occipital branch of 1219Parieto-occipital artery20Calcarine artery

    Anterior cerebral artery

    Figure 2.30 • MR angiogram of the cerebral circulation. (A) MR angiogram as viewed from above. (B) A variant on circle of Willis on MRA. Note absence of the first segment of left anterior cerebral artery. The remainder of this artery is filled through the anterior communicating artery from the right side. (C) MRA of right internal carotid and MCA and ACA. (D) MRA of posterior circulation, lateral view. (ACA = anterior cerebral artery, ACoA = anterior communicating artery; ICA = internal carotid artery; MCA = middle cerebral artery; PCoA = posterior communicating artery; PCA = posterior cerebral artery; BA = basilar artery; VA = vertebral artery.)(A) 1Ophthalmic artery2Anterior temporal artery3Opercular branches of MCA4Superior cerebellar artery5Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)6Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)7Left ACA8ACoA9Left ICA10Left MCA11Left PCoA (small)12Left PCA13BA14VA(B) 1Right ACA2Left ACA3ACoA4Absent horizontal segment of left ACA5Left PCoA6Right PCoA(C) 1Ophthalmic artery2Lenticulostriate artery3Anterior temporal artery4Opercular branches of MCA5MCA6Vertical segment of ACA7Horizontal segment of ACA8ACoA9Right ICA(D) 1Parieto-occipital artery2Posterior cerebral artery3Calcarine artery4Superior cerebellar artery5Basilar artery6Anterior inferior cerebellar artery – AICA confluence of vertebral arteries7Posterior inferior cerebellar artery – PICA

    Middle cerebral artery

    Vertebrobasilar system (Figs 2.27, 2.29)

    Vertebral artery

    Basilar artery

    Posterior cerebral arteries

    The arterial circle of Willis (Figs 2.27, 2.30)

    Commonest variants of the circle of Willis

    Radiological features of the arterial supply of the CNS

    Plain radiographs

    Angiography of the carotid and vertebral system (Figs 2.28, 2.29)

    CT and MRI

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal brain (Fig. 2.10)

    Radionuclide cerebral angiography

    Venous drainage of the brain

    Venous sinuses (Fig. 2.31)

    Figure 2.31 • Superficial cerebral veins and venous sinuses.

    Superficial cerebral veins (Fig. 2.31)

    Deep cerebral veins (Fig. 2.32)

    Veins of the posterior fossa (Fig. 2.32)

    Figure 2.32 • Deep cerebral veins: (A) diagram; (B) deep veins on MR venogram.(B) 1Thalamostriate vein2Choroidal vein3Septal vein4Inferior sagittal sinus5Internal cerebral veins6Great cerebral vein7Basal veins

    Radiological features of the cerebral veins and venous sinuses

    Skull radiographs

    MR venography (Fig. 2.33)

    Angiography during the venous phase (Fig. 2.34)

    Figure 2.33 • MR venogram. 1Internal cerebral vein2Great cerebral vein3Basal vein4Superior petrosal sinus5Inferior anastomotic vein6Superior sagittal sinus7Superior anastomotic vein8Inferior sagittal sinus9Straight sinus10Transverse sinus11Sigmoid sinus12Internal jugular vein

    Figure 2.34 • Venous phase of internal carotid angiogram. 1Internal cerebral vein2Great cerebral vein3Thalamostriate vein4Venous angle5Superficial middle cerebral vein6Cavernous sinus7Superior sagittal sinus8Superficial cortical veins9Inferior sagittal sinus10Straight sinus transverse sinus11Sigmoid sinus

    CT and MRI (see Fig. 2.3)

    3 The spinal column and its contents

    The vertebral column

    A typical vertebra (Figs 3.1, 3.4, 3.5)

    The cervical vertebrae

    Typical cervical vertebra (Fig. 3.1)

    The atlas – C1 (Fig. 3.2)

    Figure 3.1 • Cervical vertebra. (A) 3D CT cervical vertebra viewed from above. (B) 3D CT cervical vertebra anterolateral view.(A) 1Body2Foramen transversarium3Transverse process with anterior and posterior tubercles4Superior articular facet5Lamina6Bifid spinous process(B) 1Body2Anterior tubercle3Transverse process4Posterior tubercle5Lamina6Spinous process

    The axis – C2 (Fig. 3.3)

    Vertebra prominens – C7

    The thoracic vertebrae (Fig. 3.4)

    The lumbar vertebrae (Fig. 3.5)

    The sacrum (Fig. 3.6)

    Figure 3.2 • The atlas. (A) diagram of superior view. (B) 3D CT of atlas viewed from above. (C) T2 MRI through lateral masses of atlas showing the course of the upper part of the vertebral arteries.(B) 1Anterior tubercle2Transverse process3Foramen transversarium4Superior articular facet5Groove for vertical artery6Posterior arch7Posterior tubercle(C) 1Dens2Lateral mass of atlas3Vertebral artery4Spinal cord

    The coccyx

    Radiological features of the vertebrae

    Radiographs of the vertebral column (Figs 3.7–3.9)

    Figure 3.3 • The axis. (A) Lateral view. (B) Anterior view. (C) Anterior view of 3D CT of upper cervical vertebrae.(C) 1Occipital condyle2Atlas3Anterior arch of atlas4Dens5Atlantoaxial joint6Body of axis

    Figure 3.4 • Typical thoracic vertebra. (A) Lateral view. (B) Superior view. (C) 3D CT of thoracic vertebrae and ribs, lateral view.(C) 1Vertebral body2Intervertebral disc3Pedicle4Facet joint5Rib

    Figure 3.5 • Typical lumbar vertebra. (A) Lateral view. (B) Superior view. (C) 3D CT of lumbosacral spine.(C) 1Vertebral body2Intervertebral disc3Transverse process4Facet joint5Pars interarticularis6Spinous process

    Figure 3.6 • The sacrum, 3D CT. (A) Pelvic surface. (B) Dorsal surface. (C) Lateral view of the sacrum showing the sacroiliac joint surface.(A) 1Sacral promontory2Ala3Pelvic sacral foramina(B) 1Superior articular process2Upper end of sacral canal3Depressions for sacroiliac ligament4Spinous tubercle5Dorsal sacral foramen6Lower end of sacral canal(C) 1Spinous tubercle2Superior articular facet3Sacral promontory4Depressions for sacroiliac ligament5Auricular surface

    Figure 3.7 • Lateral radiograph of the cervical spine. 1Anterior arch of atlas2Dens3Body of axis4Posterior arch of atlas5Pedicle6Lamina7Spinous process8Articular facets

    Figure 3.8 • AP radiograph of thoracic spine. 1Trachea2Spinous process of C73Left transverse process of C74Tubercle of first rib, articulating with transverse process of T15Medial end of clavicle.6Superior margin of manubrium sterni7Lateral margin of manubrium sterni8Left pedicle of T59T5/T6 intervertebral disc space10Tubercle of seventh rib, articulating with transverse process of T711Head of eighth rib12Neck of eighth rib13Shaft of eighth rib14Left paraspinal line15Left transverse process of L116Dome of left hemidiaphragm

    Figure 3.9 • Oblique radiograph of lumbar spine. 1Vertebral body of L22Superior articular process of L33Pedicle of L34Pars interarticularis5Transverse process of L36Transverse process of L37Inferior articular process of L38Spinous process of L2

    Radiology pearl

    Radiographs of the cervical spine

    Radiology pearl

    Radiographs of the thoracic spine (Fig. 3.8)

    Radiographs of the lumbar spine

    Computed tomography (Figs 3.1–3.6 and 3.10)

    Figure 3.10 • CT scan (A) through L4 vertebral body, (B) through L4/L5 intervertebral disc space.(A) 1Body of L42Right lamina of L43Spinous process of L44Thecal sac containing cauda equina5Epidural veins6Dorsal root ganglia of L4 nerve7Intervertebral foramen of L4/L58Psoas muscles9Erector spinae muscles(B) 1Disc of L4/L52Inferior articular process of L43Superior articular process of L54Right lamina of L55Spinous process of L56Ligamentum flavum

    Radiology pearl

    Magnetic resonance imaging (Fig. 3.11)

    Figure 3.11 • MRI of the cervical spine. (A) Midline sagittal T1-weighted and (B) fat-suppressed inversion recovery images. 1Obliquus capitis superior2Rectus capitis posterior minor3Semispinalis capitis muscle4Ligamentum nuchae5Interspinous ligament6Spinous process of C77Spinal cord8C4 vertebral body9Posterior longitudinal ligament10Odontoid peg11Anterior arch of C112Medulla oblongata13Vertebral body haemangioma14Ligamentum flavum15Basivertebral vein16Anterior longitudinal ligament(C) Axial T2-weighted image in the midcervical spine at the level of the true vocal cords or fourth cervical vertebral body. 1Thyroid cartilage and vocal cords2Vertebral body and longus colli muscles3Ventral nerve root4Sternocleidomastoid muscle5Scalenus medius6Vertebral artery in the foramen transversarium7Levator scapulae8Semispinalis cervicis9Semispinalis capitis10Trapezius11Splenius capitis12Splenius capitis13Facet joint14Carotid sheath15Posterior nerve root

    Ossification of the vertebrae (Fig. 3.12)

    Figure 3.12 • Ossification of the cervical spine, CT of 2-year-old boy: (A) axial image through C1 and C2; (B) midline sagittal CT reconstruction of cervical spine.(A) 1Ossification centre for anterior arch of atlas2Dens3Ossification for left lateral mass(B) 1Ossification centre for odontoid2Ossification centre for body of axis

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Joints of the vertebral column

    Radiological features of the joints of the vertebral column

    Plain radiographs (Figs 3.7–3.9)

    Facet (apophyseal joint) arthrography

    Computed tomography

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    The C1/C2 articulation

    Lumbar facet joints

    Radiology pearl

    Ligaments of the vertebral column (Figs 3.13, 3.14)

    Radiological features of the ligaments of the vertebral column

    Lumbar puncture for myelography

    Myelogram

    CT and MRI (Figs 3.10, 3.11)

    The intervertebral discs

    Figure 3.13 • MRI of the lumbar spine: (A) T1-weighted midline sagittal and (B) T2-weighted midline sagittal images. 1Posterior epidural space2Interspinous ligament3Subcutaneous fat4Latissimus dorsi muscle attachments5Spinous process of L46Anterior epidural fat pad7Presacral fat space8Intervertebral disc (central nucleus pulposus)9Basivertebral vein10L2 vertebral body11Conus at L112Cauda equina nerve roots13Posterior longitudinal ligament Sequential axial images through L5 to S1: (C) at the level of the inferior endplate of L5; (D) at the level of the L5/S1 disc; (E) at the level of the superior endplate of S1; (F) at the level of the mid-S1 vertebral body. 1L5 vertebral body2Common iliac veins3Psoas muscle4L5 nerve root (exited at foramen above the L5/S1 disc space)5S1 nerve root in the lateral recess6Thecal sac7Posterior epidural space8Erector spinae muscle9Lamina of L510Inferior articular facet of L511Superior articular facet of S112L5/S1 intervertebral disc13Spinous process of L514Exit foramen at L5/S115Central disc bulge to anterior epidural fat16Pedicle of S117L5/S1 facet joint18Transverse process of S1 (sacral ala)19S1 vertebral body20Presacral plexus21Anterior epidural space

    Somatic and autonomic nerve supply to the lumbar intervertebral disc

    Figure 3.14 • Ligaments of the vertebral column.

    Radiological features of the intervertebral discs

    Plain radiographs

    Discography

    Computed tomography (Fig. 3.10)

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Intranuclear cleft

    Blood supply of the vertebral column

    Figure 3.15 • (A) Cross-section of the thoracic spinal cord. (B) Cross-section of the spinal cord showing the main descending tracts (on right) and ascending tracts (on left).

    Radiological features of the blood supply of the vertebral column

    Spinal angiography

    The spinal cord (Fig. 3.15)

    Radiology pearl

    Cross-section of the spinal cord (Fig. 3.15)

    Figure 3.16 • Dermatomes of (A) legs and (B) arms.

    The lateral recess

    The neural foramen

    Figure 3.17 • Meninges of the spinal cord.

    The spinal meninges (Fig. 3.17)

    Blood supply of the spinal cord (Fig. 3.18)

    Venous drainage of the spinal cord

    Figure 3.18 • Arterial supply of the spinal cord. (A) Axial section. (B) Coronal view.

    Radiological features of the spinal cord, its meninges and blood supply

    Myelographic technique

    Myelographic appearance

    Cervical

    Thoracic

    Lumbar (Fig. 3.19)

    Figure 3.19 • Lumbar myelogram: left posterior oblique view to show nerve roots. Below the level of C7 each nerve root emerges below the pedicle of its corresponding vertebral body. 1Nerves of the cauda equina in the thecal sac, outlined by contrast2Body of L43Left superior articular process of L44Left pedicle of L45Left L4 root6Left L5 nerve root7L4/L5 disc space

    The epidural space

    Computed tomography (Fig. 3.10)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (Figs 3.11, 3.13)

    Figure 3.20 • Spinal ultrasound. (A) Composite sagittal view of lower cord and conus. (B) Transverse section through spinal cord.(A) 1Dura2Vertebral bodies3Central echo complex4Conus5Cauda equina(B) 1Dorsal nerve root2Denticulate ligament3Ventral nerve root4Anterior median sulcus

    Spinal ultrasound (Fig. 3.20)

    Spinal angiography (Fig. 3.21)

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 3.21 • (A) Coronal MR angiogram. The anterior spinal artery (arrowhead) is seen within the cervical region anterior to the cord. In this patient the artery arises from the right vertebral artery (arrow). No radiculomedullary feeders are visualized. From Sheehy N, Boyle G, Meaney JFM 2005 High-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MRA of the normal anterior spinal arteries within the cervical region. Radiology 236(2):637–641, with permission of the authors. (B) Angiogram.(B) 1Arteria radicularis magna2Anterior spinal artery3Intercostal arteries4Aorta

    Therapeutic interventions

    4 The thorax

    The thoracic cage

    The ribs

    The typical rib (Fig. 4.1)

    Atypical ribs

    First rib (Fig. 4.2)

    Second rib

    Tenth rib

    Eleventh rib

    Twelfth rib

    Figure 4.1 • A typical rib.

    Figure 4.2 • (A) First rib; (B) structures crossing first rib.

    Radiology pearl

    Costal cartilages

    The intercostal space and vessels

    Intercostal arteries

    Posterior

    Anterior

    Intercostal veins

    Posterior (see Fig. 4.39)

    Anterior

    Radiology pearl

    Muscles of the thoracic cage (see Figs 4.45, 4.46)

    Radiological features of the thoracic cage (Fig. 4.3)

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    The sternum (Fig. 4.4A)

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 4.3 • Ribs. (A) Subcostal groove clearly visible below the second left rib (arrowheads). Note also the scalene tubercle on the first rib (arrow).(B) Prominence on upper surface of the second rib due to the insertion of part of scalenus anterior muscle.(C) Cervical rib – a well-developed bony cervical rib on the left side (arrows).

    Radiological features of the sternum

    Plain films

    Radiology pearl

    Ossification of the sternum

    Computed tomography and MRI of the sternum (Fig. 4.4B, C)

    Figure 4.4 • The sternum. (A) Coronal reformatted CT image of the sternum and (B) MRI of the sternum.

    Radiology pearl

    The diaphragm (Fig. 4.5)

    Openings in the diaphragm

    Structures that pierce the diaphragm

    Figure 4.5 • Diaphragm. (A) View from below showing origin and openings; CC, costal cartilage. (B) Crura and arcuate ligaments; LV, lumbar vertebra. (C and D) Crura of the diaphragm as seen on axial (C) and coronal (D) MRI. 1Right crus of diaphragm2Left crus of diaphragm3IVC4Aorta5Vertebral body6Spinal cord7Pedicle8Lamina9Psoas muscle

    Blood supply to the diaphragm

    Nerve supply to the diaphragm

    Radiological features of the diaphragm (Fig. 4.5)

    PA chest radiograph (Fig. 4.6)

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Lateral chest radiograph (Fig. 4.7)

    Curvature of the dome

    Ultrasound

    Computed tomography

    Radiology pearl

    Magnetic resonance imaging (see Fig. 4.5)

    The pleura (Figs 4.8, 4.9)

    Figure 4.6 • PA chest radiograph. 1Posterior junctional line2Anterior junctional line3Azygo-oesophageal line4Lateral wall of descending aorta5Aortic knuckle6Aortopulmonary window7Pulmonary trunk/left pulmonary artery8Left superior pulmonary vein9Left inferior pulmonary artery10Left hilar point11Right superior pulmonary vein12Interlobar artery13Right hilar point14Trachea15Right main bronchus16Left main bronchus17Azygos vein and position of azygos node18Position of left atrial appendage19Left ventricle20Right atrium21Inferior aspect of left brachiocephalic vein22Medial end of right clavicle23Right lateral aspect of manubrium sterni24Spinous process of T125Superior surface of clavicle26Companion shadow of clavicle27Medial aspect of right scapula28Coracoid process of right scapula29Dome of right hemidiaphragm30Dome of left hemidiaphragm31Stomach bubble32Gas in splenic flexure of colon

    Figure 4.7 • Lateral chest radiograph. 1Anterior wall of trachea2Posterior tracheal stripe3Scapulae4Left lower-lobe bronchus5Right lower-lobe bronchus6Aorta (not well seen)7Vertebral body of T48Anterior aspect of right ventricle9Pulmonary outflow tract10Main pulmonary artery11Right pulmonary artery12Left pulmonary artery13Left atrium14Left ventricle15Inferior vena cava16Horizontal (minor) fissure17Oblique (major) fissure18Sternum19Manubriosternal joint20Left hemidiaphragm21Right hemidiaphragm22Stomach bubble23Lung projected anterior to sternum in intercostal space24Retrosternal airspace

    Table 4.1 Lower limits of lung and pleura at rest

    Radiological features of the pleura

    Plain films

    Computed tomography

    Figure 4.8 • Pleura: (A) anterior view; (B) posterior view.

    Figure 4.9 • (A) PA chest radiograph; (B) axial high-resolution CT scan of lungs which shows fissures as fine white lines (arrows). 1Posterior junction line (arrows)2Azygo-oesophageal line

    The trachea and bronchi (Figs 4.10–4.12)

    The trachea

    Relations of the trachea

    Cervical (see Figs 1.34, 1.35)

    Figure 4.10 • Trachea and main bronchi: anterior relations.

    Figure 4.11 • Diagrammatic representation of normal anatomy: situs solitus.

    Thoracic (see Figs 4.7, 4.17, 4.45, 4.46)

    Blood supply of the trachea

    Main bronchi (Figs 4.10–4.12)

    Carina

    Radiology pearl

    The right main bronchus (eparterial bronchus)

    Relations

    Figure 4.12 • Bronchial tree – main and segmental anatomy as seen on bronchography: (A) anterior view; (B) right lateral view; (C) left lateral view; (D) left oblique view.

    Left main bronchus (hyparterial bronchus)

    Relations

    Figure 4.13 • Bronchopulmonary segments as seen on PA chest radiograph: (A) upper lobes; (B) middle lobes; (C) lower lobes.

    Blood supply

    Radiological features

    The lungs (Fig. 4.13)

    Interlobar fissures (see Fig. 4.8)

    The oblique (major) fissure

    The transverse (minor) fissure

    Accessory fissures

    The azygos fissure (Fig. 4.14)

    Figure 4.14 • Azygos fissure: (A) PA chest radiograph; (B) CT thorax. 1Azygos fissure2Azygos vein3Azygos ‘lobe’

    The superior accessory fissure

    The inferior accessory fissure

    Figure 4.15 • Pulmonary arteries.

    Left transverse fissure

    Bronchopulmonary segments (Figs 4.12, 4.13)

    The pulmonary artery (Fig. 4.15; see also Fig. 4.47; see also section on the great vessels, p. 140)

    Figure 4.16 • Pulmonary veins: digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of pulmonary veins draining into left atrium. This angiogram was achieved by passing a venous catheter from the right atrium through a ‘probe-patent’ foramen ovale into the left atrium. 1Right upper pulmonary vein2Left upper pulmonary vein3Catheter4Right inferior pulmonary vein5Left inferior pulmonary vein6Left atrium

    The pulmonary veins (Fig. 4.16)

    The bronchial arteries

    Radiology pearl

    Bronchial veins

    Lymphatics (Fig. 4.17)

    Lung roots (Fig. 4.18)

    Figure 4.17 • Lymph nodes related to the trachea and main bronchi.

    Figure 4.18 • Lung roots: (A) right lung root; (B) left lung root.

    Radiological features of the lung and bronchial tree

    PA chest radiograph (see Fig. 4.6)

    Fissures

    Radiology pearls

    Trachea

    Bronchi

    Bronchopulmonary segments

    Pulmonary vasculature

    Situs inversus

    Lymphatics

    Lateral chest radiograph (Fig. 4.7)

    Fissures

    Trachea

    Bronchi

    Vasculature

    Radiology pearl

    Pulmonary angiography

    Bronchial angiography

    Computed tomography (see Figs 4.43 and 4.45–4.47)

    Fissures

    Bronchi

    Vasculature

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Isotope ventilation–perfusion scanning

    Radiology pearl

    The mediastinal divisions (Fig. 4.19)

    Figure 4.19 • Mediastinal divisions.

    Figure 4.20 • Heart: anterior view.

    The heart

    Gross anatomy and orientation (Figs 4.20–4.22; also Figs 4.6, 4.7)

    Figure 4.21 • Heart and mediastinum viewed from right.

    Figure 4.22 • Heart and mediastinum viewed from left.

    Pericardium (Fig. 4.23)

    Radiological features of the pericardium

    CT and MRI (Fig. 4.23)

    Cardiac chambers and valves (Figs 4.20–4.22 and Fig. 4.24)

    Right atrium

    Figure 4.23 • Pericardium: (A) CT scan showing pericardium; (B) CT; and (C) MRI showing pericardial recesses.(A) 1Pericardium2Right ventricle3Left ventricle4Interventricular septum5Aorta6Oesophagus(B) 1Aorta2Superior aortic recess of the transverse sinus3Superior vena cava4Right pulmonary artery5Aorta6Oblique sinus

    Right ventricle

    Figure 4.24 • (A) CT scan of the thorax: axial section through the heart; (B) oblique sagittal MRI through the long axis of heart. 1Right ventricle2Left ventricle3Interventricular septum4Pericardium5Atrioventricular groove6Mitral valve7Papillary muscle8Right atrium9Left atrium10Right pulmonary vein11Oesophagus12Descending aorta13Azygos vein14SVC

    Left atrium

    Left ventricle

    Figure 4.25 • Relationship of aortic and pulmonary valves and origin of right and left pulmonary arteries. RP, right posterior; LP, left posterior; A, anterior; Post, posterior; RA, right anterior; LA, left anterior.

    Figure 4.26 • Right coronary angiogram: (A) left anterior oblique projection; (B) right anterior oblique projection. The AV nodal branch is not seen.(A) 1Sinus artery2Right coronary artery3Conus branch4Right ventricular branch5Posterolateral branch6Posterior descending artery(B) 1Right coronary artery2Right ventricular branch3Conus branch4Posterolateral branch5Posterior descending artery

    The coronary arteries and veins (Figs 4.25–4.28)

    Right coronary artery (Figs 4.26, 4.28)

    Branches

    Figure 4.27 • Left coronary angiogram: (A) right anterior oblique projection; (B) left lateral projection.(A) 1Left main coronary artery2Left anterior descending artery (LAD)3Septal branch4First diagonal branch5Second diagonal branch6Continuation of LAD7Circumflex artery8First obtuse marginal branch9Second obtuse marginal branch(B) 1Left main coronary artery seen end on2Circumflex artery3Obtuse marginals4Posterolateral branch5Left anterior descending artery (LAD)6Septal branch7First diagonal branch8Second diagonal branch9Continuation of LAD

    Left coronary artery (Figs 4.27, 4.28)

    Branches of the anterior descending artery

    Figure 4.28 • The coronary arteries.

    Branches of the left circumflex artery

    Figure 4.29 • The coronary veins.

    The veins of the heart (Fig. 4.29)

    The conducting system of the heart

    Radiology of the heart

    Chest radiography

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    Fluoroscopy

    Echocardiography

    Figure 4.30 • Position of cardiac valves: (A) as seen on AP chest radiograph; (B) as seen on lateral CXR; (C) AP CXR; (D) lateral CXR. P, pulmonary; A, aortic; M, mitral; T, tricuspid.

    Angiocardiography

    Coronary angiography

    Nuclear medicine

    Computed tomography (Fig. 4.31)

    Figure 4 31 • (A, B) CT Coronary angiograms.(A) 1Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)2Diagonal coronary artery3Circumflex coronary artery4Origin of the right coronary artery(B) 1Origin of left main stem coronary artery2Origin of circumflex coronary artery3Left anterior descending coronary artery

    Coronary calcium score

    Relevant CT anatomy

    Variations

    Coronary artery dominance

    Radiology pearl

    Blood supply of the papillary muscles

    Radiology pearl

    Coronary blood flow

    Radiology pearl

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    PET CT (Fig. 4.33)

    The great vessels (see Figs 4.10, 4.20, 4.22, 4.43 and 4.45–4.47)

    The aorta (see Fig. 4.10 and Figs 4.34, 4.35)

    The aortic arch

    Figure 4.32 • (A, B) Coronary MR angiograms.(A) 1Proximal left anterior descending coronary artery(B) 1Right coronary artery2Posterior descending coronary artery

    Figure 4.33 • (A) PET scan and (B) PET CT scan acquired following injection of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) radiotracer showing avid uptake by healthy contracting cardiac muscle. 1Left ventricle2FDG uptake by pathological paratracheal node

    Figure 4.34 • Aortograms: (A) DSA; (B) MR angiogram. 1Brachiocephalic artery2Left common carotid3Left subclavian artery4Ascending aorta5Descending aorta6Angiography catheter7Anterior cusp of aortic valve8Left posterior cusp of aortic valve9Left coronary artery10Left atrium11Left pulmonary artery

    Figure 4.35 • Posterior mediastinum.

    Radiology pearl

    The descending aorta

    Subclavian artery (see Fig. 1.47)

    Pulmonary arteries (Figs 4.15 and 4.20; see also section on the pulmonary artery in the lungs, p. 126)

    Great veins (see Figs 4.10 and 1.44)

    Tributaries of the brachiocephalic veins

    Radiology of the great vessels

    The oesophagus (Figs 4.35, 4.36; see also Figs 4.48–4.52)

    Figure 4.36 • Barium-swallow technique showing the oesophagus: (A) upper oesophagus and oropharynx, lateral view; (B) midoesophagus, right anterior oblique view; (C) distal oesophagus; (D) distal oesophagus in another patient with prominent Schatzki ring.(A) 1Hyoid bone2Cricoid cartilage3Cricoid impression4Cricopharyngeus muscle impression5Postcricoid venous plexus6Oesophagus7Impression caused by osteophytes(B) 1Impression of aortic arch2Impression of left main bronchus(C) 1Cardiac impression (mainly left atrium)2A ring: upper limit of ampulla (vestibule)3B ring (Schatzki ring): lower limit of ampulla4Ampulla (oesophageal vestibule)5Diaphragmatic hiatus6Oesophageal mucosal folds7Oesophagogastric junction (Z-line)8Diaphragm9Air in fundus of stomach(D) 1Schatzki ring2Gastro-oesophageal junction

    Blood supply

    Radiology pearl

    Lymph drainage

    Radiology of the oesophagus (Fig. 4.36)

    Plain films

    Barium studies

    Cross-sectional imaging

    The thoracic duct and mediastinal lymphatics (Figs 4.17, 4.35)

    Radiology pearl

    PET/CT

    The thymus (Figs 4.37, 4.38)

    Radiology of the thymus (Figs 4.37, 4.38)

    Chest radiograph

    CT and MRI

    Ultrasound

    The azygos system (Figs 4.21, 4.35, 4.39, 4.40, 4.46, 4.47)

    Figure 4.37 • Variable appearance of normal thymus on chest radiographs of young children: (A) sail-like; (B) like consolidation of right upper lobe; (C) like mediastinal mass; (D) like cardiomegaly.

    Figure 4.38 • Coronal MRI of thymus: (A) T1-weighted; (B) T2-weighted. 1Left lobe of thymus2Right lobe of thymus3Left ventricle4Ascending aorta5Brachiocephalic vein6Right subclavian vein7Left subclavian vein

    Figure 4.39 • Azygos system.

    Important nerves of the mediastinum

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 4.40 • Axial CT thorax with contrast to show azygos and hemiazygos system of veins: (A) contrast densely opacifies the arch of the azygos vein: (B) accessory hemiazygos vein drains to azygos system (arrows) at T8 level; (C) at a slightly lower level the hemiazygos vein also drains to the azygos vein; (D) below this both the hemiazygos and azygos veins are visible. 1Arch of azygos vein2Accessory hemiazygos vein3Azygos vein4Hemiazygos vein

    The mediastinum on the chest radiograph

    Mediastinal contour on the frontal chest radiograph (Fig. 4.6)

    Figure 4.41 • PA chest radiograph showing an ‘aortic nipple’ (arrows) caused by the left superior intercostal vein as it passes anterior to the arch of the aorta.

    Radiology pearl

    Mediastinal contours on the lateral chest radiograph (Fig. 4.7)

    Figure 4.42 • PA chest radiograph showing the azygo-oesophageal line (arrows).

    The aorta

    Mediastinal lines (Figs 4.6, 4.7, 4.9, 4.42, 4.43)

    Right paratracheal stripe

    Posterior junction line (Fig. 4.9)

    Figure 4.43 • CT scan of thorax: upper T4 level showing mediastinal lines. 1Anterior junction line2Air-filled trachea3Oesophagus4Right paratracheal stripe5Azygo-oesophageal stripe6Superior vena cava7Aortic arch8Right paraspinal line9Left paraspinal line10Azygos vein

    Anterior junction line

    Pleuro-oesophageal line

    Azygo-oesophageal line (Fig. 4.42)

    Paraspinal lines

    Aortopulmonary mediastinal stripe

    Posterior tracheal stripe

    Cross-sectional anatomy

    Level T3 (Fig. 4.44)

    Level T4 (Fig. 4.48)

    Figure 4.44 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T3.

    Figure 4.45 • CT scan of thorax: level T3. 1Body of T32Body of manubrium sterni3Right brachiocephalic vein4Left brachiocephalic vein5Right subclavian artery6Right common carotid artery7Left common carotid artery8Left subclavian artery9Trachea10Oesophagus11Right scapula12Spine of scapula13Erector spinae muscle14Trapezius muscle15Supraspinatus muscle16Infraspinatus muscle17Subscapularis muscle18Deltoid muscle19Fat in axilla20Pectoralis minor muscle21Pectoralis major muscle22Subcutaneous fat

    Figure 4.46 • CT scan of thorax: level T4. 1Body of T42Thecal sac and spinal cord3Arch of aorta4Superior vena cava5Azygos vein6Trachea7Oesophagus8Erector spinae muscle9Trapezius muscle10Infraspinatus muscle11Subscapularis muscle12Pectoralis minor muscle13Pectoralis major muscle

    Figure 4.47 • CT scan of thorax: lower T5 level. 1Body of T52Sternum3Spinous process of T54Ascending aorta5Descending aorta6Superior vena cava7Main pulmonary trunk8Right pulmonary artery9Left pulmonary artery10Carina11Left main bronchus12Oesophagus13Azygos vein14Azygo-oesophageal recess15Mediastinal fat

    Level T5 (Fig. 4.49)

    Level T6 (Fig. 4.50)

    Figure 4.48 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T4.

    Figure 4.49 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T5.

    Figure 4.50 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T6.

    Figure 4.51 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T8.

    Figure 4.52 • Cross-sectional anatomy: level T10.

    Level T8 (Fig. 4.51)

    Level T10 (Fig. 4.52)

    5 The abdomen

    Anterior abdominal wall

    Muscle layers

    Umbilical ligaments (see Fig. 6.13)

    Properitoneal fat

    Radiological features of the anterior abdominal wall

    Plain films of the abdomen (Fig. 5.1)

    Radiology pearl

    CT of the abdomen (Figs 5.2–5.4, 5.46, 6.13B)

    Radiology pearl

    Radiology pearl

    The stomach (Figs 5.5–5.9)

    Radiology pearl

    Anterior relations of the stomach

    Posterior relations of the stomach (Fig. 5.6)

    Figure 5.1 • Plain film of abdomen. 1Internal oblique muscle2Fat between internal oblique muscle and transversus abdominis muscle3Transversus abdominis muscle4Properitoneal fat line (extraperitoneal fat layer)5Inferior border of right lobe of liver6Gas in hepatic flexure7Right twelfth rib8Gas in transverse colon9Inferior border of spleen10Left kidney11Left psoas muscle outline12Right psoas muscle outline13Left transverse process of L314Spinous process of L5

    Figure 5.2 • CT scan: level of body of pancreas (T12). 1Left lobe of liver2Right lobe of liver3Gallbladder4Stomach5Portal vein origin6Inferior vena cava7Splenic vein8Body of pancreas9Tail of pancreas10Spleen11Right adrenal gland12Left adrenal gland13Left kidney14Aorta

    Arterial supply of the stomach (Fig. 5.7; see also Figs 5.12, 5.13)

    Figure 5.3 • CT scan: level of pancreatic head (L1). 1Right lobe of liver2Confluence of splenic and superior mesenteric veins to form portal vein3Splenic vein4Head of pancreas5Second part of duodenum6Loops of small bowel7Hepatic flexure8Descending colon9Spleen10Aorta11Superior mesenteric artery12Inferior vena cava13Left adrenal gland14Right kidney15Renal cortex16Renal pyramid in renal medulla17Rectus abdominis muscle18Transversus abdominis muscle19Latissimus dorsi muscle20Erector spinae muscle

    The venous drainage of the stomach (Fig. 5.8)

    Figure 5.4 • CT scan: level of renal hila (L2). 1Right lobe of liver2Aorta3Inferior vena cava4Right renal vein5Left renal vein6Left renal artery7Superior mesenteric artery8Third part of duodenum passing between aorta and superior mesenteric artery9Loops of small bowel10Ascending colon11Transverse colon12Descending colon13Psoas muscle14Lower end crus of right hemidiaphragm15Lower end crus of left hemidiaphragm16Right renal pelvis17Rectus abdominis muscle18Transversus abdominis muscle19Internal oblique muscle20External oblique muscle21Latissimus dorsi muscle22Erector spinae muscle23Gerota's fascia24Fascia of Zuckerkandl25Lateral conal fascia (fusion of Gerota's fascia and fascia of Zuckerkandl)

    Figure 5.5 • The stomach.

    Lymph drainage of the stomach

    Radiological features of the stomach

    Plain film of the abdomen (see Fig. 5.1)

    Double-contrast barium-meal examination (Fig. 5.9)

    Radiology pearls

    CT and MRI of the stomach

    Figure 5.6 • Posterior relations of the stomach (viewed from anterior through the stomach).

    Figure 5.7 • Arterial supply of the stomach.

    Figure 5.8 • Venous drainage of stomach.

    Figure 5.9 • Barium-meal technique. This film demonstrates the various rugal and mucosal folds in the stomach and in the non-distended duodenum. 1Lesser curve of stomach2Greater curve of stomach3Longitudinal mucosal folds (‘magenstrasse’)4Gastric rugae5Areae gastricae6Incisura7Duodenal bulb (partially gas-distended)8Mucosal pattern of non-distended duodenum

    Figure 5.10 • CT upper abdomen: level of gastro-oesophageal junction (T10). 1Left lobe of liver2Right lobe of liver3Right branch of portal vein4Fissure for ligamentum venosum5Contrast medium in stomach6Spleen7Descending aorta8Azygos vein9Hemiazygos vein10Splenic flexure11Left lung12Left diaphragm13Rectus abdominis muscle14External oblique muscle15Serratus anterior muscle16Latissimus dorsi muscle17Erector spinae muscle18Oesophagogastric junction

    Radiology pearls

    Ultrasound studies of the abdomen

    Figure 5.11 • CT abdomen: level of body of stomach (T11). 1Left lobe of liver: lateral segment2Left lobe of liver: medial segment3Right lobe of liver4Caudate lobe of liver5Fissure for ligamentum teres6Interlobar fissure (for ligamentum venosum)7Inferior vena cava8Portal vein9Right branch of portal vein10Gallbladder11Hepatic artery12Abdominal aorta13Splenic artery14Spleen15Splenic vein16Left crus of diaphragm17Left adrenal gland18Right adrenal gland19Stomach20Splenic flexure21Linea alba (aponeurosis of rectus sheath)

    Figure 5.12 • Coeliac axis angiogram. 1Catheter in aorta2Catheter tip in coeliac trunk3Splenic artery4Left gastric artery5Common hepatic artery6Hepatic artery proper7Left hepatic artery8Right hepatic artery9Right gastric artery10Cystic artery11Gastroduodenal artery12Right gastroepiploic artery13Left gastroepiploic artery14Posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery15Anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery16Dorsal pancreatic artery17Transverse pancreatic artery18Gastric branches of gastroepiploic artery19Phrenic branch of left hepatic artery20Contrast in right renal pelvis21Left ureter

    Radiology pearl

    Angiography of the coeliac trunk (Figs 5.12, 5.13)

    Radiology pearl

    The duodenum (Figs 5.14, 5.15)

    Figure 5.13 • Branches of the coeliac artery.

    Figure 5.14 • Duodenum: arterial supply.

    Figure 5.15 • Barium follow-through study of the small bowel. Notice the feathery mucosal pattern of the jejunum compared with the more featureless ileum. The presence of generous mesenteric fat is separating the bowel loops slightly. The valvulae conniventes are thicker and more prominent in the jejunum. The highest part of the duodenum (marking the ligament of Treitz) is hidden by the stomach. Contrast has passed into the colon. Notice the high position of the splenic flexure. Notice the normal linear mucosal pattern of the collapsed colon due to its longitudinal muscle bands (taenia) and its sacculations. 1Sacculation2Collapsed transverse colon3Duodenal bulb4Stomach5Splenic flexure6Duodenojejunal junction7Jejunum8Ileum

    Arterial supply (Fig. 5.14)

    Venous drainage

    Lymphatic drainage

    Radiological features of the duodenum

    Barium studies of the duodenum (Figs 5.9, 5.15)

    Radiology pearls

    Angiography

    Ultrasound

    The small intestine

    Figure 5.16 • Posterior abdominal wall showing peritoneal attachment of mesentery.

    Arterial supply of the small intestine (Figs 5.20, 5.21)

    Venous drainage of the small intestine

    Lymphatic drainage of the small intestine

    Meckel's diverticulum

    Table 5.1 Comparison between jejunum and ileum

    Radiology pearl

    Radiological features of the small intestine

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Barium studies of the small intestine (Fig. 5.15)

    Computed tomography (Figs 5.2–5.4; Fig. 5.59)

    Angiography (Fig. 5.20)

    The ileocaecal valve (Fig. 5.17)

    Radiological features of the ileocaecal valve

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Barium-enema examinations

    Radiology pearl

    Computed tomography

    The appendix (Figs 5.17–5.19)

    Figure 5.17 • Internal view of caecum showing ileocaecal valve and appendix.

    Figure 5.18 • Variation in position of appendix.

    Radiology pearl

    Radiological features of the appendix

    Plain abdominal film

    Ultrasound

    Radiology pearl

    Barium enema (Fig. 5.19A)

    CT and MRI

    Appendiceal abscess

    The large intestine (Fig. 5.19; see also sections on the rectum and anal canal in Chapter 6)

    Radiology pearl

    Figure 5.19 • (A) Barium study of the colon. (B) Reformatted CT colonogram 1Rectum2Valve of Houston (lateral mucosal fold)3Sigmoid colon4Descending colon5Splenic flexure6Transverse colon7Hepatic flexure8Ascending colon9Caecum10Caecal pole11Base of appendix12Tip of appendix

    Peritoneal attachments of the colon (Fig. 5.16)

    Figure 5.20 • Superior mesenteric angiogram. The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (not shown) also arises from the proximal superior mesenteric artery and runs superiorly. 1Catheter in aorta2Superior mesenteric artery3Jejunal branches4Ileal branches5Terminal superior mesenteric artery6Ileocolic artery7Right colic artery8Middle colic artery running superiorly9Contrast-filled bladder

    Figure 5.21 • Branches of the superior mesenteric artery.

    Figure 5.22 • Inferior mesenteric angiogram. 1Catheter in right common iliac artery2Catheter in aorta3Inferior mesenteric artery4Left colic artery5Sigmoid arteries6Marginal artery of Drummond7Superior rectal artery and branches8Middle rectal artery (filling by reflux: a branch of the internal iliac artery)9Gas in ascending colon10Descending colon11Sigmoid colon12Rectum

    Relations of the colon

    The arterial supply of the colon (Figs 5.20–5.23; see also section on the rectum in Chapter 6)

    Figure 5.23 • Branches of the inferior mesenteric artery.

    Table 5.2 Anatomical features of small and large intestine in intestinal obstruction

    Radiology pearl

    Venous drainage of the colon

    Lymphatic drainage of the colon

    Development of the colon

    Radiological features of the colon

    Plain films of the abdomen (Fig. 5.1)

    Radiology pearl

    Double-contrast barium-enema examination (Fig. 5.19A)

    Radiology pearls

    Angiography

    CT of the abdomen (Figs 5.19B, 5.54–5.59)

    The liver (Figs 5.24–5.26)

    Figure 5.24 • Liver: (A) anterior view; (B) posterior view; (C) view through the liver.

    Figure 5.25 • Segmental anatomy of liver.

    Old lobar anatomy

    Figure 5.26 • Schematic view of segmental anatomy of liver. This division is based on the principal divisions of the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic veins run between the segments.

    Table 5.3 Surgical and traditional anatomical terminology

    Segmental liver anatomy (Figs 5.25, 5.26; Table 5.3)

    The arterial supply of the liver

    Variations in arterial supply to the liver

    Portal vein (Fig. 5.27)

    Figure 5.27 • Portal vein: segmental anatomy. Usual configuration (>90% cases).

    Figure 5.28 • Axial CT of the upper abdomen. The caudate lobe demonstrates focal fatty infiltration resulting in its relatively low density. Note the vein draining directly into the inferior vena cava (arrow).

    Venous drainage of the liver (Figs 5.28, 5.29)

    Lymphatic drainage of the liver

    Radiological features of the liver

    Plain films of the abdomen (see Fig. 5.1)

    CT and MRI (Figs 5.2–5.4, 5.10, 5.11, 5.55–5.59)

    Figure 5.29 • Ultrasound of liver. (A) Transverse image showing confluence of hepatic veins. In this case, two middle hepatic veins join close to the confluence. (B) Sagittal section through the left lobe of the liver to show gastro-oesophageal junction. (C) Sagittal section of IVC in liver.(A) 1IVC2Left hepatic vein3Middle hepatic veins4Right hepatic vein(B) 1Left lobe of liver2Gastro-oesophageal junction3Aorta4Spine(C) 1IVC2Right renal artery3Right lobe of liver

    Radiology pearls

    Ultrasound (Fig. 5.29)

    Radiology pearls

    Hepatic arteriography (Fig. 5.12)

    CT angioportography (CTAP)

    Hepatic artery embolization

    Radiology pearls

    Portal venography

    Hepatic venography

    Radiology pearls

    Hepatic scintigraphy

    The biliary system (Figs 5.30, 5.31)

    The gallbladder

    The relations of the gallbladder

    Normal variants

    Figure 5.30 • The biliary system and its relations.

    Figure 5.31 • Variation in the relationship of bile ducts, and hepatic artery at the porta hepatis. (A) In two-thirds of individuals the bile duct is anterior to the right hepatic artery. (B) In one quarter the bile duct passes behind the artery. (C) In 12% the right hepatic artery arises from the SMA and passes behind the bile duct.

    Figure 5.32 • Variation in relationship of hepatic artery and portal vein.

    Arterial supply

    Venous drainage

    Bile ducts (Figs 5.30–5.36)

    Figure 5.33 • Segmental biliary drainage. (A) Usual configuration. (B) Commonest variations. RAD = right anterior bile duct; RPD = right posterior bile duct; LHD = left hepatic duct; RHD = right hepatic duct; CHD = common hepatic duct.

    Figure 5.34 • Ultrasound of porta hepatis: usual configuration of portal vein, bile duct and hepatic artery. 1Portal vein2Common bile duct3Hepatic artery

    Variation in the biliary ducts

    Radiology pearls

    Figure 5.35 • ERCP study of the pancreaticobiliary tree. 1Endoscope2Pancreatic duct3Common hepatic duct4Cystic duct5Left hepatic duct6Right hepatic ducts7Gallbladder8Gas in fundus of stomach9Gas in duodenum10Right hemidiaphragm

    Radiological features of the biliary system

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Ultrasound examination of the biliary system (Fig. 5.34)

    Radiology pearls

    Contrast examinations (Fig. 5.35)

    Radiology pearls

    Figure 5.36 • MR cholangiopancreaticogram. Coronally-acquired HASTE images demonstrate parts of the bile duct and pancreatic duct. This is a water-sensitive sequence in which fluid is bright. (A) This section shows the intrapancreatic common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Part of the pancreatic duct is seen in the body of the pancreas. Note – right lobe of liver is prolonged inferiorly in a ‘Reidl's lobe’. (B) The cystic duct confluence with the common hepatic duct is seen.(A) 1Confluence of cystic and bile duct2Right hepatic duct3Left hepatic duct4Pancreatic duct in body of pancreas5Stomach6Gallbladder7Portal vein8Right lobe of liver9Left lobe of liver10Duodenum(B) 1Confluence of pancreatic and bile ducts2Common duct3Pancreatic duct4Gallbladder5Stomach6Duodenum

    MR cholangiography (Fig. 5.36)

    CT of the biliary tree

    Scintigraphy of the biliary system using 99mTc HIDA

    The pancreas (Figs 5.36–5.42)

    The pancreatic ducts and their development (Figs 5.38–5.40)

    Radiology pearl

    Variations in pancreatic anatomy

    Radiology pearls

    Arterial supply of the pancreas (Fig. 5.41)

    Venous drainage of the pancreas

    Lymphatic drainage

    Radiological features of the pancreas

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Radiology pearls

    Figure 5.37 • Pancreatic ducts.

    Figure 5.38 • Development of the pancreas: (A) appearance of two ventral and one dorsal pancreatic buds; (B) development of one ventral and one dorsal bud; (C) fusion of the ventral and dorsal buds.

    Figure 5.39 • Variation in anatomy of the pancreatic ducts: (A) atrophic accessory duct persists as a tiny accessory duct in 60%; (B) accessory (upper) duct atrophies completely – no connection with duodenum (20%); (C) major and minor ducts open separately and do not communicate (pancreas divisum) (10%); (D) both ducts persist, communicate and open separately (10%).

    Hypotonic duodenography

    Ultrasound of the pancreas (Fig. 5.42)

    Radiology pearl

    Computed tomography (Figs 5.2, 5.3, 5.40)

    Figure 5.40 • CT pancreas. Images obtained in portal venous phase after injection of fast bolus of contrast. (A) This level shows part of the tortuous splenic artery and the highest parts of the pancreas – the body anterior to the portosplenic confluence and the tail. A short segment of the duct is visible in this case. (B) Note the position of the gastroduodenal artery relative to the common bile duct in the head of the pancreas. Note left renal vein passing between aorta and SMA.(C) The distal pancreatic duct and distal pancreatic ducts are visible. Note how the uncinate process tucks in behind the superior mesenteric vessels. The duodenum also passes between aorta and SMA – note position of third part. Note the combination of opacified blood (from renal veins) and unopacified blood (from lower body) in IVC, because images are taken before the contrast has had a chance to circulate the body fully. After a few more cardiac cycles, the contrast will be homogeneously dense, before washing out of the vessels. 1Pancreatic body2Pancreatic head3Pancreatic tail4Uncinate process5Pancreatic duct6Common bile duct7Hepatic artery8Gastroduodenal artery9SMV10SMA11Duodenum (first part)12Duodenum (second part)13Duodenum (third part)14Left renal vein

    Figure 5.41 • Arterial supply of pancreas.

    Figure 5.42 • Ultrasound of upper abdomen: transverse image through head and body of pancreas. 1Skin surface2Left lobe of liver3Head of pancreas4Neck of pancreas5Body of pancreas6Splenic vein7Confluence of splenic and superior mesenteric veins to form portal vein8Aorta9Superior mesenteric artery10Fat around superior mesenteric artery11Left renal vein12Inferior vena cava (collapsed)13Right renal vein14Vertebral body

    MRI of the pancreas (Fig. 5.36)

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (Fig. 5.35)

    Angiography of the pancreas

    Venography of the pancreas

    The spleen (Fig. 5.46A, B)

    Blood supply of the spleen

    Variants

    Radiological features of the spleen

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Ultrasound of the spleen

    Figure 5.43 • Portal venous system.

    Computed tomography (Figs 5.2, 5.3, 5.10, 5.11, 5.46)

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Radiology pearls

    Scintigraphy

    Portography

    The portal venous system (Figs 5.43, 5.44)

    Superior mesenteric vein

    Figure 5.44 • Portosystemic communications.

    Inferior mesenteric vein

    The splenic vein

    The portal vein

    Table 5.4 Portosystemic anastomoses

    Portosystemic anastomoses (Fig. 5.44)

    Radiological features of the portal venous system

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Radiology pearls

    Ultrasound (Fig. 5.34)

    Radiology pearl

    Computed tomography (Figs 5.2, 5.3, 5.10, 5.11)

    Radiology pearl

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Portography

    Direct portography

    Indirect portography

    The kidneys (Figs 5.45–5.48)

    Figure 5.45 • Structure of kidney.

    Figure 5.46 • (A, B) Coronal reformatted CT of the abdomen showing kidneys and their relations. 1Right kidney (lower pole)2Left kidney (upper pole)3Renal pelvis4Left adrenal5Right adrenal6Crus right hemidiaphragm7Crus left hemidiaphragm8Aorta9IVC10Spleen11Liver12Tail of pancreas13Splenic flexure14Psoas muscle15Iliacus muscle16Transversus abdominis muscle17Internal oblique muscle18External oblique muscle19Gluteus maximus muscle20Gluteus medius muscle21Left hemidiaphragm22Hilum of spleen23Fundus of stomach

    The relations of the kidneys

    Blood supply of the kidneys

    Figure 5.47 • Fascial spaces of the retroperitoneum.

    Venous drainage

    Lymphatic drainage

    Fascial spaces around the kidneys (Figs 5.46, 5.47)

    Figure 5.48 • Intravenous urogram. The right kidney has three major calyces. The left kidney has two major calyces, and a bifid pelvis. Note the course of the lower ureters. The distal part of the ureter passes behind the bladder. 1Right upper-pole (major) calyx2Right middle (major) calyx3Right lower-pole (major) calyx4Left upper-pole (major) calyx5Left lower-pole (major) calyx6Minor calyx (infundibulum of)7Papilla8Infundibulum9Fornix10Bifid left renal pelvis11Right renal pelvis12Right ureter13Left ureter: vascular impression14Upper pole right kidney15Right psoas outline16Gas in body of stomach17Gas in transverse colon18Intravesical ureter

    The development of the kidney

    Developmental abnormalities and variants

    Radiology pearls

    Radiological features of the kidney

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Intravenous urography (Fig. 5.48)

    Ultrasound examination of the kidneys

    Radiology pearls

    CT and MRI (Figs 5.3, 5.4, 5.46)

    Arteriography of the kidneys

    Renal venography

    Interventional procedures in the kidney

    Radiology pearls

    Scintigraphy of the kidney

    The ureter (Fig. 5.48)

    Blood supply of the ureter

    The development of the ureter

    Developmental abnormalities and variants

    Radiological features of the ureter

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Intravenous urography (Fig. 5.48)

    Ultrasound

    Computed tomography

    MR urography

    Radiology pearl

    The adrenal glands (Figs 5.11, 5.46)

    Arterial supply

    Venous drainage

    Variants

    Radiological features of the adrenal glands

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Computed tomography (Figs 5.11, 5.46, 5.55, 5.56)

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Ultrasound

    Adrenal venography

    Arteriography of the adrenal gland

    The abdominal aorta (Fig. 5.49; see also Fig. 6.11)

    Figure 5.49 • Major branches of the aorta. (A) Ventral unpaired branches – the coeliac artery, superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery. Lateral paired branches – the lumbar arteries and the common iliac arteries. (B) Other lateral paired branches.

    Branches of the abdominal aorta

    Radiological features of the aorta

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Ultrasound

    Computed tomography

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Angiography (Figs 5.12, 5.20, 5.22, 6.11)

    The inferior vena cava

    Tributaries of the inferior vena cava

    Embryology and variants

    Radiology of the inferior vena cava

    Chest radiography

    Cavography

    Ultrasound

    Computed tomography

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Figure 5.50 • Veins of the posterior abdominal wall.

    Veins of the posterior abdominal wall (Fig. 5.50)

    Radiological features of the veins of the posterior abdominal wall

    CT and MRI

    Lymphatic drainage of the abdomen (Table 5.5)

    Preaortic nodes

    Table 5.5 Normal lymph node size in the abdomen*

    Coeliac nodes

    Superior and inferior mesenteric nodes

    Para-aortic nodes

    Retroaortic nodes

    Cisterna chyli

    Radiological features of the abdominal lymphatics

    CT and MRI

    Lymphography

    The peritoneal spaces of the abdomen (Figs 5.51–5.53)

    Development and terminology of the mesentery and peritoneal spaces

    Figure 5.51 • Embryological development of peritoneal spaces: (A) fetus at fifth week; (B) fetus at tenth week; (C) maturity.

    Figure 5.52 • Peritoneal spaces and ligaments: transverse section.

    The lesser sac and associated ligaments (Figs 5.52, 5.53)

    Boundaries of the epiploic foramen

    Figure 5.53 • Peritoneal attachments to posterior abdominal wall and sagittal sections to show peritoneal spaces. (A) This section passes through the right lobe of liver and right kidney. Note the position of the bare area of the liver, where fluid cannot abut the liver in cases of free intra-abdominal fluid. The right subphrenic space communicates with the right subhepatic space around the front of the liver. (B) This section passes through the liver, stomach, colon with its greater and lesser omenta, and the retroperitoneal duodenum and pancreas. Note that the lesser omentum runs up into the fissure for the ligamentum venosum in the liver. The free lower edge of this contains the vessels running to and from the porta of the liver: hepatic artery portal vein and bile duct. (C) Section through left lobe of liver, stomach with lesser sac behind and colon. Pancreas, duodenum and left kidney are retroperitoneal. Note that the lesser sac extends up to the left subphrenic space. (D) Section through spleen. Note splenorenal and gastrosplenic ligaments.

    Recesses of the lesser sac

    Ligaments of the lesser sac

    Radiology pearls

    Subphrenic and subhepatic spaces and associated ligaments

    Radiology pearl

    Inframesocolic mesenteries and spaces

    Radiological features of the peritoneal spaces

    Plain films of the abdomen

    Ultrasound

    Computed tomography (Fig. 5.54)

    Figure 5.54 • Axial CT of abdomen. Subject with extensive abdominal fluid. Note the vessels running in the thin mesenteric folds, outlined by fat; and the retroperitoneal location of the ascending and descending colon, the ureters, the aorta and inferior vena cava. 1Ascites2Folds of small bowel mesentery3Small bowel loops4Ascending colon5Descending colon6Transverse colon7IVC8Aorta9Ureter

    Cross-sectional anatomy of the upper abdomen

    Axial section through upper liver and spleen (Fig. 5.55)

    Body wall

    The diaphragm

    Figure 5.55 • Axial CT, upper liver and spleen (T10/T11 approximately). 1Left portal vein2Left hepatic artery in porta3Fissure for ligamentum venosum4Middle hepatic vein5Right portal vein6Caudate lobe (segment I)7Inferior vena cava8Right adrenal gland9Segment VII10Upper pole of right kidney11Eleventh right rib12Segment II13Segment III14Rectus abdominis muscle15Muscles of chest wall16Stomach with air17Anterior left hemidiaphragm18Left lung19Gastric vessels in gastrosplenic ligament20Spleen21Origin of coeliac axis22Aorta23Left crus of diaphragm24Eleventh thoracic vertebra

    Liver

    Spleen

    Other viscera

    Figure 5.56 • Axial CT through porta hepatis (T11 approximately). 1Segment III2Ligamentum teres3Segment IVb4Hepatic artery5Portal vein6Branches of right portal vein7Papillary process of caudate lobe8Segment VI9Upper pole of right kidney10Eleventh right rib11Transverse colon12Stomach13Splenic artery14Part of pancreatic body15Spleen16Coeliac axis17Aorta18Upper pole of left kidney19T11/T12 disc space

    Axial section at the level of the porta of the liver (Fig. 5.56)

    Body wall

    Diaphragm

    Liver

    Adrenal glands

    Spleen

    Other viscera

    Axial section at the level of the body of the pancreas (Fig. 5.57)

    Body wall

    Figure 5.57 • Axial CT at level of body of pancreas (T12/L1). 1Neck of pancreas2Duodenum3Gallbladder4Head of pancreas5Inferior vena cava6Right crus of diaphragm7Renal sinus fat8Right renal vein9Right renal artery branch10Stomach11Splenic flexure12Splenic vein13Body and tail of pancreas14Spleen15Superior mesenteric artery16Left renal artery17Aorta18Left kidney19Confluence of splenic and portal veins

    Liver

    Pancreas

    Other viscera

    Axial section at the level of the pancreatic head and renal hila (Fig. 5.58)

    Body wall

    Liver

    Pancreas

    Kidneys and renal vessels

    The aorta and the inferior vena cava

    Figure 5.58 • Axial CT at level of pancreatic head (L1 approximately). 1Three layers of anterior abdominal wall2Gallbladder3Gastroduodenal artery4Head of pancreas5Duodenum6Renal vein7Branch of right renal artery8Ureter9Right kidney10Psoas muscle11Thecal sac in spinal canal12Transverse colon13Small bowel loops14Splenic flexure15Superior mesenteric vein16Superior mesenteric artery17Inferior pole of spleen18Left kidney at hilum19Left renal vein20Left renal artery21Renal lobulation22Erector spinae muscle

    Figure 5.59 • Axial CT through mid-abdomen (L2/L3). 1Rectus muscle2Transverse colon3Small bowel loops4Mesenteric vessels5Ascending colon6Third part of duodenum7Inferior vena cava8Inferior mesenteric artery9Aorta10External oblique muscle11Internal oblique muscle12Peritoneal fat13Transversus abdominis muscle14Descending colon15Left pole of left kidney16Psoas muscle17Erector spinae muscle18Subcutaneous fat

    Other viscera

    Axial section below the kidneys (Fig. 5.59)

    Body wall

    The duodenum

    The colon and jejunum

    6 The pelvis

    The bony pelvis, muscles and ligaments (Figs 6.1–6.7)

    Radiology pearl

    The sacrum

    Figure 6.1 • Bony pelvis: (A) anterior view of pelvis; (B) inner surface of hemipelvis.

    The coccyx

    The sacroiliac joints

    Figure 6.2 • Pelvic muscles: (A) coronal section; (B) viewed from inside the pelvis.

    Radiology of the pelvic ring

    Plain films

    Anomalous lumbosacral anatomy

    Differences between male and female pelvis

    Cross-sectional imaging

    Figure 6.3 • AP radiograph of male pelvis. 1Spinous process of L5 vertebra2Transverse process of L5 vertebra3Spinous process of first sacral segment4Lateral sacral mass5Ilium6Sacroiliac joint7Sacral foramen of S2 vertebra8Spinous process of S3 vertebra9Coccyx: first segment of three10Iliac crest11Anterior superior iliac spine12Anterior inferior iliac spine13Pelvic brim14Ischial spine15Body of ischium16Ischial tuberosity17Ramus of ischium18Inferior pubic ramus19Body of pubic bone20Pubic symphysis21Superior pubic ramus22Acetabulum23Head of femur24Fovea25Neck of femur26Greater trochanter of femur27Lesser trochanter of femur28Intertrochanteric femur

    The pelvic floor (Figs 6.5–6.7; see also Figs 6.17, 6.21–6.25, 6.27, 6.28)

    Figure 6.4 • CT scan of pelvis: axial section through male bladder. Intravenous contrast has been given. The full bladder displaces small bowel loops superiorly. 1Subcutaneous fat2Rectus abdominis muscle3Iliacus muscle4Psoas muscle and tendon5External iliac vein6External iliac artery7Inferior epigastric vessels8Sartorius muscle9Tensor fasciae latae muscle10Gluteus minimus muscle11Gluteus medius muscle12Gluteus maximus muscle13Piriformis muscle14Obturator internus muscle15Acetabulum16Lower sacral segment: S4 vertebra17Bladder: full of layering urine and contrast18Perivesical fat19Seminal vesicle20Rectum containing air, faeces and contrast medium21Wall of rectum22Perirectal (mesorectal) fat23Perirectal fascia (known as Denonvillier's fascia anteriorly)24Pararectal fat

    Radiology of the pelvic floor

    Dynamic proctography

    Magnetic resonance imaging (Figs 6.5, 6.27, 6.28)

    The sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal (Figs 6.8, 6.9; see Fig. 5.19)

    The sigmoid colon

    Figure 6.5 • MRI pelvis – coronal section through male pelvis: (A) anterior section; (B) posterior section.(A) and (B) 1Ischium2Transverse perineal muscle3Obturator internus4Levator ani5Attachment of levator to tendinous arch of fascia overlying obturator muscle6Body of uterus7Endometrial cavity8Peritoneum reflected to pelvic side wall9Uterine vessels entering broad ligament (deep to fascia)10Internal iliac vessels11Sigmoid colon12Levator ani contributing to external anal sphincter13Sciatic nerve14Ischiorectal fossa

    Blood supply (Figs 5.8, 5.22, 5.23)

    Lymph drainage

    The rectum

    Figure 6.6 • Axial anatomy of the pelvis: (A) CT section through male perineum; (B) MR section through female perineum; (C) Axial diagram of male perineum. 1Pectineus muscle2Obturator externus muscle3Iliacus muscle4Obturator internus muscle5Pubic bone6Ischial tuberosity7Gluteus maximus muscle8Levator ani9Anus10External anal sphincter11Vagina12Urethra surrounded by external urethral sphincter13Sciatic nerve and inferior gluteal vessels14Ischiorectal fossa

    Figure 6.7 • Male pelvis: (A) sagittal section showing pelvic floor and urethra; (B) coronal section showing the pelvic floor.

    The anal canal (Fig. 6.9)

    Figure 6.8 • Rectum: (A) anterior view and blood supply; (B) lateral view showing peritoneal reflections.

    Radiology pearl

    Blood supply (Figs 5.22, 5.23)

    Figure 6.9 • Anatomy of anal canal.

    Lymph drainage

    Radiology of the sigmoid and rectum

    Plain films (see Fig. 5.1)

    Barium enema (see Fig. 5.19)

    Computed tomography

    CT colonography

    Magnetic resonance imaging

    Dynamic imaging (Fig. 6.28)

    Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves of the pelvis

    Overview of the arteries and veins

    Internal iliac artery (Figs 6.10, 6.11)

    Figure 6.10 • Internal iliac artery and branches.

    Branches of the anterior trunk

    Branches of the posterior trunk

    Radiology pearls (Fig. 6.13)

    Figure 6.11 • Aortogram: external and internal iliac branches. 1Abdominal aorta2Lumbar artery3Right common iliac artery4Left common iliac artery5Left external iliac artery6Left internal iliac artery7Inferior mesenteric artery8Median sacral artery9Posterior trunk of right internal iliac artery10Iliolumbar artery (branch of 9)11Lateral sacral artery (branch of 9)12Superior gluteal artery (branch of 9)13Anterior trunk of right internal iliac artery14Obturator artery (branch of 13)15Vesical artery (branch of 13)16Inferior gluteal artery (branch of 13)17Deep circumflex iliac artery