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    Description:

     

    The product of a world center of excellence in teaching and medical and surgical practice, second edition of a bestseller combines the advantages of a colour atlas with those of a short textbook covering clinical features, epidemiology, investigations, and differential diagnosis. Illustrations include clinical photos, imaging, charts, graphs, and histology where appropriate. The author/editor team, supported by specialist contributions from clinicians at Institute of Child Health/Great Ormond Street, offers an unmatched range of expertise in a compact volume. The book is of lasting reference value to pediatricians in training and practice, and to professionals in many other disciplines.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Chapter 1 Emergency Medicine

    Introduction

    Upper airway obstruction

    Anaphylaxis

    Asthma

    Bronchiolitis

    Cardiac emergencies

    Cyanosis

    Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

    Cardiogenic shock

    Arrhythmias

    Acute encephalopathic illness

    Convulsive status epilepticus

    Other encephalopathic illness

    Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Sepsis

    Trauma

    Traumatic brain injury

    The child with multiple injuries

    Burns

    Poisoning

    References/further reading

    Chapter 2 Child Protection

    Introduction

    Types of abuse and neglect

    Paediatric assessment of a child with suspicion of maltreatment

    Physical abuse

    Neglect

    Sexual abuse

    Other considerations in child protection

    What to do when abuse is suspected

    Further reading

    Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases

    Bacteria

    Diphtheria

    Tetanus

    Meningococcal infections

    Tuberculosis

    Tuberculous meningitis

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections

    Cat-scratch disease

    Lyme disease

    Pyogenic liver abscess

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Tularaemia

    Viruses

    HIV infection and AIDS

    Congenital cytomegalovirus

    Infectious mononucleosis

    Measles

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus

    Varicella (chicken pox)

    Herpes zoster (shingles)

    Protozoa/fungi/tropical diseases/miscellaneous

    Congenital toxoplasmosis

    Cryptosporidiosis

    Cysticercosis (neurocysticercosis)

    Invasive aspergillosis

    Neonatal systemic candidiasis

    Malaria

    Schistosomiasis (urinary)

    Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

    Kawasaki disease

    Further reading

    Chapter 4 Respiratory Medicine

    Cystic fibrosis

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity

    Preschool wheeze

    Asthma

    Bronchiolitis

    Pneumonia

    Empyema

    Non-CF bronchiectasis

    Interstitial lung disease

    Chronic aspiration

    Pneumothorax

    Pierre Robin sequence

    Pulmonary agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia

    Scimitar syndrome

    Congenital pulmonary airway malformations

    Lung transplantation

    Further reading

    Chapter 5 Cardiology

    Developmental cardiology

    Cardiac assessment

    Congenital heart disease

    Ventricular septal defect

    Patent ductus arteriosus

    Pulmonary stenosis

    Coarctation of the aorta

    Atrial septal defect

    Fallot tetralogy

    Aortic stenosis

    Transposition of the great arteries

    Hypoplastic left heart

    Atrioventricular septal defect

    Other cardiac lesions

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    Tricuspid atresia

    Double inlet left ventricle

    Pulmonary atresia with an intact septum

    Pulmonary atresia with a VSD

    Ebstein anomaly

    Interrupted aortic arch and truncus arteriosus

    Congenitally corrected transposition

    Vascular ring and sling

    Heart muscle disease

    Dilated cardiomyopathy

    Myocarditis

    Pericarditis

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Endocarditis

    Kawasaki disease

    Arrhythmias

    Heart transplantation

    Further reading

    Chapter 6 Dermatology

    Vascular lesions – tumours

    Infantile haemangioma

    Rare vascular tumours

    Vascular lesions – malformations

    Capillary malformations

    Venous malformations

    Arteriovenous malformations

    Pigmentary lesions

    Postinflammatory pigmentary changes

    Vitiligo

    Hypomelanotic macules

    Pigmentary mosaicism

    Café-au-lait macules

    Congenital melanocytic naevi

    Blistering conditions

    Epidermolysis bullosa

    Immunobullous disorders

    Inflammatory conditions

    Eczema

    Morphoea (localised scleroderma)

    Psoriasis

    Lumps and bumps

    Anogenital warts

    Molluscum contagiosum

    Sebaceous naevus

    Aplasia cutis

    Other important conditions

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica

    Incontinentia pigmenti

    Cutaneous mast cell disease

    Ichthyosis

    Linear epidermal naevi

    Ectodermal dysplasia

    Paediatric dermatological emergencies

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

    Collodion baby and harlequin ichthyosis

    Eczema herpeticum

    Generalised pustular psoriasis

    Malignant skin conditions

    Further reading

    Chapter 7 Ophthalmology

    Anatomy of the eye

    Visual development

    Lids

    Ablepharon

    Cryptophthalmos

    Coloboma

    Epicanthus

    Entropion

    Ectropion

    Symblepharon

    Blepharitis

    Stye

    Molluscum contagiosum

    Capillary haemangioma

    Port wine stain

    Ptosis

    Lid retraction

    Preseptal cellulitis

    Lid lag

    The watering eye

    Cornea – developmental disorders

    Microcornea

    Cornea plana

    Megalocornea

    Keratoconus

    Congenital corneal opacification

    Corneal dystrophies

    Posterior embryotoxon

    Corneal deposits

    Keratitis

    Conjunctiva

    Infection-related conjunctivitis

    Non infection-related conjunctivitis

    Conjunctival pigmentation

    Elevated conjunctival lesions

    Diffusely elevated conjunctival lesions

    Sclera

    Pigmentation of the sclera

    Scleral inflammation

    Developmental anomalies of the globe

    Nanophthalmos

    Simple microphthalmos

    Complex microphthalmos

    Anophthalmia

    Iris

    Congenital iris defects

    Acquired iris defects

    Changes in iris colour

    Leukaemia/lymphoma

    Heterochromia irides

    Pupil anomalies

    Leukocoria

    Dyscoria

    Miosis

    Mydriasis

    Corectopia

    Anisocoria

    Lens anomalies

    Aphakia

    Abnormal shape

    Dislocated lens

    Lens opacity

    Retinal anomalies

    Haemorrhages

    Hard exudates

    Cotton wool spots

    Retinal neovascularisation

    Retinal vasculitis

    Foveal hypoplasia

    Maculopathy

    Coloured macular lesions

    Pale retinal lesions

    Non-inflammatory lesions

    Retinal detachment

    Folds in the fundus

    The optic disc

    Optic disc swelling

    Optic atrophy

    Small optic disc

    Large optic disc

    Large optic disc cup

    Optic disc vascular abnormalities

    Optic disc haemorrhages

    Lesions obscuring the optic disc

    The orbit

    Abnormalities of globe position

    Lacrimal gland enlargement

    Eye movement disorders

    Ocular deviation in primary gaze

    Anomalous eye movements

    Abnormal head positions

    Nystagmus

    Further reading

    Chapter 8 Neurology

    Neurological examination: cranial nerves

    The eye

    Ptosis

    Myasthenia

    Disorders of eye movement

    Third nerve palsy

    Fourth nerve palsy

    Sixth nerve palsy

    Ophthalmoplegia

    Upward gaze palsy

    Lateral gaze palsy

    Facial palsy

    Lower motor neuron facial palsy

    Upper motor neuron facial palsy

    Lower cranial nerve abnormalities

    Motor system

    Pyramidal disorders

    Extrapyramidal disorders

    Wilson disease

    Sydenham chorea and other poststreptococcal movement disorders

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis

    Sandifer syndrome

    Segawa syndrome (DOPA-responsive dystonia)

    Ataxia

    Ataxia telangiectasia

    Friedreich ataxia

    Acute generalised weakness in a previously well child

    Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Dermatomyositis

    Spinal cord disorders

    Hypotonia in infancy

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffman disease)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and type 3

    Chronic and progressive weakness in the older child

    Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (CMT)

    Cerebral palsy

    Spina bifida

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Psychogenic headaches

    Intracranial hypertension

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (‘benign’ intracranial hypertension, pseudotumour cerebri)

    Macrocephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Brain tumours

    Learning difficulties

    Epilepsy

    Neurological and cognitive deterioration

    Common conditions with neurological deterioration

    Coma and acute encephalopathies

    Stroke

    Further reading

    Chapter 9 Gastroenterology

    Clinical presentation

    Acute gastroenteritis

    Faltering growth/failure to thrive

    Constipation

    Infantile colic

    Recurrent abdominal pain

    Toddler’s diarrhoea

    Chronic intractable diarrhoea

    Chronic intestinal failure

    Gastrointestinal diagnoses

    Fabricated and induced illness

    Coeliac disease

    Food allergic enteropathy

    Autoimmune enteropathy

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    Eosinophilic enteropathy

    Eosinophilic disease of the colon (EDC) allergic colitis

    Classic inflammatory bowel disease

    Ulcerative colitis

    Crohn disease

    Lymphangiectasia

    Ulcers

    Gastric ulcer

    Duodenal ulcers

    Polyps

    Isolated inflammatory/juvenile polyp

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Familial polyposis coli and Gardner syndrome

    Peutz-Jegher syndrome

    Infections and infestations

    Bacterial enteric infections

    Feeding difficulties

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Cyclical vomiting

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Short bowel syndrome

    Congenital and inherited disorders

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea

    Glucose-galactose malabsorption

    Sucrose-isomaltase deficiency

    Lactose malabsorption

    Pancreatic disease

    Cystic fibrosis

    Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome

    Acute pancreatitis

    Chronic pancreatitis

    Liver disease

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Chronic hepatitis

    Acute hepatitis

    Alagille syndrome

    Mineral disorders (deficiencies, high level poisoning)

    Zinc deficiency

    Iron deficiency

    Copper deficiency

    Copper excess: Wilson disease

    Selenium deficiency

    Vitamin deficiencies

    Scurvy, vitamin C/ascorbic acid deficiency

    Beriberi, vitamin B1/thiamin deficiency

    Pellagra, niacin deficiency

    Riboflavin/vitamin B2 deficiency

    Pyridoxine/vitamin B6 deficiency

    Cyanocobalamin/vitamin B12 deficiency

    Vitamin K/napthaquinone deficiency

    Retinol/vitamin A deficiency

    Tocopherol/vitamin E deficiency

    Vitamin D deficiency

    Further reading

    Chapter 10 Renal Diseases

    Acute kidney injury

    Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Glomerulonephritis

    IgA vasculitis

    Nephrotic syndrome

    Chronic kidney disease

    Cystic kidney diseases

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    Vesicoureteric reflux

    Renovascular hypertension

    Renal Fanconi syndrome

    Further reading

    Chapter 11 Haematology

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Haematological disorders and Down syndrome

    Transient myeloproliferative disorder

    Myeloid leukaemia and DS

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and DS

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia and thrombosis

    Congenital (monocytic and myelomonocytic) leukaemia

    Ophthalmic extramedullary leukaemic deposits

    Granulocytic sarcoma

    Hypopyon

    Severe aplastic anaemia

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia

    Paediatric myelodysplastic syndromes

    Fanconi anaemia

    Dyskeratosis congenita and TINF2 mutations

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome and T(5;12)

    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis – Sweet syndrome

    Myelofibrosis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Infant megaloblastic anaemia: transcobalamin II deficiency

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

    Thrombocytopenia absent radius

    Bernard-Soulier syndrome

    von Willebrand disease

    Severe haemophilia A and B (classic haemophilia and Christmas disease)

    Red cell membrane abnormalities

    Hereditary elliptocytosis

    Hereditary spherocytosis

    Beta-thalassaemia major

    Sickle cell disease

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    Further reading

    Chapter 12 Oncology

    Introduction

    Renal tumours

    Liver tumours

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, other soft tissue sarcomas and fibromatosis

    Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Other soft tissue sarcomas

    Neuroblastoma

    Very low- and low-risk neuroblastoma

    Intermediate-risk neuroblastoma

    High-risk neuroblastoma

    Retinoblastoma

    Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour

    Osteosarcoma

    Extracranial malignant germ cell tumours

    Tumours of the central nervous system

    Ependymoma

    Medulloblastoma/PNET

    High-grade supratentorial glioma

    Brainstem glioma

    Low-grade astrocytoma

    Rare tumours

    Thyroid carcinoma

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Adrenocortical carcinoma

    Renal cell carcinoma

    Late effects of cancer treatment

    Further reading

    Chapter 13 Endocrinology

    The short child

    Growth hormone deficiency/ insufficiency

    Laron-type dwarfism

    Low birth weight syndrome

    Turner syndrome

    Prader-Willi syndrome

    Skeletal dysplasias

    The tall child

    Marfan syndrome

    Pituitary gigantism

    Late puberty

    Klinefelter syndrome

    Early puberty

    Premature thelarche/thelarche variant or ‘benign’ precocious puberty

    Gonadotrophin-dependent (central) precocious puberty

    McCune-Albright syndrome

    Polycystic ovarian disease

    Thyroid disorders

    Congenital hypothyroidism

    Acquired hypothyroidism

    Graves disease

    Adrenal disorders

    Primary adrenal insufficiency

    Cushing syndrome

    Ambiguous genitalia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis

    Hyperinsulinism

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Monogenic diabetes

    Insulin resistance syndromes

    Other forms of diabetes

    Disorders of calcium metabolism

    Rickets

    Hypoparathyroidism/pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Hypercalcaemia

    Williams syndrome

    Further reading

    Chapter 14 Metabolic Diseases

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Gaucher disease

    Hurler disease, MPS I

    Sanfilippo syndrome, MPS III

    Morquio syndrome, MPS IV

    Homocystinuria – classical and secondary to remethylation disorders

    Wolman/cholesterol ester disease

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency

    Neuronal ceroid lipofusinoses

    Urea cycle disorders

    Galactosaemia

    Fatty acid oxidation defects

    Disorders of ketone body metabolism

    Tyrosinaemia

    Glycogen storage disease type I

    Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders

    Leigh syndrome

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency

    Menke disease

    Phenylketonuria

    Biotin disorders

    Glutaric acidaemia type I

    GLUT 1 transporter deficiency

    Fabry disease

    Pompe disease

    Creatine deficiency disorders

    Methylmalonic and propionic acidaemia (MMA, PA)

    Neurotransmitter disorders (L-dopamine-responsive dystonia, tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, pterin disorders)

    Sphingolipidosis disorders (Tay Sachs/Sandhoff/GM1/Niemann-Pick/metachromatic dystrophy/Krabbe)

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation

    Non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (glycine encephalopathy)

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    Hypercholesterolaemia

    Further reading

    Chapter 15 Genetics

    Introduction

    Common congenital malformations

    Chromosome disorders

    Chromosomes – structural abnormalities and imbalance

    Robertsonian translocation

    Chromosome mosaicism

    Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome)

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)

    Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)

    Turner syndrome, 45, X and variants

    Williams syndrome

    22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome)

    Single gene disorders

    Autosomal dominant inheritance

    Autosomal recessive inheritance

    X-linked inheritance

    Mitochondrial conditions and inheritance

    Genetic syndromes with cardiac malformation as a major feature

    The floppy baby

    Prader-Willi syndrome

    Myotonic dystrophy (myotonic dystrophy typ)

    Syndromes associated with features of a connective tissue disorder

    Children with severe developmental delay

    Angelman syndrome

    Rett syndrome

    Other common single gene disorders

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Fragile X syndrome

    Neurofibromatosis type 1

    Tuberous sclerosis

    Other rare recognisable syndromes

    Kabuki syndrome

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    de Lange syndrome

    Sotos syndrome

    Goldenhar syndrome (hemifacial microsomia)

    VATER/VACTERL association

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Silver-Russell syndrome

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a)

    Further reading

    Chapter 16 Immunology (Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes)

    Background

    I Combined immunodeficiencies

    Severe combined immunodeficiency

    Specific SCID sub-types

    Omenn syndrome (SCID variant)

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency

    II Other well-defined syndromes

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    Cartilage hair hypoplasia

    Ataxia telangiectasia

    III Thymic defects

    DiGeorge syndrome

    IV Antibody deficiency syndromes

    Common variable immunodeficiency

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (Bruton disease)

    Hypogammaglobulinaemia with hyper-IgM (class-switch recombination [CSR] defects) (including CD40 ligand deficiency)

    V Hyper-IgE syndromes

    Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome

    Autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome

    VI Defects of immune regulation

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (Duncan syndrome)

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

    VII Phagocytic defects

    Chronic granulomatous disease

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies

    VIII Innate immune defects

    X-linked immunodeficiency associated with ectodermal dysplasia

    Interferon-gamma/IL-12 pathway defects

    Further reading

    Chapter 17 Rheumatology

    Introduction

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Systemic JIA

    Polyarticular onset: rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative JIA

    Polyarticular onset: RF-positive JIA

    Oligoarticular arthritis

    Enthesitis-related arthritis

    Psoriatic arthritis

    Arthritis associated with other chronic diseases

    Scleroderma

    Systemic sclerosis

    Localised scleroderma (morphoea)

    Juvenile dermatomyositis

    Vasculitides

    Henoch Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis)

    Kawasaki disease

    Polyarteritis nodosa

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides

    Takayasu arteritis

    Systemic lupus erythematosus

    Overlap connective tissue disease

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

    Periodic fever syndromes/autoinflammatory diseases

    Introduction

    Familial Mediterranean fever

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulin D periodic fever syndrome

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis

    Chronic pain syndrome

    Complex regional pain syndrome

    Joint hypermobility syndrome

    Further reading

    Chapter 18 Neonatal and General Paediatric Surgery

    Oesophageal atresia

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Neonatal intestinal obstruction

    Meconium ileus

    Duodenal atresia

    Intestinal atresia

    Anorectal anomalies

    Hirschsprung disease

    Malrotation

    Duplications of the alimentary tract

    Necrotising enterocolitis

    Exomphalos

    Gastroschisis

    Umbilical hernia

    Umbilical anomalies

    Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Meckel diverticulum

    Pyloric stenosis

    Intussusception

    Sacrococcygeal teratoma

    Appendicitis

    Neck lesions

    Cystic hygroma

    Branchial sinus/cyst

    Preauricular sinus

    Sacral sinuses

    Dermoid cysts

    Thyroglossal cysts/fistulae

    Inguinal hernia

    Hydrocoele

    Undescended testis

    Torsion of the testis

    Phimosis

    Biliary atresia

    Choledochal cyst

    Vascular malformations

    Haemangioma

    Congenital vascular malformations

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

    Lymphoedema

    Spina bifida

    Conjoined twins

    Further reading

    Chapter 19 Otorhinolaryngology

    Otitis media with effusion (‘glue ear’)

    Acute otitis media

    Cholesteatoma

    Chronic suppurative otitis media

    Otitis externa

    Aural foreign bodies

    Congenital anomalies of the ear

    Preauricular sinus and abscess

    External ear anomalies

    Middle ear anomalies

    Inner ear anomalies

    Nasal polyps

    Rhinosinusitis

    Nasal glioma and meningoencephalocoele

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Nasal foreign bodies

    Choanal atresia

    Tonsillitis (acute, chronic and recurrent)

    Peritonsillar abscess (quinsy)

    Retropharyngeal abscess

    Obstructive sleep apnoea

    Drooling

    Laryngomalacia

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    Subglottic stenosis

    Laryngeal and tracheobronchial foreign bodies

    Branchial sinuses, fistulae and cysts

    Paediatric head and neck masses

    Thyroglossal duct cyst

    Oropharyngeal and oesophageal foreign bodies

    Further reading

    Chapter 20 Plastic Surgery

    Cleft lip and alveolus +/- palate

    Cleft palate (isolated)

    Congenital melanocytic naevi

    Craniosynostosis

    Epidermolysis bullosa

    Extravasation

    Hemifacial microsomia

    Microtia and ear reconstruction

    Proteus syndrome

    Radial longitudinal deficiency

    Vascular anomalies

    Capillary malformations in later childhood

    Infantile haemangioma

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 21 Orthopaedics and Fractures Fractures

    Normal variations of gait and posture

    Congenital and developmental abnormalities of the lower limb

    Postural abnormalities (the moulded baby)

    Congenital talipes equinovarus deformity (‘the club foot’)

    Congenital vertical talus

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Leg length discrepancies

    Fibula hemimelia

    Proximal femoral focal deficiency

    Congenital tibial deficiency

    Common congenital toe problems

    Other congenital/acquired lower limb problems

    Blount disease

    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia

    Posteromedial tibial bow

    Pes cavus (the high arched foot)

    Classic causes of lower limb pain

    The child with a (painful) limp

    Bone and joint infection (osteomyelitis and septic arthritis)

    Transient synovitis vs. septic arthritis

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (often called Perthes disease)

    Slipped upper femoral epiphysis

    Upper limb abnormalities

    Neonatal brachial plexopathy

    Torticollis

    Congenital upper limb anomalies

    Radial club hand

    Ulnar club hand

    Radioulnar synostosis

    Congenital dislocation of the radial head

    Other minor upper limb abnormalities

    Examples of generalised conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system

    Benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    Arthrogryposis

    Neuromuscular conditions with orthopaedic concerns

    Cerebral palsy

    Spina bifida

    The spine

    Congenital deformities

    Scoliosis

    Scheuermann disease (kyphosis)

    Spondylolisthesis

    Back pain

    Trauma

    Specific paediatric injuries

    Physeal injuries

    Pulled elbow

    Fractures around the elbow

    Lower limb injuries

    Pathological fractures

    Further reading

    Chapter 22 Urology

    Congenital urine flow anomalies

    Hydronephrosis/Dilatation

    Pelviureteric junction anomaly (PUJA)

    Vesicoureteric junction anomaly (megaureter)

    Vesicoureteric reflux

    Posterior urethral valve

    Multi-cystic dysplastic kidney

    Renal agenesis, ectopia and fusion

    Duplex kidneys

    Incontinence

    Exstrophy-epispadias complex

    Neuropathic bladder

    Disorders of sex development

    Hypospadias

    Undescended testis

    Acute scrotum

    Urolithiasis

    Neoplasia

    Childhood renal tumours

    Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma)

    Genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma

    Further reading

    Chapter 23 Allergic Diseases

    Introduction: clarification of terms

    General diagnostic approaches for allergies and adverse reactions to foods

    Food allergy

    Food-induced anaphylaxis

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis: aspects related to food allergy

    Allergic asthma

    Atopic eczema

    Chronic urticaria

    Allergies/hypersensitivity to food additives

    Drug hypersensitivity and adverse reactions to drugs

    Management principles of cow’s milk and other food allergies

    Further reading

    Index

     

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