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    Features:


    • Two new chapters on metabolomics and translational research, which have come to be used in nutrition research in recent years. The new areas of study are discussed with the perspective that the application of the scientific method is by definition an evolutionary process.
    • A new chapter on Genetics and Diabetes which reviews the latest research on causal genetic variants and biological mechanisms responsible for the disease, and explores potential interactions with environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle.
    • Includes all major "omics" - the exposome, metabolomics, genomics, and the gut microbiome.
    • Expands the microbiota portions to reflect complexity of diet on gut microbial ecology, metabolism and health



    Table Of Contents:


    Section I: Research Methodology

    Part A: Assessment Methods for Research and Practice

    Chapter 1. Dietary Assessment Methodology

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Dietary Assessment Methods
    • III Dietary Assessment in Different Study Designs
    • IV Dietary Assessment in Special Populations
    • V Selected Issues in Dietary Assessment Methods
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 2. Assessment of Dietary Supplement Use

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Methods for Assessing Dietary Supplement Intake
    • III Dietary Supplement Composition Databases for Analysis of Dietary Supplement Intake
    • IV The Dietary Supplement Label
    • V Authoritative Information and Resources About Dietary Supplements
    • VI How to Report Problems with Dietary Supplement Intake
    • Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 3. Physical and Clinical Assessment of Nutritional Status

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Assessment of Body Size and Shape
    • III Assessment of Body Composition
    • IV Clinical Considerations in Assessment of Nutrition Status
    • V Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 4. Energy Requirement Methodology

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Components of Daily Energy Expenditure
    • III Total Energy Expenditure
    • IV Recommended Energy Intakes
    • References

    Chapter 5. Metabolomics

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Specimens
    • III Metabolomics Analytical Tools
    • IV Data Analysis
    • V Applications to Food and Nutrition
    • VI Summary
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Part B: Research and Applied Methods for Observational and Intervention Studies

    Chapter 6. Translational Research: Concepts and Methods in Dissemination and Implementation Research

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Key Concepts in Translational Research
    • III Common Frameworks in D&I Research
    • IV Common Study Designs and Approaches in D&I Research
    • V Measures in D&I
    • VI Examples from the Literature
    • VII Additional Resources
    • VIII Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 7. Overview of Nutritional Epidemiology

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Principles of Exposure Measurement in Nutritional Epidemiology
    • III Study Designs Used in Nutritional Epidemiology
    • IV Interpretation of Cause and Effect in Nutritional Epidemiology
    • V Obstacles to Finding Associations of Dietary Intake and Disease Risk
    • VI Future Research Directions
    • References

    Chapter 8. Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Dietary Data

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Analysis of Dietary Data
    • III Presentation of Data
    • IV Interpretation of Data
    • Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 9. Current Theoretical Bases for Nutrition Intervention and Their Uses

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II The Importance of Understanding Influences on Dietary Behavior
    • III What Is Theory?
    • IV Explanatory and Change Theories
    • V Unique Features of Diet-Related Behavior to Consider When Using Theory
    • VI Important Theories, Their Key Constructs, and Application
    • VII Constructs and Issues Across Theories
    • VIII Implications and Opportunities
    • References

    Chapter 10. Nutrition Intervention: Lessons From Clinical Trials

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Common Components of Dietary Interventions in Clinical Trials
    • III Conceptual Models of Motivation
    • IV Theories Used in Achieving Dietary Behavior Change in Clinical Trials
    • V Summary
    • References

    Chapter 11. Biomarkers and Their Use in Nutrition Intervention

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Biomarkers of Dietary Intake or Exposure
    • III Functional Biomarkers and Markers of Biological Effects
    • IV Biomarkers of Genetic Susceptibility
    • V Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery
    • VI Criteria for Selecting and Using Biomarkers
    • VII Summary
    • References

    Section II: Nutrition for Health Maintenance, Prevention, and Disease-Specific Treatment

    Part A: Food and Nutrient Intake for Health

    Chapter 12. Nutrition Guidelines to Promote and Maintain Health

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction and Objectives
    • II Guidelines on Human Nutrient Requirements
    • III Federal Nutrition-Related Health Policies
    • IV Expert Guidelines on Nutrient Requirements for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention
    • V Using Nutrition Policies and Expert Guidelines to Inform the Professional Practice of Nutrition
    • VI Summary
    • References

    Chapter 13. Nutritional Recommendations for Athletes

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Energy Requirements for Athletes
    • III Macronutrient Recommendations for Athletes
    • IV Micronutrient Requirements for Athletes
    • V Fluid Requirements for Athletes
    • VI Summary and Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 14. Nutrition for Children With Special Health Care Needs

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II The Role of Nutrition in Preventing Developmental Problems
    • III The Functional Approach to Nutrition Assessment for Children with Special Needs
    • IV Evidence-Based Interventions for Selected Conditions
    • V Conclusion
    • References

    Part B: Dietary Bioactive Compounds for Health

    Chapter 15. Bioavailability and Metabolism of Bioactive Compounds From Foods

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Bioavailability of Water-Soluble Compounds
    • III Lipid-Soluble Compounds
    • IV Summary
    • References

    Chapter 16. Antioxidants in Health and Disease

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Antioxidants in Disease Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment
    • III Overall Conclusion and Discussion
    • References

    Chapter 17. Choline and Brain Development

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Choline Metabolism and Biochemistry
    • III Choline in Foods and Dietary Requirements
    • IV Choline and Neural Development
    • V Long-Lasting Consequences of Prenatal Choline Availability
    • VI Implications for Human Brain Development
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    Chapter 18. Dietary Phytochemicals in Neurodegenerative Disease

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Alzheimer’s Disease
    • III Parkinson’s Disease
    • IV Dietary Plants and Neurodegenerative Disease
    • V Neuroprotective Effects of Phytochemicals in AD Models
    • VI Neuroprotective Effects of Phytochemicals in PD Models
    • VII Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Phytochemicals
    • VIII Conclusions and Future Directions
    • References

    Chapter 19. Diet and Supplements in the Prevention and Treatment of Eye Diseases

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Eye Health Throughout the Lifespan
    • III Cataract
    • IV Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    • V Diabetic Retinopathy
    • VI Glaucoma
    • VII Chapter Summary
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 20. Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and Its Related Cancers

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Role of Adipose Tissue in Obesity
    • III Obesity-Related Cancers
    • IV Phytochemicals in Obesity and Its Related Cancers
    • V Conclusion
    • References

    Part C: Overweight and Obesity

    Chapter 21. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Human Obesity, With Suggestions for New Studies From Work in Mouse Models

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II The Big Picture-How Much Obesity Is Due to Genetics
    • III Why Finding Obesity Genes Matters
    • IV The Search for Obesity Genes
    • V Gene-Environment Interactions
    • VI Genetic Pathways of Obesity
    • VII Clinical Implications of the Discovery of Obesity Genes
    • References

    Chapter 22. Obesity: Overview of Medical Treatments and Interventions

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Assessment of Overweight and Obesity
    • III Selecting Treatment Options
    • IV Pharmaceutical Interventions
    • V Weight Maintenance
    • VI Pediatric and Adolescent Obesity
    • VII The Future of Obesity
    • VIII Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 23. Surgery for Severe Obesity

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Bariatric Surgical Procedures
    • III Weight-Loss Surgeries
    • IV Clinical Aspects
    • V Preoperative Assessment
    • VI Postoperative Management
    • VII Long-Term Concerns
    • VIII Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 24. Behavioral Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity: Diet and Physical Activity

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Obesity and Overweight
    • III Dietary Intake Factors
    • IV Physical Activity
    • V Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 25. Snacking and Energy Balance in Humans

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Definition of Snacking
    • III Prevalence of Snacking
    • IV Snacking and Type of Food Consumed
    • V Snacking and Energy Balance
    • VI Snacking as Part of a Healthy Diet
    • VII Conclusions
    • References

    Part D: Cardiovascular Disease

    Chapter 26. Genetic Influences on Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Representative GWAS
    • III Development of Cardiovascular Score
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 27. The Role of Diet in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Effects of Macronutrients on CVD Risk Factors
    • III Evidence-Based Dietary Patterns for Reducing CVD Risk
    • IV Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 28. Nutrition, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Micronutrients
    • III Macronutrients
    • IV Other Foods and Dietary Factors
    • V Dietary Patterns
    • VI Weight Reduction and Multilifestyle Modification
    • VII Current Recommendations and Implementation
    • VIII Summary
    • References

    Part E: Diabetes Mellitus

    Chapter 29. Genetics and Diabetes

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Diagnosis of Diabetes and Nongenetic Risk Factors
    • III Heritability and Monogenic Forms of Diabetes
    • IV Linkage Analysis and Candidate-Gene-Based Association Studies
    • V GWAS of Type 2 Diabetes
    • VI GWAS of Type 2 Diabetes-Related Quantitative Traits
    • VII Fine-Mapping of Identified Type 2 Diabetes Loci
    • VIII Sequencing and Rare Variants
    • IX Genetic Risk Score and Prediction Model for Type 2 Diabetes
    • X Gene-Environment Interactions in Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Traits
    • XI Challenge and Future Direction
    • XII Summary
    • References

    Chapter 30. Obesity and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Diagnostic Criteria for Obesity and Diabetes
    • III Epidemiological Evidence for a Relationship of Obesity and Diabetes
    • IV Prevention of Diabetes by Preventing Obesity
    • References
    • Further Reading

    Chapter 31. The Role of Diet in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Diagnostic Criteria and Diabetes Categories
    • III MNT for Diabetes Prevention and Treatment
    • IV Approaches to Treat Comorbidities and Reduce Complications
    • V Nutrient Intake Considerations
    • VI Collaborative Efforts for Diabetes Prevention and Treatment
    • VII Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 32. Nutritional Management for Gestational Diabetes

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Prevalence
    • III Risk Factors
    • IV Complications Associated with GDM
    • V Screening and Diagnosis
    • VI Weight Gain in Pregnancy
    • VII Monitoring in Pregnancy
    • VIII Nutrition Management
    • IX Physical Activity
    • X Pharmacological Therapy
    • XI Diabetes Self-Management Education and Behavioral Approach
    • XII Postpartum
    • XIII Conclusion
    • References

    Part F: Cancer

    Chapter 33. Interaction of Genetic Factors With Nutrition in Cancer

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Background and Definitions
    • III Mechanisms of Diet-Gene Interactions
    • IV Methodological Issues
    • V Diet-Gene Interactions and Cancer
    • VI Future Directions
    • References

    Chapter 34. Nutrition and Cancers of the Breast, Endometrium, and Ovary

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Breast Cancer
    • III Endometrial Cancer
    • IV Ovarian Cancer
    • V Summary and Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 35. Nutrition and Prostate Cancer

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Descriptive Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer
    • III Studies of Diet in Relation to Prostate Cancer
    • IV Genetics and Gene-Environment Interactions
    • V Conclusions and Implications for Prevention and Treatment
    • References

    Chapter 36. Nutrition and Colon Cancer

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Fruits, Vegetables, and Legumes
    • III Meat
    • IV Milk and Dairy Foods
    • V Whole Grains
    • VI Beverages
    • VII Summary
    • References

    Part G: Gastrointestinal Health and Disease

    Chapter 37. Intestinal Microbiota and Diet in Health

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Distribution and Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbiota
    • III Bacterial Colonization, Succession, and Metabolism
    • IV Functions of the GI Tract Microbiota
    • V Methodology for Studying Intestinal Microbiota
    • VI Influence of Diet on Intestinal Microbiota
    • VII Microbiome-Associated Biomarkers
    • VIII Challenges in the Field
    • References

    Chapter 38. Gut Microbial Metabolism in Health and Disease

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction to the Gut Microbiota
    • II Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 39. Nutritional Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Short Bowel Syndrome

    • Abstract
    • I Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    • II Short Bowel Syndrome
    • III Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 40. Nutrient Considerations in Lactose Intolerance

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Lactose in the Diet
    • III Digestion of Lactose
    • IV Loss of Lactase Activity
    • V Diagnosis of Lactose Maldigestion
    • VI Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance Symptoms
    • VII Lactose Digestion, Calcium, and Osteoporosis
    • VIII Dietary Management for Lactose Maldigestion
    • IX Gene Therapy for Lactose Intolerance
    • X Prebiotics as Treatment for Lactose Maldigesters
    • XI Summary
    • References

    Chapter 41. Nutritional Considerations in the Management of Gluten-Related Disorders

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Symptoms of Celiac Disease
    • III Diagnosis of Celiac Disease
    • IV Treatment of Celiac Disease with a Gluten-Free Diet
    • V Management of the Complications of Celiac Disease
    • VI Summary
    • References

    Chapter 42. Nutrition and Cystic Fibrosis

    • Abstract
    • I Overview of Cystic Fibrosis
    • II Malnutrition in CF
    • III Nutrition Assessment
    • IV Nutrition Management
    • V Conclusions
    • References

    Part H: Bone Health and Disease

    Chapter 43. Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Metabolism of Vitamin D
    • III Sources of Vitamin D
    • IV Vitamin D Nutritional Status Assessment and Relation to Disease Risk
    • V Dietary Requirements
    • VI Safety of Vitamin D
    • VII Future Considerations
    • VIII Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 44. Osteoporosis: The Early Years

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II Acquiring Peak Bone Mass and Bone Strength
    • III Skeletal Fragility in Children
    • IV Nutrition and Development of Peak Bone Mass
    • V Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 45. Osteoporosis in Adults

    • Abstract
    • I Introduction
    • II The Skeleton
    • III Adult Bone Maintenance
    • IV Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
    • V Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment
    • VI Conclusion
    • References
       

     

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