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    Innovations in technology have hugely enhanced the diagnostic capabilities of today’s practising clinicians. Yet the traditional art of detecting clinical signs through expert examination techniques remains a fundamental competence for training and practising clinicians, central to the delivery of safe and effective patient care. This first edition of Macleod’s Essential Examination provides an innovative, concise account of each body system examination, delivering the information in a compact, portable format for use at home and in the clinical environment. It can be used in conjunction with the more extensive and hugely successful ‘parent’ textbook Macleod’s Clinical Examination, with which it is closely integrated, or as a stand-alone aide-memoire.

    This quick-reference, highly practical guide will assist in preparation for OSCEs and in clinical practice. Each chapter follows a consistent format, opening with typical OSCE scenarios followed by a concise ‘point by point’ examination template. This is then expanded with a detailed description of each aspect of the examination process, including specific instructions around technique and information about key clinical signs to consider. Exam tips are also provided, along with typical questions likely to be asked during an OSCE. Answers are given are at the end of each chapter, making it an invaluable resource for both self-assessment and in peer-to-peer learning.



    • The book provides a standardised framework for examination of all the major body systems.
    • Using a novel tabular approach the book provides a clear set of guidelines on what to do at each stage of the clinical examination. It also reminds the reader what are the corresponding key points to think about and sets out associated exam tips.
    • The exam tips are subsequently linked to potential examiner’s questions.
    • Each system ends with a reminder of how to present the findings and relevant tips to maximise your success.

    Table Of Contents:


    1. Examination of the cardiovascular system
    2. Examination of the respiratory system
    3. Examination of the gastrointestinal system
    4. Examination of the neurological system
    5. Examination of the musculoskeletal system
    6. Examination of the endocrine system
    7. Examination of the reproductive system
    8. Examination in paediatrics
    9. Examination of the critically ill patient
    10. Examination of the poisoned patient
    11. Examination of the psychiatric patient
    12. OSCE classic cases
    13. Examination and death
    14. Index of diagnoses