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    Description:

    Through nine outstanding editions, Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy has been the gold standard text in this fast-changing, complex field. Published in association with the Society for Vascular Surgery, this state-of-the-art reference by Drs. Anton N. Sidawy and Bruce A. Perler is a must-have for vascular surgeons, interventionalists, vascular medicine specialists, and trainees, as well as general surgeons, interventional radiologists, and cardiologists that depend upon "Rutherford’s" in their practice. It offers authoritative guidance from the most respected and innovative global thought leaders and clinical and basic science experts in the diagnosis and treatment of circulatory disease.

    Incorporates medical, endovascular, and surgical treatment, as well as diagnostic techniques, decision making, and fundamental vascular biology.

    Features all vascular imaging techniques, offering a non-invasive evaluation of both the morphology and hemodynamics of the vascular system.

    Provides unparalleled insight from multidisciplinary leaders worldwide, who share their expertise on the most appropriate contemporary and future treatment of circulatory disease.

    Employs a full-color layout and images so you can view clinical and physical findings and operative techniques more vividly.

    Includes 40 new chapters incorporating a shorter, more focused format with a summary for each chapter that provides a quick access to key information – ideal for consultation situations as well as daily practice.

    Some of these chapters are organized in new sections dedicated to open operative exposure and vessel dissection techniques, diabetic foot, Pediatric Vascular Disease, and practice management issues; areas in the specialty that clinicians frequently face but seldom detailed in other vascular texts nor in earlier Rutherford editions.

    Covers hot topics such as endovascular therapy of aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm disease, including the evolving management of aortic dissections.

     

    Table of Contents:

     

    Volume 1

    Section 1 Basic Science

    Chapter 1 Epidemiology and Research Methodology

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Research Methods

    Outcomes Analysis

    Outcomes Translational Research

    References

    Chapter 2 Embryology and Developmental Anatomy

    Abstract

    Formation of Embryonic Blood Vessels

    Development of the Descending (Thoracic and Abdominal) Aorta

    Development of the Limbs

    Development of the Venous System

    References

    Chapter 3 Vessel Wall Biology

    Abstract

    Arterial Wall Anatomy

    Arterial Wall System

    Hemodynamics and Vascular Wall Biology

    Vein Wall Anatomy

    Vein Wall System

    Lymphatic Wall Anatomy

    Lymphatic Wall System

    References

    Chapter 4 Atherosclerosis

    Atherosclerotic Lesions

    Theories of Pathogenesis

    Atherosclerosis as a Chronic Inflammatory Disease

    Localization of Atherosclerosis

    Progression/Regression of Plaques

    Thrombotic Complications of Atherosclerosis

    Identification of Vulnerable Lesions

    References

    Chapter 5 Intimal Hyperplasia

    Response of the Artery to Injury

    Response of Vein to Injury

    Healing Response of the Prosthetic Graft

    Intimal Hyperplasia and Dialysis Access

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6 Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Abstract

    Pathophysiology of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Clinical Manifestations of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Future Directions in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    References

    Chapter 7 Arteriogenesis and Angiogenesis

    Neovascularization

    Arteriogenesis

    Angiogenesis

    Role of Micrornas in Neovascularization

    Clinical Trials

    References

    Chapter 8 Arterial Hemodynamics

    Basic Concepts

    Arterial Stenosis

    References

    Chapter 9 Venous Pathophysiology

    Introduction

    Basic Considerations

    Thrombophlebitis

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 10 Lymphatic Pathophysiology

    Anatomy

    Physiology

    Molecular Lymphology

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Overview

    References

    Section 2 Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

    Chapter 11 Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Biologic Effects of Smoking on the Vasculature

    Nonvascular Clinical Effects

    Vascular Clinical Effects

    Smoking Cessation

    References

    Chapter 12 Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

    Epidemiology

    Classification of Diabetes

    Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    Pathophysiology of Vascular Disease in Diabetes

    Vascular Evaluation of Patients With Diabetes

    Treatment of Patients With Diabetes and Peripheral Artery Disease

    Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 13 Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

    Abstract

    Historical Perspective

    Physiology and Metabolism of Lipids

    Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis

    Diagnosis of Atherogenic Lipid Disorders

    Evolution of the Guidelines for Management and Therapeutic Goals for Lipoprotein Disorders

    Clinical Trials of the Management of Dyslipidemia in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Nonpharmacologic Therapy for Dyslipidemia

    Pharmacologic Therapy for Dyslipidemia

    References

    Chapter 14 Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

    Epidemiology

    Diagnosis

    Pathologic Mechanisms of Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    Management

    References

    Chapter 15 Atherosclerosis Risk Factors

    Abstract

    Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Familial Hypertension

    Familial Diabetes

    Familial Obesity

    Genetics of Peripheral Artery Disease

    Influence of Nongenetic Factors

    Risk Assessment and Diagnosis

    Risk Management

    References

    Chapter 16 Less Commonly Considered Causes of Atherosclerosis

    Abstract

    The Atherosclerotic Lesion

    Hyperlipidemia

    Diet

    Infection

    Environmental Toxins

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 17 International and Ethnic Trends in Vascular Disease

    Abstract

    International Trends

    Ethnic Trends

    References

    Section 3 Clinical and Vascular Laboratory Evaluation

    Chapter 18 Clinical Evaluation of the Arterial System

    Abstract

    Overview of the Clinical Evaluation

    History in Patients With Arterial Disease

    Physical Examination in Patients With Arterial Disease

    The Ulcerated Leg

    References

    Chapter 19 Clinical Evaluation of the Venous and Lymphatic Systems

    Introduction

    Anatomic Considerations

    The Clinical Evaluation

    References

    Chapter 20 Vascular Laboratory

    Doppler Ultrasonography

    Pressure Measurements

    Plethysmography

    Other Methods

    References

    Chapter 21 Vascular Laboratory

    Instrumentation and Basic Concepts

    Duplex Surveillance

    References

    Chapter 22 Vascular Laboratory

    Ambulatory Venous Pressure

    Plethysmography

    Selective Use of Venous Physiologic Testing

    References

    Chapter 23 Vascular Laboratory

    Abstract

    Normal B-Mode Imaging Findings

    Normal Flow Patterns in Veins

    Diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Calf Vein Thrombosis

    Iliac Vein and Inferior Vena Cava

    Diagnosis of Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Limited or Point-of-Care Ultrasound Examinations

    Determination of Thrombus Age

    Novel Ultrasound Techniques: Elastography

    Determining the Duration of Therapy for Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Diagnosis of Recurrent Thrombosis

    Superficial Veins

    Evaluation for Chronic Venous Disease: Venous Insufficiency

    Perforating Veins

    References

    Section 4 Vascular Imaging

    Chapter 24 Radiation Safety

    Abstract

    Types of Radiation

    Measurement

    Biologic Effects of Radiation

    Exposure and Recommended Limits

    Principles of Radiation Protection

    Radiation Safety: Diagnostic Procedures

    Radiation Safety: Endovascular Procedures

    Radiation and the Endovascular Surgeon

    Radiation and Pregnancy

    References

    Chapter 25 Arteriography

    Abstract

    Equipment

    Techniques

    Clinical Applications

    Limitations and Risks

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 26 Venography

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Applications

    Iliac Vein Assessment and Inferior Venacavography

    Venography During Treatment of Iliocaval Stenosis

    Diagnostic Venography of Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Venography for Varicoceles

    Renal Venography

    Diagnostic Angiography of Mesenteric or Portal Venous Thrombosis

    Diagnostic Venography of Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    Upper Extremity Venography

    Central Thoracic Venography

    Pulmonary Arteriography

    General Limitations and Risks of Venography

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 27 Computed Tomography

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Application

    Limitations and Risks

    Common Artifacts

    Special Pediatric Considerations

    Future Advances

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 28 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Arteriography

    Abstract

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Limitations and Risks

    Recent Advances

    References

    Chapter 29 Vascular PET/CT and SPECT/CT

    Abstract

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Applications

    Limitations and Risks

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 30 Intravascular Ultrasound

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Applications

    Limitations and Risks

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 31 The Future of Imaging for Endovascular and Open Surgery

    Background

    X-Ray Imaging and Hybrid Operating Rooms

    Endovascular Navigation and Catheter Robotics

    The Future Hybrid Operating Suites

    References

    Section 5 Perioperative Care

    Chapter 32 Preoperative Evaluation and Management

    Abstract

    General Preoperative Risk Assessment

    Preoperative Medical Versus Interventional Therapy for Cardiac Disease

    Ethical and Legal Concerns/Frailty Assessment

    References

    Chapter 33 Intraoperative Management

    Anesthesia

    Intraoperative Monitoring

    Neurologic Monitoring

    Infection Control and Maintenance of Homeostasis

    Anticoagulation/Antiplatelet Therapy

    Control of Blood Loss/Transfusion

    Transfusion Strategies

    Venous Thromboembolic Prophylaxis

    Intraoperative Safety

    References

    Chapter 34 Postoperative Management

    Postoperative Triage

    Hemodynamics and Pressure Monitoring

    Cardiovascular Complications

    Pulmonary Management

    Bleeding

    Fluids

    Renal Failure

    General Issues

    References

    Chapter 35 Hospital Readmissions in Vascular Surgery

    Abstract

    Introduction

    History

    Readmission in Vascular Patients

    Interventions to Decrease Readmissions in Vascular Surgery

    Limitations of 30-Day Readmissions

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 6 Bleeding and Clotting

    Chapter 36 Normal Coagulation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Procoagulant, Anticoagulant, and Fibrinolytic Proteins, Inhibitors, and Receptors

    Connectivity and Dynamics of Blood Coagulation

    Blood Coagulation Monitoring

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 37 Coagulopathy and Hemorrhage

    Abstract

    Diagnosis and Preoperative Screening for Bleeding Disorders

    Inherited Coagulopathies

    Acquired Coagulopathies

    Drug-Induced Coagulopathies

    Hypothermia

    Acidosis

    Dilution

    Treatment

    Intraoperative Bleeding

    Postoperative Bleeding

    References

    Chapter 38 Hypercoagulable States

    Pathophysiology

    Congenital Hypercoagulability

    Acquired Hypercoagulability

    Evaluation of the Patient With Suspected Thrombophilia

    References

    Chapter 39 Anticoagulant Drugs

    Introduction

    References

    Chapter 40 Antiplatelet Agents

    Introduction

    Normal Platelet Function and Platelet Activation

    Clinical Use of Antiplatelet Agents in Vascular Disease

    References

    Chapter 41 Thrombolytic Agents

    Abstract

    History

    Thrombolytic Drug Administration

    Thrombolytic Agents

    Clinical Applications

    References

    Section 7 Complications

    Chapter 42 Systemic Complications

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    The Pathophysiology of Perioperative Myocardial Infarction

    Preoperative Cardiac Evaluation

    Class I

    Class III: No Benefit

    Medical Prophylaxis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 43 Respiratory Complications

    Preoperative Risk Stratification

    Perioperative Risk Reduction

    Clinical Manifestations

    Management Strategies

    References

    Chapter 44 Systemic Complications

    Abstract

    Renal Anatomy

    Renal Function

    Acute Kidney Injury After Vascular and Endovascular Procedures

    Ischemic Injury to the Kidney

    Altered Renal Function During Aortic Surgery

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 45 Neurologic Complications

    Structure of a Peripheral Nerve

    Causes of Nerve Damage

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    General Principles of Treatment

    Trauma

    Specific Nerve Injuries

    Spinal Cord and Lumbosacral Plexus Injury

    Femoral Nerve Injury

    Saphenous Nerve and Sural Nerve Injury

    Tibial and Peroneal Nerve Injury

    Other Nerves

    References

    Chapter 46 Graft Thrombosis

    Abstract

    Prevention: Intraoperative Graft Assessment

    Graft Thrombosis: Pathogenesis

    Graft Thrombosis: Therapeutic Approach

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 47 Graft Infection

    Abstract

    Incidence

    Classification

    Pathogenesis

    Diagnosis

    Surgical Treatment and Outcomes

    References

    Chapter 48 Anastomotic Aneurysms

    Incidence and Anatomic Location

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Diagnosis

    History and Physical Examination

    Surgical Treatment

    Outcomes

    References

    Chapter 49 Local Complications

    Primary Aortoenteric Fistula

    Secondary Aortoenteric Fistula

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Results and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 50 Local Endovascular Complications and Their Management

    Abstract:

    Introduction

    Groin Hematoma

    Retroperitoneal Hematoma

    Arteriovenous Fistula

    Pseudoaneurysm

    Axillary and Brachial Access Complications

    Percutaneous Closure Device Complications

    Bleeding Complications

    Ischemic Complications

    Procedure-Specific Complications

    Other Complications of Endovascular Procedures

    References

    Chapter 51 Venous Complications

    Abstract

    Incidence of Venous Complications

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 52 Local Complications

    Abstract

    Post-Bypass Edema

    Lymphatic Fistula

    Lymphocele

    Chylous Ascites

    Thoracic Duct Fistula

    Chylothorax

    References

    Section 8 Technique

    Chapter 53 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Vascular Exposure

    Abstract

    Exposure of the Ascending Aorta and Aortic Arch

    Exposure of the Distal Aortic Arch and Descending Thoracic Aorta

    Exposure of the Thoracoabdominal Aorta

    Exposure of the Distal Descending Thoracic Aorta and Visceral Aorta

    References

    Chapter 54 Abdominal Vascular Exposures

    Abstract

    Anatomic Considerations

    Exposure of Major Abdominal Veins

    References

    Chapter 55 Cerebrovascular Exposure

    Abstract

    General

    Exposure of the Carotid Artery for Endarterectomy

    Retrojugular Approach

    Posterior Approach for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Proximal Exposure for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Reoperative Exposure for Carotid Stenosis

    Exposure for Subclavian Carotid Interventions

    Vertebral Artery Exposure

    Exposure of the V2 Segment of the Vertebral Artery

    Posterior Exposure of the Suboccipital Vertebral Artery (V4) Segment

    Tips

    Chapter 56 Lower Extremity Arterial Exposure

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Femoral Artery Exposure

    Popliteal Artery Exposure

    Suprageniculate Popliteal

    Midpopliteal

    Infrageniculate Popliteal

    Exposure of the Tibial and Peroneal Arteries

    Exposure of the Arteries of the Foot

    Exposure for Obturator Bypass

    Exposure of the Lower Extremity Veins

    Small Saphenous Vein

    Femoral Vein of the Thigh

    References

    Chapter 57 Upper Extremity Vascular Exposure

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Exposure of Arteries Within the Thorax

    Exposure of Veins Within the Thorax

    Exposure of Vessels Within the Thoracic Outlet

    Exposure of the Arm Vessels

    References

    Chapter 58 Spinal Operative Exposure

    Abstract

    Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Evaluation, and Risk Assessment

    Surgical Treatment

    Surgical Results and Complications

    Postoperative Management and Follow-up

    References

    Chapter 59 Technique

    Basic Principles

    Basic Vascular Techniques

    Thrombectomy and Thromboembolectomy

    Endarterectomy

    Arteriotomy Closure

    Replacement and Bypass Procedures

    References

    Appendix e59.1

    Appendix e59.2

    Chapter 60 Endovascular Diagnostic Technique

    Introduction

    Vascular Access

    Technique for Catheterization

    Complications

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 61 Endovascular Therapeutic Technique

    Introduction

    Balloon Angioplasty

    Stents

    Atherectomy Devices (Debulking Technologies)

    Thromboembolectomy

    Intraluminal Devices to Cross Chronic Total Occlusions

    Re-Entry Devices

    Embolization Devices and Agents

    Vascular Closure Devices

    Endovascular Therapeutic Techniques

    Stenting

    Hybrid Therapies

    Embolization

    References

    Chapter 62 Laparoscopic and Robotic Aortic Surgery

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Total Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery

    Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery

    Totally Robotic Aortic and Robot-Assisted Procedures

    Published Series

    Perioperative Outcomes

    Summary

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 9 Grafts and Devices

    Chapter 63 Autogenous Grafts

    Abstract

    Histology

    Anatomy

    Vein Graft Preparation

    Autogenous Vein Graft Configurations

    Etiology of Vein Graft Failure

    Prevention of Vein Graft Failure

    References

    Chapter 64 Prosthetic Grafts (Heparin-Bonded and Spiral Grafts)

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Applications

    Limitations and Risks

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 65 Biologic Grafts

    Abstract

    Graft Properties

    Clinical Use in Peripheral Vascular Surgery

    Clinical Outcomes

    References

    Chapter 66 Bioengineered Vascular Grafts

    Abstract

    Basic Principles

    Clinical Experience

    Limitations and Risks

    Future Advances

    References

    Chapter 67 Nonaortic Stents and Stent Grafts

    Abstract

    Historical Background

    Stent-Vessel Interaction

    Stent Types and Characteristics

    Selection of Stent

    Failure Modes

    New Developments

    Future Developments

    References

    Chapter 68 Novel and Evolving Aortic Endovascular Devices

    Introduction

    Thoracic Aorta

    Abdominal Aorta

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    References

    Section 10 Abdominal Aortic And Iliac Aneurysms

    Chapter 69 Arterial Aneurysms

    Abstract

    General Considerations

    Historical Perspective

    Aneurysm Classification

    Multiple Aneurysms

    References

    Chapter 70 Aortoiliac Aneurysms

    History

    Definitions

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis

    Screening and Surveillance Recommendations

    Medical Therapy

    Indications for Intervention

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 71 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Indication for Open Repair

    Preoperative Assessment and Planning

    Operative Technique

    Transperitoneal Repair

    Retroperitoneal Repair

    Anatomic Considerations

    Intraoperative Management

    Postoperative Complications

    Outcomes

    Special Circumstances

    References

    Chapter 72 Aortoiliac Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Graft Types

    Randomized Trials of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Versus Open Repair

    Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Compared With Medical Management

    Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Comparison of Different Stent Grafts

    Complications of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    Follow-Up

    Endovascular Repair of the Juxtarenal Aorta

    Endovascular Repair of Common Iliac and Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms

    Cost of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    References

    Chapter 73 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Techniques

    Abstract

    Characteristics of Abdominal Aortic Stent Grafts

    Anesthesia, Access, and Imaging

    Evar Deployment

    EVAR Troubleshooting

    Selected Key References

    Chapter 74 Ruptured Aortoiliac Aneurysms and Their Management

    Terminology and History

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology of Aortic Rupture

    Clinical Features

    Initial Management Strategies

    Operative Strategies: Endovascular Repair

    Operative Strategies: Open Surgical Repair

    Complications of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Outcomes of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Quality of Life

    References

    Chapter 75 Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysms and Their Management

    Introduction

    Pathogenesis

    Natural History

    Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Management

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 11 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Chapter 76 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Introduction

    The Thoracic Aorta: Anatomy and Epidemiology of TAA and TAAA

    Pathogenesis

    Etiology

    Anatomic Classification

    Clinical Findings

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Medical Therapy

    Selection of Treatment

    Preoperative Evaluation

    Other Pathologies Associated With the Thoracic Aorta

    References

    Chapter 77 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Pathology

    Degenerative

    Inheritable

    Trauma, Mycotic, Vasculitis

    Anatomic Classification

    Indications for Surgical Treatment

    Patient Evaluation

    Imaging

    Informed Consent

    Surgical Repair

    Anesthesia

    Patient Positioning

    Surgical Exposure

    Aneurysm Repair

    Impact of Endovascular Treatment

    Postoperative Care

    Outcomes

    Spinal Cord Ischemia

    Pulmonary Complications

    Mortality

    Renal Function

    Effect of Surgical Technique on Morbidity

    Long-Term Survival and Quality of Life

    References

    Chapter 78 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Approved Devices for Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PlanningThoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Thoracic Aneurysms

    Hybrid Endovascular Repair for Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

    Investigational Devices for Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Investigational Devices for Aortic Arch

    References

    Chapter 79 Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Indications

    Devices

    Technique

    Complications

    Neuroprotective Strategies

    Imaging Surveillance

    Outcomes

    Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    Connective Tissue Disorders

    Methods for Failure to Rescue

    References

    Chapter 80 Fenestrated and Branched Endograft Treatment of Juxtarenal, Paravisceral, Thoracoabdominal, and Aortic Arch Aneurysms

    Abstract

    History of Fenestrated and Branched Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Definitions

    Overview of Current Devices Based on Aneurysm Location and Extent

    Case Planning and Sizing

    Patient Selection and Preoperative Evaluation

    Operative Technique

    Outcomes of Fenestrated and Branched Repair

    Surveillance Recommendations After Fenestrated and Branched Repair

    Practice and Regulatory Issues

    References

    Chapter 81 Aortic Dissection

    Classification

    Epidemiology

    Pathologic Anatomy of Acute Aortic Dissection

    Pathogenesis of Malperfusion Syndromes

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment of Type B Dissection

    Natural History and Follow-Up

    References

    Chapter 82 Penetrating Aortic Ulcers

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology

    Incidence

    Clinical Presentation

    Other Aortic Pathologies Associated With Penetrating Aortic Ulcer

    Diagnostic Imaging

    Treatment

    Operative Repair

    Endovascular Repair

    Complications Associated With Repair

    Summary

    References

    Section 12 Peripheral and Splanchnic Aneurysms

    Chapter 83 Lower Extremity Aneurysms

    Femoral Artery Aneurysms

    Persistent Sciatic Artery Aneurysm

    Popliteal Artery Aneurysms

    Conclusion

    Tibial Artery and Pedal Artery Aneurysms

    References

    Chapter 84 Upper Extremity Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Arch Vessel Aneurysms

    Aneurysm of Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Kommerell Diverticulum

    Axillary Artery Aneurysms

    Brachial Artery Aneurysms

    References

    Chapter 85 Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Incidence and Etiology

    General Treatment Principles

    Surgical and Endovascular Techniques

    Specific Splanchnic Aneurysms

    Other Rare Splanchnic Aneurysms

    References

    Section 13 Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Chapter 86 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Abstract

    Background

    Stroke—Background/Introduction

    Stroke—Prevalence/Incidence

    Declining Prevalence/Incidence of Stroke

    Ischemic Stroke—Epidemiology

    Ischemic Stroke—Natural History

    Transient Ischemic Attack—Background/Introduction

    Transient Ischemic Attack—Prevalence

    Transient Ischemic Attack—Natural History

    Extracranial Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis—Background

    Extracranial Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis—Epidemiology

    Extracranial Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis—Natural History

    Additional Topics

    References

    Chapter 87 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Abstract

    Mechanism of Stroke in Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Stable Versus Unstable Carotid Plaques

    Histomorphology of the Unstable Carotid Plaque

    Biomechanics of the Unstable Carotid Plaque

    Noninvasive Identification of the Unstable Carotid Plaque

    Two-Dimensional B-Mode Imaging

    Ultrasonographic Virtual Histology

    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography

    Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography

    Plaque Strain Measurement

    Intravascular Ultrasound

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Histomorphology

    Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography for Biomechanics

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 88 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Duplex Ultrasound

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (See Chapter 29)

    Computed Tomography Angiography

    Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Transcranial Doppler

    References

    Chapter 89 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Introduction

    Treatment Options When Carotid Bifurcation Stenosis Is Identified

    Best Medical Therapy

    Estimating the Stroke Risk in A Particular Clinical Scenario

    Patient-Specific Factors That Influence the Choice of Therapy

    Evidence-Based Selection of Therapy

    Societal Guidelines Regarding Carotid Revascularization and Stroke Prevention

    Selecting the Appropriate Therapy for the Appropriate Patient

    References

    Chapter 90 Nonatherosclerotic Carotid Artery Disease and Its Management

    Abstract

    Carotid Stenosis After Radiotherapy

    Recurrent Carotid Stenosis

    References

    Chapter 91 Carotid Endarterectomy

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Indications for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Preoperative Imaging

    Perioperative Medical Management

    Operative Technique

    Exposure for High Lesions

    Cerebral Protection and Monitoring

    Arteriotomy Closure

    Completion Studies

    Perioperative Stroke Management

    Surgical Results

    Complications

    Special Considerations

    References

    Chapter 92 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Abstract

    Background

    Landmark Clinical Trials

    Current Guidelines

    Patient Selection

    Anatomic Considerations

    Preoperative Considerations

    Technique

    Perioperative Medications

    Complications

    Postoperative Surveillance

    Long-Term Outcomes

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 93 Cerebrovascular Disease

    Abstract

    Carotid Artery Dissection

    References

    Chapter 94 Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    Abstract

    Definition

    Historical Review

    Epidemiology

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Findings

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Natural History

    Treatment

    Treatment Outcome

    Medical Management

    Special Considerations

    References

    Chapter 95 Carotid Body Tumors

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology and Etiology

    Anatomy and Physiology

    Pathology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Preoperative Preparation

    Surgical Technique

    Positioning and Exposure

    Resection of Tumor

    Postoperative Care

    Results

    Conclusions

    Selected Key References

    Chapter 96 Unusual Carotid Artery Conditions

    Abstract

    Background

    Carotid Sinus Syndrome/Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    Moyamoya Disease

    Carotid Artery Kinks and Coils

    Intracranial Vascular Stenosis

    Intracranial Aneurysm With Extracranial Carotid Stenosis

    Cerebral Vasculitis

    Lacunar Infarcts

    References

    Chapter 97 Vertebral Artery Dissection and Other Conditions

    Abstract

    Pathogenesis and Anatomy

    Disease Distribution

    Patient Selection for Vertebral Artery Reconstruction

    Vertebral Artery Reconstructive Procedures

    Operative Results

    Endovascular Therapy

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 98 Brachiocephalic Artery Disease and Its Surgical Treatment

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Anatomic Variants

    Indications for Intervention in Occlusive Disease

    Other Indications for Intervention

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Revascularization

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 99 Brachiocephalic Artery Disease and Its Endovascular Management

    Procedure Planning

    Imaging Studies

    Options for Endovascular Therapy

    Perioperative Medical Management

    Results

    References

    Volume 2

    Section 14 Acute Limb Ischemia

    Chapter 100 Acute Limb Ischemia

    Etiology and Pathology

    Clinical Presentation

    Clinical Assessment

    Classification of Acute Limb Ischemia

    Diagnosis

    Investigation

    Initial Management

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Upper Limb Ischemia

    References

    Chapter 101 Acute Ischemia

    Abstract

    Initial Management

    Treatment Selection

    Endovascular Treatment

    Surgical Revascularization

    Special Considerations

    Upper Limb Ischemia

    References

    Chapter 102 Compartment Syndrome and Its Management

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathogenesis of Compartment Syndrome

    Clinical Etiologies

    Clinical Presentation

    Adjunctive Measures

    Fasciotomy

    Technique of Fasciotomy

    Fasciotomy Wound Management

    Outcomes

    Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    References

    Chapter 103 Atheromatous Embolization and Its Management

    Incidence

    Pathogenesis

    Risk Factors

    Clinical Features

    Diagnosis

    Differential Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Summary

    References

    Section 15 Lower Extremity Chronic Arterial Disease

    Chapter 104 Lower Extremity Arterial Occlusive Disease

    Abstract

    Epidemiology of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Anatomic Distribution of Disease and Clinical Correlations

    Clinical Syndromes of Peripheral Arterial Disease, Staging and Natural History

    References

    Chapter 105 Lower Extremity Arterial Disease

    Abstract

    Medical Management

    Decision Making for Revascularization

    Treatment Guidelines According to Presentation

    Risk Prediction Models

    Angiogenesis for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    References

    Chapter 106 Aortoiliac Disease

    Abstract

    Pathology and Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Indications for Surgical Intervention

    Surgical Treatment

    Results

    Isolated Profundaplasty

    References

    Chapter 107 Aortoiliac Disease

    Femorofemoral Bypass

    Axillofemoral Bypass

    Obturator Bypass

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 108 Aortoiliac Disease

    Abstract

    Background

    Indications

    Contraindications

    Relevant Anatomy: Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Classification

    Patient Evaluation and Operative Planning

    Technique

    Results

    Complications

    Postoperative Management

    References

    Chapter 109 Infrainguinal Disease

    Abstract

    Indications

    Preoperative Assessment

    Preoperative Imaging

    Operative Planning

    Operative Exposures

    Choice of Conduit

    Bypass Technique

    Intraoperative Completion Studies

    Results

    Postoperative Management

    Complications

    Graft Surveillance

    Treatment of Graft and Anastomotic Stenoses

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 110 Infrainguinal Disease

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Intermittent Claudication

    Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia

    Factors Affecting Outcomes

    Inflow Considerations

    Outflow Considerations

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 111 Lower Extremity Amputations

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Indications for Amputation

    Primary Amputation Versus Revascularization

    Perioperative Evaluation

    Amputation Level Selection

    Rehabilitation Considerations

    Functional Outcome

    References

    Chapter 112 Lower Extremity Amputations

    Abstract

    General Principles

    Amputation Types

    Midfoot and Hindfoot Amputations

    Transtibial (Below-Knee) Amputation

    Through-Knee Amputation

    Transfemoral (Above-Knee) Amputation

    Hip Disarticulation

    Principles of Postoperative Care

    Long-Term Survival

    Functional Outcome

    Reamputation

    Complications

    References

    Section 16 Diabetic Foot and Its Management

    Chapter 113 General Considerations of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Presentation and Diagnosis

    Management

    Soft Tissue Surgery for the Diabetic Foot

    Amputation

    Peripheral Arterial Disease and the Diabetic Foot

    Surgical Bypass in the Diabetic Patient

    Multidisciplinary Limb Preservation Programs

    References

    Chapter 114 Diabetic Foot Abnormalities and Their Management

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Peripheral Neuropathy

    Biomechanics

    Ischemia

    Infection

    The Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Charcot Neuroarthropathy

    Other Important Considerations

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 115 Wound Care

    Abstract

    Normal Wound Healing

    Mechanisms of Abnormal Wound Healing in Chronic Wounds

    Etiology of Ulceration

    Clinical Presentation and Initial Evaluation

    Properties and Categories of Wound Dressings

    Venous Leg Ulcers

    Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Ulcers Associated With Arterial Insufficiency

    Specialized Techniques

    References

    Chapter 116 Podiatric Care

    Abstract

    The Specialty of Podiatry

    Diabetes-Related Amputations

    Summary

    References

    Section 17 Upper Extremity Arterial Disease

    Chapter 117 Upper Extremity Arterial Disease

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Etiology and Pathogenesis

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 118 Upper Extremity Arterial Disease

    Abstract

    Clinical Findings

    Treatment

    Surgical Treatment

    Alternative Therapy

    Trauma

    References

    Chapter 119 Upper Extremity Arterial Disease

    Epidemiology

    General Operative Considerations

    Specific Amputations

    Postoperative Management and Complications

    Long-Term Outcomes

    References

    Section 18 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Chapter 120 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Introduction

    Relevant Anatomy

    Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Arterial Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    References

    Chapter 121 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Anatomy

    Etiology

    Clinical Findings

    Conservative Management

    Surgical Treatment

    Surgical Complications

    Results of Surgery

    References

    Chapter 122 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Pathophysiology

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Differential Diagnosis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 123 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Abstract

    Epidemiology and Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 124 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Indications

    Preoperative Planning

    Surgical Techniques

    Postoperative Care and Rehabilitation

    Pitfalls and Complications

    References

    Section 19 Renovascular Disease

    Chapter 125 Renovascular Disease

    Historical Perspective

    Pathogenesis of Renovascular Disease

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Treatment of Renovascular Hypertension

    References

    Chapter 126 Renovascular Disease

    Indications for Surgical Repair

    Management Options

    Direct Surgical Techniques

    Indirect Surgical Techniques

    Intraoperative Assessment

    Results of Open Operative Management

    References

    Chapter 127 Renovascular Disease

    Indications and Contraindications

    Results

    Description of Technique

    Complications

    References

    Chapter 128 Renovascular Disease

    Abstract

    Renal Artery Aneurysms

    Renal Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulae

    References

    Chapter 129 Renovascular Disease

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Renal Artery Embolism

    Renal Artery Thrombosis

    Renovascular Trauma

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    References

    Chapter 130 Renovascular and Aortic Developmental Disorders

    Abstract

    Developmental Abdominal Aortic Coarctation and Hypoplasia

    Developmental Renal and Splanchnic Arterial Stenoses

    Clinical Manifestations

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Medical Management

    Surgical Treatment

    Endovascular Treatment

    References

    Section 20 Mesenteric Vascular Disease

    Chapter 131 Mesenteric Arterial Disease

    Abstract

    Anatomy of the Visceral Arteries

    Physiology of Splanchnic Blood Flow

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment of Acute and Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    Treatment of Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia

    Treatment of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis

    References

    Chapter 132 Chronic Mesenteric Arterial Disease

    Background

    Pathophysiology

    Etiology

    Natural History

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Imaging

    Treatment Strategies

    Preprocedure Evaluation

    Endovascular Revascularization

    Open Revascularization

    Results

    References

    Chapter 133 Acute Mesenteric Arterial Disease

    Abstract

    Incidence and Risk Factors

    Pathophysiologic Classification

    Final Common Pathway of Bowel Ischemia

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment

    Other Considerations

    References

    Chapter 134 Mesenteric Arterial Dissection

    Abstract

    Incidence

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Classification System

    Treatment

    Other Considerations

    Surveillance

    Remodeling

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 135 Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome

    Introduction

    Diagnosis

    Radiologic Studies

    Management

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 136 Mesenteric Vascular Disease

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Pathogenesis

    Natural History

    Pathology and Manifestations

    Diagnosis

    Treatment and Results

    References

    Section 21 Nonatherosclerotic Arterial Diseases

    Chapter 137 Vasculitis and Other Uncommon Arteriopathies

    Vasculitis Presentation

    Large-Vessel Vasculitis

    Medium-Sized Vessel Vasculitis

    Small-Vessel Vasculitis

    Vasculitis Secondary to Connective Tissue Diseases

    Vasculitis Mimics

    References

    Chapter 138 Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 139 Takayasu Disease

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Classification

    Medical Treatment

    Refractory Therapy

    Indications for and Results of Revascularization Procedures

    Special Considerations

    Prognosis

    References

    Chapter 140 Aneurysms Caused by Connective Tissue Abnormalities

    Abstract

    Marfan Syndrome

    Vascular-Type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection

    References

    Chapter 141 Raynaud Phenomenon

    Epidemiology

    Normal Arterial Flow to the Hand

    Regulation of Blood Flow in the Digits

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Findings

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 142 Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathogenesis of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    Renal Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    Natural History

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment Selection

    Medical Treatment

    Endovascular Treatment in Adults

    Surgical Management

    Fibromuscular Dysplasia and Aneurysm

    Pediatric Renal Artery Stenosis and Arterial Dysplasia

    Extracranial Cerebrovascular Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    Fibromuscular Dysplasia in Other Arterial Beds

    References

    Chapter 143 Nonatheromatous Popliteal Artery Disease

    Introduction

    Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    Adventitial Cystic Disease

    References

    Chapter 144 Infected Arterial Aneurysms

    History and Epidemiology

    Pathogenesis and Etiology

    Microorganisms

    Diagnosis

    Management

    Aorta

    Femoral Artery

    Popliteal Artery

    Carotid Artery

    Upper Extremity Arteries

    Visceral Arteries

    References

    Section 22 Acute Venous Thromboembolic Disease

    Chapter 145 Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Abstract

    Epidemiology

    Natural History

    References

    Chapter 146 Venous Thromboembolic Disease

    Abstract

    Rationale for Risk Stratification and Prophylaxis

    Methods of Prophylaxis

    Specific Surgical Groups

    Evidence-Based Guidelines Versus Real Clinical Practice

    Summary of Recommendations for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Surgical Patients

    References

    Chapter 147 Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Clinical Assessment

    Diagnostic Tests

    Diagnostic Strategies

    Medical Treatment of Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    References

    Chapter 148 Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Abstract

    Postthrombotic Syndrome

    Rationale for Thrombus Removal

    Randomized Trials of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis

    Strategies for Thrombus Removal

    Choosing the Appropriate Treatment Option

    Published Guidelines

    References

    Chapter 149 Acute Upper Extremity and Catheter-Related Venous Thrombosis

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical Findings

    Diagnostic Strategies

    Risk Factors and Prevention

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 150 Superficial Thrombophlebitis and Its Management

    Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 151 Pulmonary Embolism

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Risk Stratification

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    References

    Chapter 152 Vena Cava Interruption

    Abstract

    Filter Design

    Clinical Indications

    Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Superior Vena Cava Filters

    References

    Chapter 153 Compartment Syndrome and Venous Gangrene

    Introduction

    Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens

    Venous Gangrene

    Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Cancer-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation With Venous Limb Gangrene

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Symmetric Peripheral Gangrene (Purpura Fulminans)

    Fasciotomy for Venous Disease

    Fasciotomy for Acute Venous Thrombosis (Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens)

    References

    Section 23 Chronic Venous Disorders

    Chapter 154 Varicose Veins

    Abstract

    Decision Making

    Surgical Techniques

    Results

    Multimodality and Individualized Care

    Patient Management and Reimbursement Considerations

    References

    Chapter 155 Varicose Veins

    Abstract

    Background

    Relevant Anatomy

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment Selection

    References

    Chapter 156 Chronic Venous Disorders

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Postphlebitic (Thrombotic) Syndrome: Etiology and Epidemiology

    Postphlebitic (Thrombotic) Syndrome: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

    Postphlebitic (Thrombotic) Syndrome: Natural History and Pathophysiology

    Postphlebitic (Thrombotic) Syndrome: Clinical Summary Points of Natural History, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology

    References

    Chapter 157 Chronic Venous Disorders

    Abstract

    Treatment of Chronic Venous Disorders

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 158 Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Abstract

    Pathophysiology

    Anatomy

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Indications for Interruption

    Operative Planning Options

    Open Surgery

    Percutaneous Ablation of Perforating Veins

    References

    Chapter 159 Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Pathogenesis

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment Selection

    Surgical Treatment

    Venous Valve Substitutes (Neovalve)

    References

    Chapter 160 Iliocaval Venous Obstruction

    Abstract

    Surgical Treatment of Iliocaval Venous Obstruction

    Etiology

    Preoperative Evaluation

    Indications for Surgical Treatment

    Grafts in the Venous System

    Surgical Procedures

    Summary

    Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Incidence

    Anatomy of the Pelvic Venous System

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Findings

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 161 Iliocaval Venous Obstruction

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathology

    Indications and Patient Selection for Iliocaval Venous Stenting

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Outcomes

    References

    Section 24 Miscellaneous Venous Conditions

    Chapter 162 Superior Vena Cava Occlusion and Management

    Abstract

    Etiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Initial Treatments

    Indications for Interventional Treatment

    Endovenous Treatment

    Surgical Treatment

    Results

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 163 Congenital Occlusion/Absence of Inferior Vena Cava

    Abstract

    Association With Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Embryogenesis

    Presentation

    Management

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 164 Portal Hypertension

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology

    Classification

    Clinical Presentation

    Complications of Portal Hypertension

    Diagnosis

    Nonsurgical Treatment of Portal Hypertension and Its Complications

    Surgical Treatment of Portal Hypertension

    References

    Chapter 165 Nutcracker Syndrome

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Background

    Diagnosis

    Management

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 166 Venous Aneurysms and Their Management

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Lower Extremity Venous Aneurysms

    Abdominal Venous Aneurysms

    Upper Extremity and Internal Jugular Venous Aneurysms

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 167 Venous Reconstruction in Nonvascular Surgical Oncologic Procedures

    Abstract

    Introduction and Definitions

    Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstruction

    Inferior Vena Cava Reconstruction

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Section 25 Lymphedema

    Chapter 168 Lymphedema

    Pathophysiology

    Classification and Staging

    Clinical Presentation History

    Diagnosis

    Decision Making

    Prospects for Molecular Therapy

    References

    Chapter 169 Lymphedema

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Preventive Medicine

    Mechanical Reduction of Limb Swelling

    Other Treatment

    Supporting Evidence

    Complications

    Insurance Role

    Ideal Outpatient Lymphedema Clinic

    Helpful Resources

    References

    Chapter 170 Lymphedema

    Basis of Surgical Treatment

    Historical Perspective

    Preoperative Planning

    Surgery

    Primary Chylous Disorders

    References

    Section 26 Vascular Malformations

    Chapter 171 Congenital Vascular Malformations

    Abstract

    Definitions

    Nomenclature and Classification

    Incidence

    Etiology

    Embryology

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Specific Vascular Malformations and Conditions

    Long-Term Follow-Up Assessment

    References

    Chapter 172 Congenital Vascular Malformations

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Surgical Treatment of Low-Flow Malformations

    Surgical Treatment of High-Flow Malformations

    Surgical Treatment of Combined Vascular Malformations

    References

    Chapter 173 Congenital Vascular Malformations

    Abstract:

    Introduction

    Diagnosis of Vascular Malformations

    Treatment of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations

    Treatment of High-Flow Vascular Malformations

    Syndromes Associated With Vascular Malformations

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 174 Acquired Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Etiology and Incidence

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Principles of Management

    Treatment Outcomes

    References

    Section 27 Hemodialysis Access

    Chapter 175 Hemodialysis Access

    Abstract

    Initiatives and Guidelines

    Timing of Referral

    Preoperative Evaluation

    Selection of Access Location

    Technique for Permanent Access

    Postoperative Follow-Up

    Long-Term Follow-Up

    Results

    References

    Chapter 176 Hemodialysis Access

    Abstract

    General Principles

    Autogenous Arteriovenous Access

    Prosthetic Arteriovenous Access

    Cryopreserved Vein Allografts

    Unconventional Vascular Access Procedures

    Pediatric Vascular Access

    References

    Chapter 177 Hemodialysis Access

    Abstract

    Indications

    Types of Catheters

    Preoperative Evaluation

    Catheter Insertion

    Perioperative Care and Complications

    Long-Term Care and Complications

    References

    Chapter 178 Hemodialysis Access

    Measuring Access Function

    Causes of Access Failure

    Interventions for Failing Access

    Interventions for Thrombosed Access

    Treatment Outcome

    References

    Chapter 179 Hemodialysis Access

    Abstract

    Bleeding

    Infection

    Pseudoaneurysm and Aneurysm

    Seroma

    Venous Hypertension

    Neuropathy

    Cardiopulmonary Complications

    References

    Section 28 Vascular Trauma

    Chapter 180 Epidemiology and Natural History of Vascular Trauma

    Introduction

    Epidemiology and Natural History of Specific Vascular Injuries

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 181 Vascular Trauma

    Abstract

    Carotid Arteries

    Vertebral Arteries

    Subclavian Artery

    Cervical Venous Injuries

    References

    Chapter 182 Thoracic Vascular Trauma

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Imaging

    Management of Specific Thoracic Vascular Injuries

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 183 Vascular Trauma

    Abstract

    Surgical Anatomy

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment

    Specific Vascular Injuries

    Advances in the Management of Abdominal Vascular Injuries

    References

    Chapter 184 Vascular Trauma

    Abstract

    Epidemiology and Pattern of Injury

    Diagnosis and Workup

    Treatment Principles

    Specific Arterial Injuries

    Other Considerations

    References

    Chapter 185 Conditions Arising From Repetitive Trauma and Occupational Vascular Problems

    Abstract

    Manual Labor Injuries

    Exposure Injuries

    Athletic Injuries

    References

    Section 29 Special Issues in Pediatric Vascular Surgery

    Chapter 186 Special Techniques in Pediatric Vascular Surgery

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Basic Principles

    Basic Vascular Techniques

    References

    Chapter 187 Aortic and Arterial Aneurysms in the Pediatric Population

    Abstract

    Aortic Aneurysms

    Nonaortic Arterial Aneurysms

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 188 Pediatric Vascular Tumors

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical Features

    Diagnosis

    Management

    Secondary Tumors

    References

    Chapter 189 Vascular Trauma in the Pediatric Population

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Anatomic and Physiologic Considerations

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Management of Pediatric Vascular Injuries

    Role of Endovascular Techniques in Pediatric Patients

    Postoperative Management and Outcomes

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 190 Placement of AV Dialysis Accesses and Central Catheters in the Pediatric Patient

    Background

    Incidence

    Etiology

    Morbidity and Mortality

    Patient Selection

    Treatment With Hemodialysis

    Central Venous Catheters General Considerations

    Central Venous Catheters Technical Considerations

    AV Access General Considerations

    AV Access Technical Considerations

    Conclusion

    References

    Section 30 Miscellaneous Conditions

    Chapter 191 Erectile Dysfunction

    Abstract

    Definition

    Epidemiology

    Physiology of Penile Erection

    Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction

    Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction

    Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

    Future Therapeutic Strategies

    Erectile Dysfunction in Men Undergoing Vascular Surgery

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 192 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Abstract

    Epidemiology/Etiology

    Classification and Terminology

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical Presentation

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Nonsurgical Treatment

    Sympathectomy

    Overall Results of Treatment

    References

    Chapter 193 Current Role of Sympathectomy (Upper and Lower)

    Abstract

    Anatomy

    Physiology

    Indications for Cervicothoracic Sympathectomy

    Indications for Lumbar Sympathectomy

    Surgical Techniques

    Target Ganglia

    Results

    Complications of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy

    Causes of Failure

    Reversal of Sympathectomy

    References

    Chapter 194 Vascular Tumors and Their Management

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Tumor Types

    Clinical Presentation and Evaluation

    Treatment

    Replacement of the Inferior Vena Cava

    Outcomes

    References

    Chapter 195 Vascular Reconstruction in Oncologic Surgery

    Abstract

    Pancreatic Malignancies

    Hepatic and Biliary Malignancies

    Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    References

    Chapter 196 Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Abstract

    History

    Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Differential Diagnosis

    Anatomy

    Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

    Management

    Postoperative Management and Complications

    Outcomes

    References

    Section 31 The Business of Vascular Surgery

    Chapter 197 Development and Operation of Multispecialty Cardiovascular Centers

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Early Examples of Multispecialty Cardiovascular Centers

    Forces Shaping the Evolution of Contemporary Multispecialty Cardiovascular Centers

    Development of a Multispecialty Cardiovascular Center

    The Current State of Multispecialty Cardiovascular Centers

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 198 Development and Successful Operation of an Outpatient Vascular Center

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Regulations

    Components for Success

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 199 Essentials and Value of a Vascular Registry to the Practice

    Abstract

    Introduction

    What Is the Definition of a Medical Registry?

    Why Do Registries Exist?

    What Determines the Value of a Registry?

    Where Do Registries Fit as Medical Evidence?

    Role of Medical Registries in Quality Improvement

    Public Reporting of Registry Data

    The Future of Medical Registries

    References

    Chapter 200 Marketing a Vascular Surgery Practice

    Abstract

    Discovery

    Strategy and Solutions

    Internal Marketing

    External Marketing

    Implementation

    Review

    Summary

    Selected Key References

    Index

     

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