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    Description:

    Comprehensive, cutting-edge content prepares you for today’s orthodontics! Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 6th Edition provides evidence-based coverage of orthodontic diagnosis, planning strategies, and treatment protocols, including esthetics, genetics, temporary anchorage devices, aligners, technology-assisted biomechanics, and much more. New to this edition is an Expert Consult website using videos and additional visuals to show concepts difficult to explain with words alone. Expert Consult also adds three online-only chapters, research updates, and a fully searchable version of the text. From respected editors Lee Graber, Robert Vanarsdall, Katherine Vig, and Greg Huang, along with a veritable Who’s Who of expert contributors, this classic reference has a concise, no-nonsense approach to treatment that makes it the go-to book for orthodontic residents and practitioners!

    • Comprehensive coverage provides a one-stop resource for the field of orthodontics, including foundational theory and the latest on the materials and techniques used in today’s practice.
    • Experienced, renowned editors lead a team of expert, international contributors, bringing the most authoritative clinical practice and supporting science from the best and brightest in the industry.
    • More than 3,400 images include a mixture of radiographs, full-color clinical photos, and anatomic or schematic line drawings, showing examples of treatment, techniques, and outcomes.
    • Extensive references make it easy to look up the latest in orthodontic research and evidence-based information, and all references also appear online.
    • Detailed, illustrated case studies show the decision-making process, showing the consequences of various treatment techniques over time.
    • NEW! Seven all-new chapters include Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging; Upper Airway, Cranial Morphology, and Sleep Apnea; Management of Impactions; Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Appliances; Minimally and Non-Invasive Approaches to Accelerate Tooth Movement; Management of Dental Luxation and Avulsion Injuries in the Permanent Dentition; and Patient Management and Motivation for the Child and Adolescent Patient.
    • NEW! Expert Consult website includes online-only chapters, instructional videos, many references linked to PubMed, and research updates including additional case studies.
    • UPDATED CHAPTERS include Biomechanical Considerations with Temporary Anchorage Devices, Bonding in Orthodontics, Clear Aligner Treatment, Lingual Appliance Treatment, Psychological Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment, Clinically Relevant Aspects of Dental Materials Science in Orthodontics, The Biologic Basis of Orthodontics, and more.
    • New co-editor Greg J. Huang is joined by new contributors who are highly regarded experts within their respective subspecialties in orthodontics.

     

     

    ·  Part One. Foundations of Orthodontics

    ·  1. Craniofacial Growth and Development: Developing a Perspective

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Somatic Growth

    ·  Craniofacial Complex

    ·  Molecular Basis of Craniofacial Development and Growth

    ·  Cranial Vault

    ·  Cranial Base

    ·  Midface/Nasomaxillary Complex

    ·  Mandible

    ·  Arch Development, Tooth Migration, and Eruption

    ·  Adult Changes in Craniofacial Form

    ·  Postnatal Interrelationships during Craniofacial Growth

    ·  Significance of Understanding Craniofacial Growth for Orthodontics

    ·  2. Genetics and Orthodontics

    ·  Etiology

    ·  Background and Basic Definitions

    ·  Types of Genetic Effects and Modes of Inheritance

    ·  Nature versus Nurture

    ·  Facial Growth

    ·  Tooth Size and Agnesis

    ·  Dental Eruption Problems

    ·  Environmental and Genetic Influences on Bilateral Symmetry

    ·  Genetic Factors and External Apical Root Resorption

    ·  Personalized-Precision Orthodontics

    ·  Summary

    ·  3. The Biologic Basis of Orthodontics

    ·  Tissue Reactions in Orthodontics

    ·  Tooth-Supporting Tissues

    ·  Physiologic Tooth Migration

    ·  Orthodontic Tooth Movements

    ·  Tissue Response in Periodontium

    ·  Tissue Response in Sutures

    ·  Tissue Response in the Temporomandibular Joint

    ·  Posttreatment Stability

    ·  Summary

    ·  Tooth Movement at the Cellular and Molecular Levels

    ·  Orthodontic Forces Stimulate Biological Responses

    ·  Mechanotransduction Mediates the Bone Modeling Response to Orthodontic Force

    ·  Local Biological Mediators of Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    ·  Neuropeptides and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    ·  RANK/RANKL/OPG System for Control of Osteoclastogenesis and Tooth Movement

    ·  Biological Control of Osteogenesis Involved in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    ·  Physical Methods That Stimulate the Biology of Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    ·  Translation of Biological Techniques into Orthodontic Practice: The Future of Our Profession?

    ·  4. Bone Physiology, Metabolism, and Biomechanics in Orthodontic Practice

    ·  Osteology

    ·  Bone Physiology

    ·  Skeletal Adaptation: Remodeling and Modeling

    ·  Cortical Bone Growth and Maturation

    ·  Bone Metabolism

    ·  Calcium Conservation

    ·  Metabolic Bone Disease

    ·  Biomechanics

    ·  Sutures

    ·  Distraction Osteogenesis

    ·  Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    ·  Periodontal Ligament Response

    ·  Osteoblast Histogenesis and Bone Formation

    ·  Osteoclast Recruitment and Bone Resorption

    ·  Current Status of Miniscrew Implants

    ·  Animal Models for Studying Bone Adaptation, Remodeling, and Modeling

    ·  Expedited Tooth Movement

    ·  Summary

    ·  5. Application of Bioengineering to Clinical Orthodontics

    ·  Sign Conventions

    ·  Biomechanics of Tooth Movement

    ·  The Orthodontic Appliance

    ·  Summary

    ·  6. Clinically Relevant Aspects of Dental Materials Science in Orthodontics

    ·  Impact of Appliance Properties on Mechanics

    ·  Archwires

    ·  Photocuring and Adhesives

    ·  Materials for Fixed Retainers

    ·  Summary

    ·  7. The Role of Evidence in Orthodontics

    ·  Introduction

    ·  The Hierarchy of Evidence

    ·  Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

    ·  How Much Evidence Do We Need?

    ·  Where to Find the Evidence

    ·  The Future of Evidence-Based Orthodontics

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  Part Two. Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    ·  8. The Decision-Making Process in Orthodontics

    ·  Background Concepts

    ·  Patient Evaluation: The Diagnostic Process in Orthodontics

    ·  Treatment Planning: The Problem-Oriented Approach

    ·  9. Special Considerations in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    ·  Purposes and Goals of Orthodontic Treatment

    ·  Clinical Examination of Facial Symmetry and Proportion: Its Significance in Treatment Planning

    ·  Evaluation of Facial Proportions (Macroaesthetics)

    ·  10. Psychological Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment

    ·  Patient Perceptions

    ·  Patients with Psychological Disorders

    ·  Patients Having Orthognathic Surgery

    ·  Patients with Craniofacial Deformities

    ·  Summary

    ·  11. Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging

    ·  Strategies for Assessment of Radiation Dose Risk

    ·  Clinical Applications and Potential Limitations of the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Orthodontics

    ·  Image Analyses and the Use of Three-Dimensional Surface Models and Superimpositions

    ·  Treatment Planning with Computer-Assisted Surgery

    ·  Final Considerations

    ·  12. Upper Airway, Cranial Morphology, and Sleep Apnea

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Airway Complications Have Far-Reaching Effects

    ·  Anatomy and Growth

    ·  Airway Measurements and Imaging

    ·  Influence of Orthodontic Treatment on the Airway

    ·  Sleep-Disordered Breathing: Airway Disorders and Management

    ·  Importance of a Multidisciplinary Approach

    ·  Summary and Conclusions

    ·  13. Orthodontic Therapy and the Patient with Temporomandibular Disorder

    ·  Introduction

    ·  The Concept of Orthopedic Stability

    ·  Finding the Musculoskeletal Stable Position

    ·  Evaluating the Patient for Temporomandibular Disorders

    ·  Developing the Orthodontic/TMD Treatment Plan

    ·  Managing TMD Symptoms That Arise During Orthodontic Therapy

    ·  Summary

    ·  14. The Orthodontist’s Role in a Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Team

    ·  Diagnostic Considerations

    ·  The Team Approach

    ·  Role of the Orthodontist

    ·  Management of the Missing Lateral Incisor Space

    ·  Summary

    ·  Part Three. Mixed Dentition Diagnosis and Treatment

    ·  15. Patient Management and Motivation for the Child and Adolescent Patient

    ·  Behavior Guidance

    ·  Differences in Behavior Management Between Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics

    ·  Patient At-Home Responsibilities

    ·  Removable Orthodontic Appliances

    ·  Extraoral Appliances

    ·  Headgear for Class II Correction

    ·  Removable Intraoral Appliances

    ·  Orthodontic Appointments

    ·  Intraoral Elastics

    ·  Removable Retainers

    ·  Summary

    ·  16. Optimizing Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Treatment Timing and Mixed Dentition Therapy

    ·  The Timing of Treatment Intervention

    ·  The Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method

    ·  When to Intervene

    ·  Treatment of Tooth-Size/Arch-Size Discrepancy Problems

    ·  Serial Extraction

    ·  Arch Expansion

    ·  Spontaneous Improvement of Sagittal Malocclusions

    ·  The Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    ·  Treatment of Class III Malocclusion

    ·  Summary

    ·  Part Four. Orthodontic Treatment

    ·  17. Contemporary Straight Wire Biomechanics

    ·  Straight Wire Appliance Design and Values

    ·  Straight Wire Appliance and Self-Ligation

    ·  Future Directions

    ·  Summary

    ·  18. Nonextraction Treatment

    ·  The Original Cetlin Approach

    ·  Phase I: Space-Gaining Phase

    ·  Phase II: Space-Utilization Phase

    ·  Evolution of the Technique

    ·  Conclusions

    ·  19. Standard Edgewise: Tweed-Merrifield Philosophy, Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Force Systems

    ·  Historical Perspective

    ·  The Angle System

    ·  The Edgewise Appliance

    ·  Charles H. Tweed

    ·  Levern Merrifield

    ·  Dimensions of the Dentition

    ·  Differential Diagnosis

    ·  Tweed-Merrifield Edgewise Appliance

    ·  Treatment with the Tweed-Merrifield Edgewise Appliance

    ·  Steps of Treatment

    ·  Summary

    ·  20. Biomechanical Considerations with Temporary Anchorage Devices

    ·  Characteristics and Clinical Significance of Temporary Anchorage Devices

    ·  Clinical and Biomechanical Applications of Temporary Anchorage Devices

    ·  21. Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ·  Current Status of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy

    ·  Goals of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy

    ·  Diagnosis of Adult Orthodontic Conditions

    ·  Clinical Management of the Interdisciplinary Adult Therapy Patient

    ·  Sequence of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy

    ·  Dentoalveolar Collapse: Orthodontic and Restorative Considerations in the Adult Interdisciplinary Patient

    ·  Stability and Retention Individualized for the Interdisciplinary Adult Therapy Patient

    ·  Risk Management and the Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy Patient

    ·  Summary

    ·  22. Periodontal–Orthodontic Interrelationships

    ·  Types of Inflammatory Diseases

    ·  High-Risk Factors

    ·  Early Treatment

    ·  Tissue Response to Certain Types of Tooth Movements

    ·  Mucogingival Considerations

    ·  Considerations with Ectopically Positioned and Unerupted Teeth

    ·  Alveolar Decortication and Augmentation Grafting

    ·  Summary

    ·  23. Orthodontic Aspects of Orthognathic Surgery

    ·  Background

    ·  Need Versus Demand

    ·  Technologic Advances in Orthognathic Surgery

    ·  Patient Treatment

    ·  Sequence of Treatment for Orthognathic Patients

    ·  Applied Concepts for Specific Types of Cases

    ·  Optimizing Stability

    ·  Risks of Orthodontic–Orthognathic Surgery

    ·  Summary

    ·  24. Self-Ligating Bracket Biomechanics

    ·  The Historical Context of Self-Ligation

    ·  Factors That Hindered the Adoption of Self-Ligation

    ·  Aesthetic Self-Ligating Brackets

    ·  Proposed Core Advantages of Self-Ligating Brackets

    ·  Active Clips and Passive Slides

    ·  Self-Ligation and Treatment Efficiency

    ·  Self-Ligation and Patient Comfort

    ·  Self-Ligation and Effectiveness of Torque Control

    ·  Further Current Hypotheses About Self-Ligation

    ·  Force Levels With Self-Ligation and Conventional Ligation

    ·  Does Self-Ligation Reduce the Need for Extractions?

    ·  Practical Consequences for Clinical Technique

    ·  Summary

    ·  25. Lingual Appliance Treatment

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Main Differences Between Labial and Lingual Techniques

    ·  Summary

    ·  26. Clear Aligner Treatment

    ·  Brief History of Clear Aligner Treatment

    ·  Scanning and Digitization

    ·  Diagnosis and Treatment Planning for Clear Aligner Treatment

    ·  ClinCheck—An Overview

    ·  Biomechanics of Aligner Treatment

    ·  Staging of Tooth Movement in ClinCheck

    ·  Attachment Design in the Invisalign System

    ·  Power Ridges and Pressure Areas in the Invisalign System

    ·  Root Control in the Invisalign System

    ·  Rotation Correction in the Invisalign System

    ·  Extrusion Correction in the Invisalign System

    ·  Auxiliaries and the Invisalign System

    ·  Invisalign Teen

    ·  Periodontal Considerations

    ·  Summary

    ·  Part Five. Specialized Treatment Considerations

    ·  27. Bonding in Orthodontics

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Materials and Devices Used in Orthodontic Bonding

    ·  Bonding

    ·  Debonding

    ·  Bonded Retainers

    ·  Other Applications of Bonding

    ·  Conclusion

    ·  28. Management of Impactions

    ·  Teeth Normally Erupt! (Causes)

    ·  Is There an Impaction? (Diagnosis)

    ·  Which Teeth Are the Most Likely to Be Affected? (Prevalence)

    ·  Where Is the Tooth? (Positional Diagnosis)

    ·  Assessment of the Overall Malocclusion (Treatment Planning)

    ·  Resolving the Impaction

    ·  Surgical Exposure

    ·  Surgical Options

    ·  Attachments

    ·  Traction Mechanisms, Their Range and Directional Potential

    ·  Failure—Patient-Dependent Factors

    ·  Failure—Orthodontist-Dependent Factors

    ·  Failure—Surgeon-Dependent Factors

    ·  29. Management of Dental Luxation and Avulsion Injuries in the Permanent Dentition

    ·  Tissue Response to Trauma

    ·  Root Resorption

    ·  Pulpal Response

    ·  Alveolar Fracture

    ·  Management of Trauma and Immediate Sequelae

    ·  Treatment of Avulsed Permanent Teeth with Closed Apex

    ·  Treatment of Avulsed Permanent Teeth with Open Apex

    ·  Prevention

    ·  30. Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Treatment

    ·  Prevention and Management of Demineralized White Lesions

    ·  Root Resorption†

    ·  Risk Factors

    ·  Management

    ·  31. Minimally and Noninvasive Approaches to Accelerate Tooth Movement

    ·  Micro-Osteoperforations

    ·  Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations†

    ·  32. Biodigital Orthodontics: Integrating Technology with Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Targeted Therapeutics

    ·  Introduction

    ·  Current Craft-Based Care Model

    ·  Patient-Centered and Professional-Based Model of Care

    ·  Integrated Digital Technology Platform: SureSmile and the OraMetrix Digital Laboratory

    ·  SureSmile in Clinical Practice

    ·  Proactive Decision Making

    ·  Principles of Targeted Therapeutics

    ·  Efficacy and Effectiveness

    ·  Summary

    ·  Part Six. Orthodontic Retention and Posttreatment Changes

    ·  33. Stability, Retention, and Relapse

    ·  History of Retention

    ·  Retention Theories Proposed in the Literature

    ·  Other Factors Related to Retention

    ·  UW Postretention Registry: Lessons Learned

    ·  Clinical Applications of Retention

    ·  Retention Appliances

    ·  Positioner in Retention Planning

    ·  Duration of Retention

    ·  Recovery after Relapse

    ·  Summary

    ·  Part Seven. Classic Chapters (Online Only)

    ·  34. Interceptive Guidance of Occlusion with Emphasis on Diagnosis

    ·  Diagnostic Records

    ·  Diagnosis

    ·  Treatment

    ·  Class I Treatment

    ·  Premolars

    ·  Key Measurements for Diagnosis and Case Evaluation

    ·  35. Functional Appliances

    ·  Origin

    ·  Andresen Activator

    ·  Bite-Opening Controversy

    ·  Mechanisms of Class II Correction with Functional Orthopedics

    ·  Construction Bite

    ·  Summary

    ·  36. Treatment of the Face with Biocompatible Orthodontics

    ·  The Damon System Concept

    ·  Early Observations of Damon System Treatment

    ·  Contemporary Orthodontic Philosophies

    ·  Force Management

    ·  Computed Tomographic Scans Demonstrate Healthy Bone Structure after Treatment with the Low-Force Damon Tube System

    ·  Case Presentations and Clinical Analyses

    ·  Damon System Essentials



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