The Cardiovascular System at a Glance

The Cardiovascular System at a Glance

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Cod produs/ISBN: 9781119245780

Disponibilitate: La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani

Editura: Wiley

Limba: Engleza

Nr. pagini: 160

Coperta: Paperback

Dimensiuni: 21.34 x 1.02 x 27.18 cm

An aparitie: 13 April 2020




Everything you need to know about the cardiovascular system... at a Glance!

The Cardiovascular System at a Glance is the essential reference guide to understanding all things circulatory. Concise, accessible, and highly illustrated, this latest edition presents an integrated overview of the subject, from the basics through to application. Featuring brand new content on stroke, examination and imaging, heart block and ECGs, and myopathies and channelopathies, The Cardiovascular System at a Glance goes one step further and offers new and updated clinical case studies and multiple-choice questions on a supplementary website.

Integrates basic science and clinical topics

Offers bite-size chapters that make topics easy to digest

Includes coverage of anatomy and histology, blood and haemostasis, cellular physiology, form and function, regulation and integration of cardiovascular function, history, examination and investigations, pathology and therapeutics

Filled with highly visual, colour illustrations that enhance the text and help reinforce learning


Table of Contents:


1 Overview of the cardiovascular system

Blood vessel functions

Anatomy and histology

2 Gross anatomy and histology of the heart

Gross anatomy of the heart (Figure 2.1)

Structure of the myocardium

Coronary circulation (Figure 2.6)

3 Vascular anatomy

The systemic circulation

The pulmonary circulation

The splanchnic circulation

The lymphatic system

4 Vascular histology and smooth muscle cell ultrastructure

Exchange vessel structure

Smooth muscle cell ultrastructure

Blood and body fluids

5 Constituents of blood


Blood cells

6 Erythropoiesis, haemoglobin and anaemia




7 Haemostasis

Primary haemostasis (Figure 7.1)

Formation of the blood clot (Figures 7.2, 7.3)

Inhibitors of haemostasis and fibrinolysis

Defects in haemostasis

8 Thrombosis and anticoagulants


Antiplatelet drugs (Figure 8.2)

Anticoagulant drugs (Figure 8.3)

Some laboratory investigations

9 Blood groups and transfusions

Blood groups

The ABO system

Rh groups

Other blood groups

Complications of blood transfusions

Blood storage

Cellular physiology

10 Membrane potential, ion channels and pumps

Resting membrane potential (Figure 10.1)

Ion channels and gating (Figure 10.2)

Ion pumps and exchangers (Figure 10.3)

Ion pumps and membrane potential

11 Electrophysiology of cardiac muscle and origin of the heartbeat

Ventricular muscle action potential (Figure 11.1)

Role of Na+–Ca2+ exchange

Sinoatrial node

Other regions of the heart (Figure 11.2)

12 Cardiac muscle excitation–contraction coupling

Initiation of contraction

Generation of tension

Relaxation mechanisms

Regulation of contractility

Influence of heart rate

13 Electrical conduction system in the heart

Electrical conduction in cardiac muscle (Figure 13.1)

Conduction pathways in the heart (Figure 13.2)

Abnormalities of impulse generation or conduction (see also Chapters 48–53)

14 The electrocardiogram

Recording the ECG

General features of the ECG (Figure 14.2)

Basic interpretation of the ECG (Figure 14.5)

15 Vascular smooth muscle excitation–contraction coupling

Regulation of contraction by Ca2+ and myosin phosphorylation (see shaded area in left cell of Figure 15.1)

Vasoconstricting mechanisms

Effects of IP3 and diacylglycerol

Ca2+ influx mechanisms

Ca2+ removal and vasodilator mechanisms (see right cell of Figure 15.1)

Form and function

16 Cardiac cycle

Atrial systole (A)

Ventricular systole


Diastole – relaxation and refilling

The pressure–volume loop

Heart sounds and murmurs

17 Control of cardiac output

Filling pressure and Starling’s law of the heart

Importance of Starling’s law

The autonomic nervous system

Venous return and vascular function curves

18 Haemodynamics

Relationships between pressure, resistance and flow

Blood viscosity

Laminar flow

Wall tension

19 Blood pressure and flow in the arteries and arterioles

Factors controlling arterial blood pressure

Blood pressure and flow in the arteries

Arterioles and vascular resistance

20 The microcirculation and lymphatic system and diapedesis

Organization of the microcirculation

Movement of solutes across the capillary wall

The blood–brain barrier


The lymphatic system

21 Fluid filtration in the microcirculation

Movement of water across the capillary wall

Water filtration and absorption

Pulmonary and systemic oedema

22 The venous system

Venous and arterial compliance

The veins as capacitance vessels

Effects of posture

The skeletal muscle pump

The respiratory pump

Effect of cardiac contraction

23 Local control of blood flow


Metabolic and reactive hyperaemia

Metabolic factors

Other local mechanisms

24 Regulation of the vasculature by the endothelium

Nitric oxide

Other endotheliumderived relaxing mechanisms

Endotheliumderived constricting factors

Endothelium in cardiovascular disease

25 The pulmonary, skeletal muscle and fetal circulations

The pulmonary circulation

The skeletal muscle circulation

The fetal circulation

Circulatory changes at birth

26 The coronary, cutaneous and cerebral circulations

Coronary circulation

Cutaneous circulation

Cerebral circulation

Integration and regulation

27 Cardiovascular reflexes

Intrinsic cardiovascular reflexes

Central regulation of cardiovascular reflexes

28 Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system

The sympathetic system

Effects on the heart

Effects on the vasculature

The parasympathetic system

Effects on the heart

Effects on the vasculature

29 The control of blood volume

Role of sodium and osmoregulation

Control of Na+ and blood volume by the kidneys

Antidiuretic hormone in volume regulation

30 Cardiovascular effects of exercise

Effects of exercise on plasma volume

Regulation and coordination of the cardiovascular adaptation to exercise

Systemic effects mediated by autonomic reflexes

Effects of local metabolites on muscle and heart

Effects of training

31 Shock and haemorrhage

Haemorrhagic shock

Immediate compensation

Medium and longterm mechanisms

Complications and irreversible (refractory) shock

Other types of hypovolaemic shock

Lowresistance shock

History, examination and investigations

32 History and examination of the cardiovascular system



33 Cardiac imaging

Pathology and therapeutics

34 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

Modifiable risk factors

Fixed risk factors

Risk scoring in clinical practice

35 βblockers, angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and Ca2+ channel blockers

βadrenoceptor antagonists (βblockers)

Angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers

Ca2+ channel blockers

36 Hyperlipidaemias

Lipoproteins and lipid transport

Hyperlipidaemias: types and treatments

37 Atherosclerosis

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

Oxidized lowdensity lipoprotein, macrophages and atherogenesis

Clinical consequences of advanced atherosclerosis

38 Mechanisms of primary hypertension

Vascular remodelling

Secondary hypertension

39 Treatment of hypertension

Definition and implications of hypertension

Diagnosis and general management of hypertension

Drugs used to treat hypertension

Renal effects of vasodilators

40 Stable, microvascular, and vasospastic angina

Stable angina (Figure 40.2)

Microvascular angina (Figure 40.3)

Vasospastic angina (Figure 40.4)

41 Pharmacological management of stable, microvascular and vasospastic angina

Antianginal agents

βAdrenergic receptor blockers (see also Chapter 35)

Ca2+channel blockers (see also Chapter 35)


Other antianginals

Management of microvascular angina

Management of vasospastic angina

Drugs for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease

42 NonST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS)

Pathophysiology of NSTEACS

Management of NSTEACS (Figure 42.3)

43 Coronary revascularisation

Percutaneous coronary intervention (Figure 43.1)

The role of PCI in stable coronary artery disease

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (Figure 43.2)

PCI vs CABG in stable coronary artery disease

44 Pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction

Role of thrombosis in MI

Mechanisms and consequences of plaque rupture (Figure 44.1)

Evolution of the infarct (Figure 44.1)

45 ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

Symptoms and signs (Figure 45.1)


Immediate management (Figure 45.1)

Subsequent management (Figure 45.1)

Complications of acute myocardial infarction

46 Heart failure

Types of heart failure


Consequences of compensation (Figure 46.3)

Myocardial dysfunction and remodelling

47 Treatment of chronic heart failure

ACEI and other vasodilators

βreceptor blockers

Aldosterone antagonists


Cardiac glycosides

Device therapy in CHF

48 Mechanisms of tachyarrhythmia

Disorders of impulse generation: latent pacemakers and triggered automaticity

Abnormal impulse conduction: reentry

The sympathetic nervous system and arrhythmias

49 Atrial fibrillation

Classification of atrial fibrillation

The ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation and stroke

Management of atrial fibrillation

50 Other supraventricular arrhythmias

51 Ventricular tachyarrhythmias and their nonpharmacological management

Ventricular rhythm disturbances

52 Pharmacological treatment of tachyarrhythmias

Class I drugs (Figure 52.1.1)

Class II drugs (Figure 52.1.2)

Class III drugs (Figure 52.1.3)

Class IV drugs, adenosine and digoxin (Figure 52.1.4)

53 Conduction system abnormalities and pacing

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pacing systems

54 Diseases of the aortic valve

Aortic stenosis

Aortic regurgitation

55 Diseases of the mitral valve

Mitral stenosis (Figure 55.1)

Mitral regurgitation (Figure 55.2)

56 Congenital heart disease

57 Cardiomyopathies and channelopathies

Cardiomyopathies (Figure 57.1)


58 Pulmonary hypertension

Types of pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary arterial hypertension


Clinical findings and diagnosis


59 Stroke

Stroke signs, symptoms and risk factors



Acute management

Haemorrhagic stroke

Longterm management, rehabilitation and secondary prevention


End User License Agreement


An aparitie 13 April 2020
Autor Philip I. Aaronson, Jeremy P. T. Ward Michelle J. Connolly
Dimensiuni 21.34 x 1.02 x 27.18 cm
Editura Wiley
Format Paperback
ISBN 9781119245780
Limba Engleza
Nr pag 160

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