Under articles 149 (education) and 150 (vocational training) of the European Union Treaty, the EU has competence to complement the education systems of Member States. This book not only explores the nature and likely extent of that competence, but investi
This book presents a fresh contextualised and cosmopolitan perspective on comparative law for both students and scholars. It critically discusses established approaches to comparative law, but also presents more modern ones, such as socio-legal and numerical comparative law. Its contextualised approach draws on examples from politics, economics and development studies to provide an original contribution to topics of comparative law.
Although presented as being derived from the past, principles in contract law have been subject to constant reformulation, thereby facilitating legal change while simultaneously seeming to preclude it. Principle and policy have been mutually interdependent, propositions not usually being called principles unless they have been perceived to lead to just results in particular cases, and as likely to produce results in future cases that accord with common sense, commercial convenience and sound public policy. The influence of policy has been frequent in contract law, but Stephen Waddams argues that an unmediated appeal to non-legal sources of policy has been constrained by the need to formulate generalised propositions recognised as legal principles. This interrelation of principle and policy has played an important role in enabling an uncodified system to hold a middle course between a rigid formalism on the one hand and an unconstrained instrumentalism on the other.
This book focuses on the law of commercial contracts as constructed by the US and UK legal systems. Leading scholars from both sides of the Atlantic provide works of original scholarship focusing on current debates and trends from the two dominant common law systems. The chapters approach the subject areas from a variety of perspectives - doctrinal analysis, law and economic analysis, and social-legal studies, as well as other theoretical perspectives. The book covers the major themes that underlie the key debates relating to commercial contract law: role of consent; normative theories of contract law; contract design and good faith; implied terms and interpretation; policing contract behavior; misrepresentation, breach and remedies; and the regional and international harmonization of contract law. Contributors provide insights on the many commonalities, but more interestingly, on the key divergences of the United States and United Kingdom's approaches to numerous areas of contract law.
At a time when the operation and reform of federal relations within Australia is squarely on the political agenda, this volume brings together eminent lawyers, economists and political scientists who explain, analyse and evaluate the theory and principles underpinning the Australian federal system. Topics covered include the High Court's approach to the interpretation of the Constitution and how this has influenced federal relations in practice; different forms of inter-governmental co-operative arrangements; fiscal relations between the Commonwealth and the States; and emergent ethno-cultural and socioeconomic diversity within the Australian Federation. Comparative perspectives from Germany, America, Canada, Switzerland, India and the European Union provide unique prisms through which to view the operation of the Australian system and to contemplate its reform.
What explains divergences in political liberalism among new nations that shared the same colonial heritage? This book assembles exciting original essays on former colonies of the British Empire in South Asia, Africa and Southeast Asia that gained independence after World War II. The interdisciplinary country specialists reveal how inherent contradictions within British colonial rule were resolved after independence in contrasting liberal-legal, despotic and volatile political orders. Through studies of the longue durée and particular events, this book presents a theory of political liberalism in the post-colony and develops rich hypotheses on the conditions under which the legal complex, civil society and the state shape alternative postcolonial trajectories around political freedom. This provocative volume presents new perspectives for scholars and students of postcolonialism, political development and the politics of the legal complex, as well as for policy makers and publics who struggle to construct and defend basic legal freedoms.
Promises and Contract Law is the first modern work to explore the significance of promise to contract law from a comparative legal perspective. Part I explores the component elements of promise, its role in Greek thought and Roman law, the importance of the moral duty to keep promises and the development of promissory ideas in medieval legal scholarship. Part II considers the modern contract law of a number of legal systems from a promissory perspective. The focus is on the law of England, Germany and three mixed legal systems (Scotland, South Africa and Louisiana), though other legal systems are also mentioned. Major topics subjected to a promissory analysis include formation of contract, third party rights, contractual remedies and the renunciation of contractual rights. Part III analyses the future role which promise might play in contract law, especially within a harmonised European contract law.
Intellectual property is a vital part of the global economy, accounting for about half of the GDP in countries like the United States. Innovation, competition, economic growth and jobs can all be helped or hurt by different approaches to this key asset class, where seemingly slight changes in the rules of the game can have remarkable impact. This book brings together diverse perspectives from the fields of law, economics, business and political science to explore the ways varying approaches to intellectual property can positively and negatively impact our economy and society. Employing approaches that are both theoretically rigorous and grounded in the real world, Perspectives on Commercializing Innovation is well suited for practising lawyers, managers, lawmakers and analysts, as well as academics conducting research or teaching in a range of courses in law schools, business schools and economics departments, at either the undergraduate or graduate level.
Many books seek to explain the general principles of the criminal law. Crime, Reason and History stands out and alone as a book that critically and concisely analyses these principles and comes up with a different viewpoint: that the law is shaped by social history and therefore systematically structured around conflicting elements. Updated extensively to include two new chapters on loss of control and self defence and with an extended treatment of offence and defence, this new edition combines challenging and sophisticated analysis with accessibility.
This examination of the mixed jurisdiction experience makes use of an innovative cross-comparative methodology to provide a wealth of detail on each of the nine countries studied. It identifies the deep resemblances and salient traits of this legal family and the broad analytical overview highlights the family links while providing a detailed individual treatment of each country which reveals their individual personalities. This updated second edition includes two new countries (Botswana and Malta) and the appendices explore all other mixed jurisdictions and contain a special report on Cameroon.
This book examines the application of treaties by domestic courts in twelve countries. The central question is whether domestic courts actually provide remedies to private parties who are harmed by a violation of their treaty-based rights. The analysis shows that domestic courts in eight of the twelve countries - Australia, Canada, Germany, India, the Netherlands, Poland, South Africa, and the United Kingdom - generally do enforce treaty-based rights on behalf of private parties. On the other hand, the evidence is mixed for the other four countries: China, Israel, Russia, and the United States. In China, Israel, and Russia, the trends are moving in the direction of greater judicial enforcement of treaties on behalf of private parties. The United States is the only country surveyed where the trend is moving in the opposite direction. US courts' reluctance to enforce treaty-based rights undermines efforts to develop a more cooperative global order.
This volume analyses the social and political forces that influence constitutions and the process of constitution making. It combines theoretical perspectives on the social and political foundations of constitutions with a range of detailed case studies from nineteen countries. In the first part leading scholars analyse and develop a range of theoretical perspectives, including constitutions as coordination devices, mission statements, contracts, products of domestic power play, transnational documents, and as reflection of the will of the people. In the second part these theories are examined through in-depth case studies of the social and political foundations of constitutions in countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Japan, Romania, Bulgaria, New Zealand, Israel, Argentina and others. The result is a multidimensional study of constitutions as social phenomena and their interaction with other social phenomena.
La nouvelle édition du Code de l'environnement Dalloz contient, outre la codification officielle des parties Législative et Réglementaire, un très grand nombre de textes non codifiés et complémentaires intéressant la mat
Le Code de la consommation rassemble et organise les dispositions qui tendent à assurer l'information et la protection des consommateurs. La version qu'en donnent les Éditions Dalloz est enrichie de substantielles annotations de jurisprudence et
Significantly streamlined and updated, the second edition of Andrews' Contract Law now provides a clear and succinct examination of all of the topics in the contract law curriculum. Chapters direct students to the most important decisions in case law and employ a two-level structure to integrate short judicial excerpts into detailed discussion and analysis. Exploration of the law's 'loose ends' strengthens students' ability to effectively analyse case law, and new end-of-chapter questions, which focus on both core aspects of the law and interesting legal loopholes, assist students in preparing for exams. Students are guided through chapter material by concise chapter overviews and a two-colour text design that highlights important chapter elements. Suggestions for further reading and a rich bibliography, which point readers to important pieces of contemporary literature and provide a springboard for deeper investigation of particular topics, lend further support for student learning.
Any practising lawyer and student working with international commercial contracts faces standardised contracts and international arbitration as mechanisms for dispute settlement. Transnational rules may be applicable, but national law is still important. Based on extensive practical experience, this book analyses international contract practice and its interaction with the various applicable sources: which role is played by the contractual regulation, which by national law, which by transnational sources, what is the interaction among these factors, and how does this all apply to contracts that refer disputes to international arbitration?
Fighting crime breeds emotional responses which often lead to counter-productive government policy. To allow a rational analysis of these important concerns, this book employs the thinking of economics, political science, and game theory to develop new pe
Contemporary transnational criminals take advantage of globalization, trade liberalization, and emerging new technologies to commit a diverse range of crimes. By moving money, goods, services, and people instantaneously they are able to serve purposes of pure economic gain or political violence. This book examines the rise of international economic crime and recent strategies to combat it in the United States and abroad. Focusing on the role of international relations, it draws from case studies in a diverse range of criminality from money laundering to tax evasion. Newly revised and expanded, the second edition of International White Collar Crime incorporates recent developments and updated case studies. New chapters on environmental crimes and securities enforcement under the DoddFrank Act continue to make it an essential tool for practicing business, law, and law enforcement.
At a conference at the University of Heidelberg in November 2002, representatives of ten Member States, for the first time, gave an overview of the possible developments concerning the European Company (SE/ Societas Europaea) in the various Member States
Cultural law is a new and exciting field of study and practice. The core themes of linguistic and other cultural rights, cultural heritage, traditional crafts and knowledge, the performing arts, sports, and religion are of fundamental importance to people around the world, engaging them at the grass roots and often commanding their daily attention. The related legal processes are both significant and complex. This unique collection of materials and commentary on cultural law covers a broad range of themes. Opening chapters explore critical issues involving cultural activities, artifacts, and status as well as the fundamental concepts of culture and law. Subsequent chapters examine the dynamic interplay of law and culture with respect to each of the core themes. The materials demonstrate the reality and efficacy of comparative, international, and indigenous law and legal practices in the dynamic context of culture-related issues. Throughout the book, these issues are presented at multiple levels of legal authority: international, national, and subnational.
Australian Export: A Guide to Law and Practice remains an ideal introduction and guide to the legal requirements and processes that affect international transactions, and their commercial implications. As global trade and overseas markets become increasingly important for Australian business, the need for a concise and accessible overview of relevant laws and procedures has never been greater. Australian Export meets this need with an emphasis on real-world considerations and practical solutions, underpinned by expert commentary on the law. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent legal developments in Australia and internationally, and the coverage of many topics has been expanded. New examples and case studies have been added, and each chapter now includes key concepts and further reading to reinforce learning.
This book explains how private parties can activate EC law in order to further their interests. It explores both the mechanisms available to private parties to challenge the legality of EC measures, and the means in place to enforce community law at natio